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///  -  (AND 

fj  0  U  R  N  A  L 

OF    THE 



SIR  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Sc.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A., 


BARCLAY  V.  HEAD,  D.C.L.,  PH.D., 







?  v  \ 

>.       V  '  \r» 



Factum  abiit — monumenta  manerit. — Ov.  Fast. 




Kilo  o 



a  s  .  &. 





Greek  Coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  in  1899.     By 

Warwick  Wroth,  F.S.A 1 

Find  of  Eoman  Coins  and  Gold  Rings  at  Sully,  near  Cardiff. 

By  H.  A.  Grueber,  F.S.A.  .  .  1*  ifi-'IMihg  '  27 

Otanes,  and  Phraates  IV.  By  Warwick  Wroth,  F.S.A.  .  89 

AQPEA  CITOY  TAPCQ.  By  M.  Rostowzew  .^  .  '  .  96 

L' Atelier    monetaire  de  Londres   (Londinium)    pendant  la 

Periode  constantinienne.     By  Jules  Maurice  .         .         .     108 

On  the  Re-arrangement  of  Parthian  Coinage.     By  Warwick 

Wroth,  F.S.A.  .  181 

Unpublished  or  Rare  Coins  of  Smyrna  in  the  Bodleian  Cabinet. 

By  C.  W.  C.  Oman,  F.S.A.      .         .         .        v.'j  W.JTI    203 

On  a  Hoard  of  Roman  Coins  found  at  Carhayes,  Cornwall. 

By  F.  Haverfield,  F.S.A.          ......     209 

Greek  Coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  in  1900.     By 

Warwick  Wroth,  F.S.A.  . 273 


Classification   chronologique    des    Emissions    monetaires   de 

PAtelier  de  Siscia  pendant  la  Periode  constantinienne. 

By  Jules  Maurice 297 


Ecgberht,  King  of  the  West  Saxons,  and  the  Kent  Men,  and 

his  Coins.  By  Sir  Henry  H.  Howorth,  K.C.I.E.  .  .  66 

On  Some  Unique  Anglo-Saxon  Coins.  By  Lord  Grantley, 

F.S.A 148 

On  the  Half-Noble  of  the  Third  Coinage  of  Edward  III.     By 

L.  A.  Lawrence        ........     162 

On   a    Small  Hoard  of  Groats  of  Henry  VI  to  Henry  VII. 

By  L.  A.  Lawrence          .  166 

The    First    Gold    Coins    of    England.     By  Sir  John   Evans, 

K.C.B 218 

The  Coinage  of  the  South  African  Republic    ....     252 

Money.     By  A.  R.  S.  Kennedy.     (From  Hastings'  Dictionary 

oftheBibh] 270 

The  Token  Money  of  the  Bank  of  England,  1797-1816.     By 

Maberly  Phillips,  F.S.A.          .         .         .         »         v       .     271 



A  new  Variety  of  the  Half-Groat  of  Charles  I.  .         .88 

An  unpublished  Variety  of  the  Porto-Bello  Medal .  .180 

Medal  of  Successes  of  Frederick  the  Great  in  1757  .  .180 
An  unpublished  Silver  Coin  of  Verica  .....  264 
Some  unpublished  Varieties  of  Saxon  Coins  ....  265 
Bibliographical  Notes  on  Greek  Coins  (continued)  .  .  .36 

Index  of  Authors  and  their  Papers,  and  General  Index  of 
Vols.  XI— XX,  Third  Series. 

Vlll  PLATES. 


I.,  II.  Greek  Coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum    in 

III.  Roman  Gold  and  Silver  Coins  and  Rings  found  near 

IV — V.  Monnaies  de  Londres. 

VI.  A  Find  of  Groats,  Henry  VI— Henry  VII. 
VII.— IX.  Parthian  Coins. 

X.  The  Great  Seal  of  Edward  III,  1340—1372. 
XI.  The  First  Gold  Coins  of  England. 
XII.  Coins  of  the  South  African  Republic, 
XIII.,  XIV.  Greek  Coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  in 

XV.,  XVI.  Monnaies  de  Siscia. 


SESSION  1899—1900. 

OCTOBER  19,  1899, 

SIB  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,   D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Sc.D.,  F.R.S., 
V.P.S.A.,  F.G.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Charles  Bennet  Lawes,  Esq.,  was  elected  a  Member. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  : — 

1.  American    Journal  of   Archaeology.       Ser.  IT.      Vol.    ii, 
No.  6,  and  Vol.  iii,  Nos.  1—3. 

2.  Monatsblatt  der  Numismatischen   Gesellschaft  in   Wien. 
Nos.  190—193. 

8.  The   Canadian    Antiquarian    and    Numismatic    Journal. 
Vol.  i.     No.  4. 

4.  Guide  pratique  de  1'Antiquaire.     By  A.  Blanchet  and  F. 
de  Villenoisy.     From  the  Authors. 

5.  Revue    Suisse    de    Numismatique.      Vol.  viii,  2me  liv., 
and  Vol.  ix,  lre  liv. 

6.  Aarboger  for  Nordisk  Oldkyndighed  og  Historic.  Bind  xiii, 
Heft  4,  and  Bind  xiv,  Heft  1—2. 



7.  Nouvelle    Encyclopedic   Monetaire,    by    A.    Bonneville; 
Monnaies  feodales  de  France,  by  F.  Poey  D'Avant ;  Deutscbe 
Miinzen,    by    H.    Dannenberg,    Vols.    i — iv ;    Schweizerische 
Miinz-und-Geldgeschichte,  by  A.  Eschar ;  Numismatique  Sois- 
sonnaise,  by  A.  Michaut ;  and  Luther's    Andenken   in   Jubel- 
Miinzen,  by  H.  G.  Kreussler.      From  Sir  John  Evans,  K.C.B., 
the  President. 

8.  Proceedings    of    the    Royal    Irish    Academy.       Vol.    v. 
No.  2. 

9.  Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies.     Vol.  xix.     Part  I. 

10.  Bulletin  de  Numismatique.     Mai — Sept.,  1899. 

11.  Zeitschrift  fur  Numismatik.     Band  xxi.     Heft  3  and  4. 

12.  Numismatische  Zeitschrift.     Jan. — Jun.,  1899. 

13.  Revue  Numismatique.     2me  and  3me  trimestre,  1899. 

14.  Annual  of  the  British  School  at  Athens,  1894—1898. 

15.  Revue    Beige     de    Numismatique.      3me   and    4me   liv., 

16.  Transactions  of  the  Japan  Society  of  London.     Vol.  iv. 

17.  Proceedings  of  the  Annual   Meeting   of  the  American 
Numismatic  and  Archa3ological  Society,  1899. 

18.  Medailles  gravees  par  des  Artistes  d'origine  Suisse.      By 
L.  Forrer.     From  the  Author. 

19.  Quelques  Varietes  inedites  de  Grand-Bronzes  romaines. 
By  L.  Forrer.     From  the  Author. 

20.  Monnaies  romaines  inedites.     By  L.  Forrer.     From  the 

21.  Rivista  Italiana  di  Numismatica.     Fasc.  2,  1899. 

22.  II    Ripostiglio    di    Abbiategrasso.      By   S.   Ambrosoli. 
From  the  Author. 

23.  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 
Vol.  ix.     Part  it. 

24.  Memoires  de  la  Societe  royale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord, 

25.  Report  of    the  Madras   Government  Museum,   1898 — 


26.  Bulletin  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  1'Ouest.     2rae 
trimestre,  1899. 

27.  Trois  Deniers  Liegeois  de  la  seconde  moitie  du  XIIme 
siecle.     By  the  Vicomte  B.  de  Jonghe.    From  the  Author. 

28.  Les  Monnaies  frappees  a  Maestricht  sous  Philippe  IV 
(1621 — 1665).      By  the  Vicomte  B.  de  Jcwnghe.     From  the 

29.  The  Imperial  Coinage  of  Mexico.    By  Benj.  Betts.    From 
the  Author. 

80.  Les  Liards  de  France.  By  Paul  Bordeaux.  From  the 

31.  Limitation  des  types  monetaires  Flamands  au  Moyen- 
Age.     By  R.  Serrure.     From  the  Author. 

32.  Medal  in  bronze  commemorating  the  60th  year  of  the- 
reign  of  Her  Majesty  Queen  Victoria.      From  the  Corporation 
of  the  City  of  London. 

Mr.  R.  A.  Hoblyn  exhibited  a  series  of  Irish  groats  of  Mary 
and  Philip,  dated  1553,  1555,  1556,  and  1557.  As  Mary's 
marriage  to  Philip  did  not  take  place  till  July,  1554,  the  date 
1553  must  be  a  blunder.  Mr.  Hoblyn  also  showed  a  medal  of 
Charles  II,  commemorating  his  departure  from  Scheveningen  in 
1660.  This  medal,  which  was  the  work  of  Pieter  van  Abeeler 
was  made  into  a  box,  containing  two  medalets  of  Charles  IIr 
one  commemorating  his  restoration,  the  other  his  marriage. 

Mr.  T.  Bliss  exhibited  some  rare  pennies  of  u3E.thelwulf  and 

Mr.  C.  E.  Simpson  exhibited  an  unpublished  half-groat  of 
Aberystwith,  struck  during  the  reign  of  Charles  I. 

Mr.  J.  Young  showed  two  Aquitaine  gros  of  Edward  IIIr 
reading  "  Dominus  Hibernias  "  instead  of  Dominus  Aquitanice. 

Mr.  W.  Webster  exhibited  a  penny  of  Eadred,  struck  at 
Axminster,  being  an  unpublished  mint  of  that  reign. 

Mr.  G.  F.  Hill  read  a  paper  on  the  coinage  of  the  high-priests 
of  Olba  and  of  the  districts  of  Cennatis  and  Lalassis.  It 
appears  from  the  coins  that  Ajax,  the  Toparch  of  Cennatis 


arid  Lalassis,  ruled  from  10-11  to  14-15  A.D.,  and  that  M. 
Antonius  Polemo,  high-priest  of  Olba  and  dynast  of  the  same 
districts,  is  to  be  placed  some  time  between  17  and  36  A.D. 
Professor  Ramsay's  identification  of  this  Polemo  with  the 
eldest  son  of  Polemo  I  Eusebes  and  Pythodoris  (mentioned, 
but  not  named,  by  Strabo)  is  supported  by  all  the  evidence, 
numismatic  and  historical.  This  paper  is  printed  in  Vol.  xix., 
p.  181. 

NOVEMBER  16,  1899. 
SIR  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Charles  J.  P.  Cave,  Esq.,  Reuben  Cull,  Esq.,  and  Francis 
Bertram  Welch,  Esq.,  were  elected  Members. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  : — 

1.  Handbook   of  Greek  and  Roman  Coins.     By  G.  F.  Hill, 
M.A.     From  the  Author. 

2.  The  Canadian  Antiquarian  and  Numismatic  Journal.  Vol. 
ii.     No.  1. 

3.  The   Vettian    Picture.      By   E.    J.    Seltman   and   J.    N. 
Svoronos.     From  the  Authors. 

4.  Monatsblatt   der   Numismatischen  Gesellschaft  in  Wien. 
No.  195. 

5.  Travaux  de  la  Societe  Numismatique  de  Moscow.     Vol.  i. 
and  Vol.  ii.     lre  liv. 

Mr.  R.  A.  Hoblyn  exhibited  some  rare  coins  of  the  Irish 
series,  amongst  which  were  the  base  groat  of  Mary,  the 
Kilkenny  halfpenny  and  farthing,  the  Dublin  halfpenny  of 
1679,  the  white-metal  groat  of  James  II,  and  "  Voce  Populi  " 


Mr.  F.  A.  Walters  showed  an  Irish  double  of  Edward  IV, 
and  a  groat  of  Richard  III  of  his  first  coinage ;  both  pieces 
being  of  the  Drogheda  mint. 

Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence  exhibited  a  series  of  pennies  of 
Edward  the  Confessor,  of  the  small  cross  and  pyramid  type ; 
the  bust  of  the  king  showing  considerable  variety,  and  in  one 
case  being  turned  to  the  left  instead  of  to  the  right. 

Sir  Hermann  Weber,  M.D.,  read  a  paper  on  recent  finds  of 
archaic  Greek  coins  in  Lower  Egypt,  more  particularly  in 
reference  to  one  made  at  Sakha  in  the  Fayum.  The  coins  from 
this  last  hoard  were  all  of  the  sixth  century  B.C.,  and  came 
from  various  parts  of  the  Greek  world.  The  author  drew 
attention  to  the  similarity  of  this  and  previous  finds  in  Egypt, 
and  suggested  that  their  importation  must  have  taken  place 
about  the  period  of  the  Persian  invasion  (B.C.  525).  This  paper 
is  printed  in  Vol.  xix,  p.  269. 

Mr.  F.  J.  Haverfield  communicated  an  account  of  a  hoard 
of  Roman  coins  found  at  Carhayes  in  Cornwall  in  1869.  The 
hoard  consisted  entirely  of  base  antoniniani,  some  2,100  in 
number,  which  extended  from  the  reign  of  Valerian  to  that  of 
Probus  (A.D.  253-282).  The  reigns  most  fully  represented 
were  those  of  Gallienus,  Victorinus,  Tetricus  sen.,  Tetricus 
jun.,  and  Claudius  Gothicus. 

DECEMBEE  21,  1899. 
SIR  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

William  Gowland,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  was  elected  a  Member;  and 
M.  Edmond  Drouin  of  Paris,  Dr.  Ettore  Gabrici  of  Naples, 
and  Prof.  Dr.  Behrendt  Pick  of  Gotha,  were  elected  Honorary 

The  following  presents  were  -announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 


1.  Les  Tresors  de  Monnaies  Romanies.     By  A.  Blanchet. 
From  the  Author. 

2.  Rivista  Italiana  di  Numismatica.     Fasc.  III.,  1899. 

3.  Proceedings  of  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy.    Vol.  v.    No.  3. 

4.  Bonner  Jahrbiicher.     Heft  104. 

5.  Priester-Diademe.     By  G.  F.  Hill.     From  the  Author. 

6.  Monatsblatt  der  Numismatischen  Gesellschaft  in  Wien. 
No.  196. 

7.  Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies.     Vol.  xix.     Part  II. 

8.  La  Gazette  Numismatique.     4  me  annee.     No.  2. 

9.  Aarboger  for  Nordisk  Oldkyndighed  og  Historie.   Bind  xiv, 
Heft  3. 

10.  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 
Vol.  ix.     Part  III. 

11.  Publications  de  la  Section  historique  de  1'Institut  Grand- 
Ducal  de  Luxembourg.     Vols.  xlvi,  xlvii,  and  xlix. 

12.  Bulletin    de    1'Academie    royale    de    Belgique,    Tomes 
35—37 ;    and    Tables    Generates,    Tomes    1—30 ;    and    the 
Annuaire  from  1898—1899. 

Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence  showed  some  silver  coins  of  Edward  V 
and  Richard  III,  and  pointed  out  that,  whereas  all  the  peculi- 
arities found  on  the  coins  of  Edward  V  were  to  be  found  also 
on  those  of  Richard  III,  none  of  them  occurred  on  coins  hitherto 
assigned  to  Edward  IV. 

Mr.  A.  E.  Copp  exhibited  a  shilling  of  President  Kruger. 

Mr.  T.  Bearman  exhibited  a  pattern  noble  of  Charles  I 
(Scotland),  from  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Pollexfen's  collection,  supposed 
by  Burns  to  be  unique. 

Mr.  R.  A.  Hoblyn  showed  pattern  groats  of  Mary,  wife  of 
William  III. 

Mr.  A.  A.  Banes  exhibited  a  shilling  of  the  first  issue  of 
George  IV,  1820. 

The  President  exhibited  a  Paduan  medal,  probably  by  Gio- 
vanni Cavino,  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Hemel  Hempstead, 
having  an  obverse  of  Diclius  Julianus  (193  A.D.)  and  a  reverse 


copied  from  the  decadrachms  of  Syracuse  (circa  400  B.C.),  and 
also  a  head  of  Medusa  in  onyx,  found  in  the  Tiber  about  twenty 
years  ago. 

Mr.  E.  J.  Seltman  communicated  a  paper  "  On  Nummi 
Serrati  and  Astral  Coin-Types,"  in  which  he  discussed  the 
theories  which  have  been  held  to  explain  the  issue  of  the 
various  ancient  coinages  having  serrated  edges.  Among  these 
theories  was  one  held  by  M.  Svoronos,  who  supposed  that  these 
coins  were  intended  by  their  shape  to  symbolise  solar  or  other 
celestial  bodies.  Mr.  Seltman  did  not  accept  this  theory,  and 
incidentally  discussed  its  application  by  M.  Svoronos  to  the 
explanation  of  many  Greek  coin-types.  This  paper  is  printed 
in  Vol.  xix,  p.  322. 

JANUARY  18,  1900. 

H.  A.  GRUEBEB,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Hon.  Secretary,  in  the  Chair. 
The  following  presents  were   announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Revue  Numismatique.    4me  trimestre,  1899. 

2.  Bulletin  de  Numismatique.     Oct.— Dec.,  1899. 

3.  Revue  Beige  de  Numismatique.     lre  liv.,  1900. 

4.  The  Numismatic  Circular  for  1899.     From  Messrs.  Spink 
and  Sons. 

5.  Handbook  of  the  Coins  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.     By 
H.  A.  Grueber.     From  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum. 

Mr.  R.  A.  Hoblyn  exhibited  a  series  of  groats,  pennies,  &c,, 
of  the  Irish  coinage  of  Edward  IV  extending  from  1461  to 
1470,  during  which  period  there  were  six  distinct  issues. 

Mr.  W.  C.  Boyd  showed  some  unpublished  varieties  of 
pennies  of  Burgred,  Eadgar,  and  Harthacnut. 

Mr.  T.  Bliss  exhibited  a  crown  in  gold  of  Edward  VI  having 
the  mint-mark  a  swan,  the  special  mark  of  Sir  Martin  Bowes, 
and  an  angel  of  Charles  I  with  the  triangle  mint- mark,  both 
hitherto  unpublished. 


Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence  exhibited  some  contemporary  forgeries 
of  coins  of  Charles  I,  the  Commonwealth,  and  Charles  II. 

Mr.  John  Pinches  exhibited  a  medal  of  the  late  Professor 
Sylvester,  struck  as  a  mathematical  prize  medal  by  the  Royal 

Mr.  W.  J.  Andrew  communicated  the  introductory  portion 
of  a  monograph  on  the  coinage  of  Henry  I.  After  viewing 
generally  the  state  of  the  coinage  at  the  period  of  the  Norman 
Conquest,  and  the  proportionate  value  of  commodities  as  repre- 
sented by  Norman  money  and  by  money  of  the  present  time, 
the  writer  discussed  the  succession  of  the  types  of  the  coinage, 
the  constitution  of  the  mints,  the  manufacture  of  the  dies,  and 
the  status  of  the  moneyers.  As  regards  the  constitution  of  the 
mints,  Mr.  Andrew  was  of  opinion  that  not  only  were  there 
royal  mints  and  mints  of  the  bishops,  abbots,  &c.,  but  that  the 
right  of  coinage  was  also  granted  to  the  greater  ealdormen, 
who,  however,  only  exercised  this  privilege  when  residing  in 
their  lordships,  within  the  limits  of  which  the  mints  were 
situated.  This  would,  in  many  instances,  account  for  the  long 
intervals  which  occurred  between  the  issues  of  many  of  the 
lesser  mints.  In  the  case  of  the  moneyers,  Mr.  Andrew  held 
that  at  first  they  were  probably  the  actual  engravers  of  the  dies 
for  the  coins,  but  that  after  the  tenth  century,  when  the  control 
of  the  coinage  was  centralised,  they  then  became  officers  respon- 
sible only  for  the  proper  standard  of  the  money  both  as  regards 
its  purity  and  weight. 

FEBRUARY  15,  1900. 

OLIVER  CODRINGTON,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  F.S.A.,  Librarian,  in 
the  Chair. 

Lionel  M.  Hewlett,  Esq.,  and  H.  Neville  S.  Langton,  Esq., 
were  elected  Members. 


The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :~ 

1.  Zeitschrift  fiir  Nunrismatik.     Band  xxii.     Heft  1 — 3. 

2.  Bivista  Italiana  di  Numismatica.     Vol.  xii.    Fasc.  4. 

3.  Monatsblatt   der  Numismatischen  Gesellschaft   in   Wien. 
Nos.  197  and  198. 

4.  Bulletin  historique  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  la 
Morinie.     Liv.  192. 

5.  Memoires  de  la  Societe  royale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord, 

6.  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 
Vol.  ix.     Part  4. 

7.  Annual  Report  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  Jan.  1897. 
Mr.  W.  J.  Hocking  exhibited  a  specimen   of  the   Canada 

General  Service  medal,  which  has  been  awarded  to  those  who 
took  part  in  repelling  the  Fenian  raids  on  the  Canadian  frontier 
in  1866  and  1870,  or  were  engaged  in  the  Red  River  Expedition 
in  1870.  It  carries  three  separate  bars,  one  for  each  of  the 
above  events. 

Mr.  R.  A.  Hoblyn  exhibited  some  rare  Irish  coins  of  Henry 
VII,  Henry  VIII,  and  Elizabeth. 

Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence  showed  some  groats  of  Edward  III  and 
IV  with  unusual  minor  peculiarities,  and  a  London  penny  of 
the  latter  bearing  the  mint-mark  a  mascle. 

Captain  R.  J.  H.  Douglas  exhibited  a  rare  penny  of  William  I 
struck  at  Taunton. 

Mr.  W.  J.  Andrew  continued  his  account  of  the  coinage  of 
Henry  I,  the  first  portion  of  which  he  had  communicated  to  the 
Society  at  its  previous  meeting.  Having  analysed  the  contents 
of  the  various  finds  of  coins  of  Henry  I  which  had  occurred 
during  the  past  hundred  years,  he  proceeded  to  describe  in 
detail  the  chronological  sequence  of  the  different  types,  each  of 
which  marked  a  distinct  issue.  The  classification  was  based  on 
the  evidence  afforded  by  the  finds  in  question,  on  the  changes 
in  the  forms  of  the  letters  in  the  legends  from  Roman  to 



Lombardic,  on  the  various  spellings  of  the  king's  name,  and  on  a 
mass  of  historical  evidence,  gleaned  chiefly  from  contemporary 
writers  and  chronicles.  One  of  the  results  of  Mr.  Andrew's 
studies  has  been  that  he  proposes  considerable  modifications  in 
the  succession  of  the  types  as  suggested  by  Hawkins,  whose 
views  have  been  hitherto  mainly  adopted  by  English  numis- 

MAECH  15,  1900. 

OLIVER  CODRINGTON,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  F.B.A.,  Librarian,  in 
the  Chair. 

Frederick  W.  Lincoln,  Esq.,  Juru,  the  Rev.  Robert  Scott 
My  hie,  M.A.,  B.C.L.,  F.S.A.,  and  the  Rev.  Jeremiah  Zimmer- 
man, D.D.,  were  elected  Members. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Monatsblatt  der  Numismatischen   Gesellschaft  in   Wien. 
No.  199. 

2.  Le  Medaglie  di  Alessandro  Volta.    By  S.  Ambrosoli.   From 
the  Author. 

3  Les  Monnaies  d'Or  de  Tarente.  By  Michel  P.  Vlasto. 
From  the  Author. 

4.  American  Journal  of  Archscology.     Vol.  iii.     No.  6. 

Mr.  F.  A.  Walters  exhibited  some  groats  and  a  half-groat  of 
Henry  IV,  in  illustration  of  Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence's  paper  on  the 
coinage  of  that  king. 

Mr.  W.  J.  Hocking  exhibited  specimens  of  the  new  medals 
awarded  for  the  Uganda  and  Soudan  campaigns,  and  a  specimen 
of  the  Kruger  sovereign  of  1896. 

Mr.  W.  C.  Boyd  exhibited  a  native  imitation  of  a  Ceylon 
one-twenty-fourth  rupee  with  blundered  lettering. 

Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence  communicated   a  paper  on  the  coinage 


of  Henry  IV.  He  described  several  new  types  of  the  groat 
which  had  been  unearthed  of  late  years,  and  which  made  it 
necessary  to  rearrange  the  series  of  coins  of  Henry  IV,  and  to 
transfer  to  his  reign  some  pieces  which  had  been  attributed 
hitherto  to  his  son,  Henry  V.  As  many  of  these  coins  bear  the 
portrait  of  Richard  II,  and  are  of  light  weight,  he  suggested 
that  the  date  hitherto  assigned  to  the  introduction  of  the  light 
silver  standard — viz.,  the  thirteenth  year  of  Henry  IV — must  be 
erroneous,  and  that  the  reduction  in  weight  probably  took  place 
at  no  very  distant  period  after  his  accession.  By  this  new 
classification  the  last  issue  of  Henry  IV  and  the  first  of 
Henry  V  were  practically  identical,  but  the  latter's  coinage 
could  be  distinguished  by  being  of  coarser  workmanship. 

APRIL  26,  1900. 
SIB  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Annual  of  the  British  School  at  Athens,  1898—1899. 

2.  Transactions    of   the  Japan  Society  of  London,  1898 — 

3.  American  Journal  of  Archaeology.     Vol.  III.     Nos.  4 — 5. 

4.  Bulletin  de  Numismatique.     Jan. — Fev.,  1900. 

5.  Bulletin  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  1'Ouest.     3me 
and  4me  trimestres,  1899. 

6.  Revue  Beige  de  Numismatique.     2me  liv.,  1900. 

7.  Proceedings  of  the   Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London. 
Vol.  xvii.     No.  2. 

8.  Rivista  Italiana  di  Numismatica.     Fasc.  4,  1900. 

9.  Monatsblatt  der   Numismatischen    Gesellschaft  in  Wien. 
Nos.  200—201. 



10.  A  Collection  of  Antiquities  from  Central  Asia,  by  Dr. 
B.  Hoernle;   and  Hessischen  Miinzen  (4  vols.),  by  J.  C.  0. 
Hoffmeister.     From  Sir  John  Evans,  K.C.B.,  the  President. 

11.  Numismatische  Kleinigkeiten.     By  Dr.  Heinrich  Willers. 
From  the  Author. 

12.  Priced  Sale  Catalogues  of  the  Clark  and  Durlacher  Collec- 
tions.    From  Major  H.  W.  Morrisson,  B.E. 

The  President  exhibited  a  badge  in  silver  of  Charles  I,  having 
on  the  obverse  the  king's  bust,  three-quarter  face,  and  the 
legend  "  Carolus  Primus,"  and  on  the  reverse  the  royal  arms 
engraved  between  C.B. 

Mr.  A.  E.  Copp  exhibited  a  badge  of  the  same  class  by 
Bawlins,  but  with  the  bust  of  the  king  in  profile  and  bearing  on 
the  reverse  a  portrait  of  Henrietta  Maria. 

Mr.  B.  A.  Hoblyn  showed  some  copper  siege-money  of  Kil- 
kenny, struck  in  1642. 

Mr.  Thomas  Bliss  exhibited  some  shillings  of  Charles  I,  of 
the  Tower  mint,  and  of  Bristol,  Exeter,  Worcester,  and  "York,  of 
.various  types. 

Mr.  L.  Forrer  showed  an  unpublished  one-and-a-half  thaler 
of  Wismar,  having  a  shield  of  arms  on  the  obverse  and  a  figure 
of  St.  Lawrence  represented  in  three-quarter  length  on  the 

Mr.  W.  Webster  showed  a  rose  noble  of  Edward  counter- 
struck  with  the  arms  of  Dantzic. 

Mr.  H.  A.  Grueber  read  a  paper  on  a  recent  find  of  gold  and 
silver  Boman  coins  and  gold  rings  at  Sully,  near  Cardiff.  The 
hoard  consisted  of  seven  gold  coins  of  Diocletian  and  Maximian 
Herculius,  and  of  316  silver  pieces  ranging  in  date  from  A.D. 
180  to  A.D.  267  (Marcus  Aurelius  to  Postumus),  with  the  excep- 
tion of  a  denarius  of  Carausius.  The  most  interesting  amongst 
the  gold  coins  was  a  double-aureus  of  Diocletian  issued  in  A.D. 
303  on  the  occasion  of  the  triumph  held  at  Borne  which  cele- 
brated the  brilliant  achievements  that  had  happened  during  his 
reign.  It  has  on  the  reverse  Victory  offering  a  globe  to  the 


emperor,  who  is  shown  in  his  favourite  personification  of  Jupiter. 
The  only  piece  of  special  interest  amongst  the  silver  coins  was 
the  denarius  of  Carausius  commemorating  his  arrival  in  Britain 
in  A.D.  286,  and  with  the  remarkable  legend  "  Expectate  veni," 
and  showing  a  female  figure  holding  a  standard  and  greeting  the 
emperor.  This  coin  Mr.  Grueber  attributed  to  Rutupiae  (Rich- 
borough),  at  which  port  Carausius  made  his  landing.  The  rings 
were  of  the  usual  forms  of  Roman  rings  of  the  end  of  the  third 
century,  having  the  hoops  angular  in  shape,  and  having  bezels 
with  engraved  or  unengraved  stones,  or  of  the  same  material  as 
the  rest  of  the  ring.  This  paper  is  printed  in  Vol.  xx,  p.  27. 

MAY  17,  1900. 

SIR  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 
Stephen  W.  Bushell,  Esq.,  M.D.,  C.M.G.,  Signor  Giovanni 
Dattari,  and  George  L.  Shackles,  Esq.,  were  elected  Members. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Bulletin  historique  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  la 
Morinie.     Liv.  193. 

2.  Aarboger  for  Nordisk  Oldkyndighed  og   Historie.     Bind 
xiv.     Heft  4. 

3.  Proceedings    of    the   Royal    Irish   Academy.      Vol.    v. 
No.  4. 

4.  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 
Vol.  x.     Part  I. 

5.  Archseologia  Aeliana.     Vol.  xxii.     Part  I. 

6.  Petit  Gros  d'Arnould  III,  Seigneur  de  Randirath.     By  the 
Vicomte  B.  de  Jonghe.     From  the  Author. 

Mr.  W.  Gowland  exhibited  a  counterfeit  in  zinc  of  a  Japanese 
silver  coin  stamped  in  many  places  with  the  names  of  the 
provinces  of  Sikishi  and  Twami.  When  in  currency  this  coin 


was  cut  in  pieces  for  small  change,  each  piece  bearing  a  stamp  of 
the  province  as  a  guarantee  of  its  fineness.  The  current  values 
of  these  pieces  were  determined  by  weight.  Mr.  Gowland  also 
exhibited  a  pair  of  Japanese  scales  for  weighing  coins,  and  a 

Mr.  W.  C.  Boyd  showed  a  tin  coin  of  Aracan,  which  came 
from  Tenasserim. 

Mr.  Gr.  E.  Pritchard  exhibited  some  seventeenth  and  eight- 
eenth century  tokens  of  Bristol. 

Mr.  F.  A  Walters  exhibited  a  Calais  groat  of  Henry  VI, 
having  the  obverse  of  the  pine-cone  coinage  and  the  reverse  of 
the  annulet  coinage,  two  issues  which  were  not  consecutive. 

Lord  Grantley  read  a  paper  on  a  unique  and  unpublished 
penny  of  Heahberht,  who  was  joint  ruler  in  Kent  with  Ecgberht 
and  signed  charters  with  him  in  A.D.  764  and  765.  The  obverse 
was  of  the  same  type  as  the  coins  of  Ecgberht,  but  the  reverse 
type  was  practically  copied  from  a  coin  of  Offa,  and  it  bore  the 
moneyer's  name,  "  Eoba,"  who  also  engraved  dies  for  Offa's 
queen,  Cynethryth,  and  his  successor  Coenwulf.  This  paper  is 
printed  in  Vol.  xx.,  p.  148. 

Sir  Henry  H.  Howorth  communicated  a  paper  on  Ecgberht, 
King  of  Wessex,  and  his  coinage.  After  criticising  the  early 
history  of  Ecgberht  as  given  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  the 
writer  claimed  for  him,  not  a  West-Saxon  origin,  but  that  he 
was  a  Kentish  prince  belonging  to  the  house  of  Kent ;  that  he 
was  the  same  Ecgberht  who  struck  coins  as  King  of  Kent  in 
the  eighth  century  ;  that  he  was  probably  the  "  Count  Egbert  " 
who  lived  at  Charlemagne's  court  and  was  appointed  by  him 
dux  over  a  part  of  the  Danish  March  ;  and,  lastly,  that  his 
coinage  as  King  of  Wessex  did  not  begin  till  about  the  year 
825,  when  he  first  conquered  Kent.  This  paper  is  printed  in 
Vol.  xx.,  p.  66. 

The  President  exhibited  a  series  of  pennies  of  Eadberht  II, 
Praen,  and  Cuthred  of  Kent,  and  of  Ecgberht  as  King  of 
Wessex,  in  illustration  of  Sir  H.  Howorth's  paper. 


JUNE  21,  1900. 

SIB  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Sc.D.,  F.R.S., 
F.S.A.,  F.G.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  last  Annual  General  Meeting  were  read 
and  confirmed. 

The  Report  of  the  Council  was  then  read  to  the  Society  as 
follows  : — 

GENTLEMEN, — The  Council  again  have  the  honour  to  lay 
before  you  their  Annual  Report  as  to  the  state  of  the  Numis- 
matic Society. 

With  great  regret  they  have  to  announce  the  death  of  the 
following  six  Ordinary  Members  : — 

Laurence  Trent  Cave,  Esq. 

Sir  Henry  Dryden,  Bart. 

Francis  Latchmore,  Esq. 

Samuel  Powell,  Esq. 

M.  Raymond  Serrure. 

The  Rev.  William  Wright,  D.D. 

And  of  one  Honorary  Member : — 

M.  J.  P.  Six. 

Also  the  resignation  of  the  following  two  Ordinary  Mem- 
bers : — 

John  W.  Dorman,  Esq.,  M.A. 
Francis  W.  Pixley,  Esq.,  F.S.A. 


On  the  other  hand,  the  Council  have  much  pleasure  in 
recording  the  election  of  the  following  thirteen  Ordinary 
Members : — 

Stephen  W.  Bushell,  Esq.,  M.D.,  C.M.G. 

Charles  J.  P.  Cave,  Esq. 

Reuben  Cull,  Esq. 

Signor  Giovanni  Dattari. 

William  Gowland,  Esq.,  F.S.A. 

Lionel  M.  Hewlett,  Esq. 

H.  Neville  S.  Langton,  Esq. 

Charles  Bennet  Lawes,  Esq. 

Frederick  W.  Lincoln,  Esq.,  Jun. 

The  Rev.  Robert  Scott  Mylne,  M.A.,  B.C.L.,  F.S.A. 

George  L.  Shackles,  Esq. 

Francis  Bertram  Welch,  Esq. 

The  Rev.  Jeremiah  Zimmerman,  D.D. 

And  of  the  following  three  Honorary  Members  : — 

M.  Edmond  Drouin. 
Prof.  Dr.  Ettore  Gabrici. 
Prof.  Dr.  Behrendt  Pick. 

According  to  the  Report  of  the  Hon.  Secretaries,  the  numbers 
of  the  Members  are  as  follows  : — 

Ordinary.        Honorary.          Total 

June,  1899 271  21  292 

Since  elected  13  3  16 






Resigned      .... 

....         2 


June,  1900 276  23  299 


The  Council  have  further  to  announce  that  they  have  unani- 
mously awarded  the  Medal  of  the  Society  to  Prof.  Stanley 
Lane-Poole,  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  in  recognition  of  his 
numerous  and  valuable  services  to  Oriental  numismatics, 
especially  in  connexion  with  the  Muhammadan  coinages. 

The  Hon.  Treasurer's  Report,  which  follows,  was  submitted  to 
the  Meeting  and  adopted. 

Statement  of  Receipts  and  Disbursements  of  the 

£    s.    d.         £     s.     d. 
To  Messrs.  Virtue  &  Co.,  for  printing  Chronicles  — 

Part  II,  1899       .         .         .         .     58  10     0 

Part  IV,    ,,          .        .        , 

47     4     0 

i  KI 


,,          ,,         for  printing  Rules 


LO  L 




,,           ,,         ,,     Stationery       .... 





The  Autotype  Company,  for  Plates          .         .         . 

17  17    5 

»                »                    » 


„                „                    „              ... 

13  16     0 

»                »                    »               ... 

13  16     0 

„                ,,                    ,, 

18     9     6 

»                »>                    »              ... 




The  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  one  year's  rent  due  June 

24,  1900  . 

I  O 




Mrs.  Harper,  for  Attendance,  Tea,  Coffee,  &c. 





Messrs.  H.  Bowyer  &  Co.,  for  Bookbinding 








Messrs.  Hachette,  for  '  '  Dictionnaire  des  Antiquites 





Messrs.  Walker  &  Boutall,  for  Drawing  and  Engraving  . 




Messrs.  Hatton  &  Son,  for  Stationery 




Messrs.  Sampson  and  Bownas  for  Mahogany  Sheraton  Bookcase 







Mr.  J.  Pinches,  for  Engraving          .... 





Mr.  C.  J.  Praetorius,  for  Drawings  of  three  Roman 





Fire  Insurance  





Secretaries,  for  Postages   





Treasurer,  for  Postages,  Receipts,  and  Cheque  Book 





Collector  (Mr.  A.  W.  Hunt),  for  Commission  and  Postages 




By  Balance  in  hand 








Examined  with  the  Vouchers,  compared  as  to  additions,  and  found  correct, 

A.  PREVOST    )    , 
W>  July,  J900.  THOS.  BLISS  I  Audltors- 

Numismatic  Society,  from  June,  1899,  to  June,  1900. 


£       s.    d. 
By  Balance  from  last  Statement 228  10     9 

„  Entrance  Fees .  13  13  0 

„  Subscriptions .  247  16  0 

„  Amount  received  for  Chronicles,  viz. — 

Mr.  B.  Quaritch 

Mr.  Thos.  Bliss 

,,   Foreign  Postages 

,,  August  Dividend  on  £700  London  and  North- 
Western  Railway  4  %  Consolidated  Preference 
Stock  (less  9s.  4d.  tax) 13  10  8 

„   February        ditto  ditto  ditto       .         .       13  10     8 

,,  Return  by  Inland  Revenue  of  Three  Years'  Deduc- 
tions for  Tax  7  .  2  16  0 

29  17     4 

£581   19     4 


list  June,  1900. 


After  the  Report  of  the  Council  had  been  read  and  approved, 
the  President  presented  the  Society's  medal  to  Mr.  Rapson  to 
forward  to  Professor  Lane-Poole,  who  was  unable  to  attend 
the  Meeting  and  addressed  him  as  follows : — 

Mr.  Rapson, — 

In  handing  this  medal  to  you  for  transmission  to  Professor 
Stanley  Lane-Poole,  I  must  request  you  to  convey  to  him  the 
expression  of  our  regret  at  his  absence  from  among  us  to-day. 
That  regret  is,  however,  tempered  by  the  reason  for  his  absence, 
which  is  that  he  is  detained  in  Dublin  in  order  that  he  may 
receive  at  Trinity  College  the  degree  of  Litterarum  Doctor,  an 
honour  that  has  been  accorded  to  him  on  much  the  same  grounds 
as  those  on  which  our  medal  has  been  awarded  to  him  by  the 
Council  of  this  Society. 

The  names  of  Lane  and  Poole  have  long  been  connected 
with  numismatic  and  Oriental  studies,  but  there  is  probably  no 
man  living  who  has  done  more  than  the  recipient  of  this  medal 
to  forward  our  knowledge  of  Oriental  numismatics,  and 
especially  of  the  Muhammadan  coinage,  which  extends  over  so 
wide  a  field.  His  Catalogue  of  the  Oriental  Coins  in  the 
British  Museum  occupies  no  less  than  ten  volumes,  while  that 
of  the  Indian  coins  in  the  same  collection  occupies  three.  In 
addition  to  these  volumes,  he  has  published  catalogues  of  Arabic 
Glass  Weights,  of  the  Guthrie  Collection,  of  the  Muhammadan 
coins  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  and  of  the  Arabic  coins  in  the 
Khedivial  Library  at  Cairo.  His  other  works,  which  are  of  great 
value,  mainly  relate  to  Oriental  Numismatics,  as  do  his  numer- 
ous contributions  to  the  Journal  of  the  lloyal  Asiatic  Society. 

His  papers  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle,  extending  over 
many  years,  must  be  known  to  many  of  those  present,  and  by 
themselves  alone  are  a  monument  of  industry  and  ability  which 
would  deserve  recognition  on  our  part.  Among  these,  the 
Fasti  Arabici,  of  which  five  instalments  have  appeared  in  our 
pages,  and  of  which  more,  I  believe,  is  in  preparation,  and  his 


various  dynastic  and  chronological  tables,  are  perhaps  of  the 
greatest  historical  importance,  and  certainly  are  of  the  most 
valuable  assistance  to  students. 

In  .giving  him  this  medal  you  will  assure  him  of  our  gratitude 
for  past  services  to  our  science,  and  of  our  hopes  that  he  may 
long  be  spared  to  continue  his  researches. 

Mr.  Rapson,  having  thanked  the  Council  on  behalf  of  Professor 
Lane-Poole  for  having  conferred  on  him  the  medal  of  the 
Society  for  1900,  remarked,  '*  Personally,  I  am  sure,  we  all 
regret  his  inability  to  be  present  this  evening  ;  but,  as  numis- 
matists, I  think  we  can  scarcely  help  feeling  some  pride  in  the 
thought  that  his  absence  is  due  to  the  honour  which  the  Uni- 
versity of  Dublin  has  to-day  conferred  on  him  and,  through 
him,  on  our  science.  Before  I  read  the  letter  of  thanks  which 
Professor  Lane-Poole  addressed  to  me  on  learning  that  the 
Society's  medal  had  been  awarded  to  him,  I  am  sure,  sir,  that 
he  would  wish  me  to  say  how  greatly  this  distinction  is  en- 
hanced by  your  very  kind  and  appreciative  review  of  his 
numismatic  work."  Mr.  Rapson  then  read  the  following  letter 
from  Professor  Lane-Poole. 

"  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

21st  May,  1900. 

"  Dear  Rapson, — Will  you  kindly  express  to  the  President 
and  Council  of  the  Numismatic  Society  my  sense  of  the  high 
honour  they  have  done  me  in  awarding  me  the  medal  of  the 
Society  ?  I  wish  I  could  come  over  on  the  21st  June  and  thank 
them  in  person,  but,  unfortunately,  I  have  to  be  here  at  that 
date  to  receive  the  degree  of  Litterarum  Doctor,  which  the 
University  of  Dublin  has  conferred  upon  me — not  honoris  causa 
— but  for  those  very  numismatic  works  (among  others)  which 
the  Society  has  honoured  by  the  medal. 

"  I  shall  always  feel  grateful  to  the  Society  for  having  given 
me  my  first  opportunities  for  publishing  my  early  (and,  I  fear, 
crude)  beginnings  of  numismatic  research,  now  more  than  a 


quarter  of  a  century  ago.  I  have  not  given  up  my  interest  in 
Oriental  coins.  Whatever  is  to  be  seen  here  in  that  branch 
always  comes  under  my  eyes  ;  I  am  in  constant  correspondence 
with  collectors  and  students  in  various  countries ;  and  the  aim 
of  my  life  is  now  to  finish  the  corpus  of  Arabic  coins,  or  Fasti 
Ardbici,  at  which  I  have  been  at  work  at  every  spare  moment 
for  the  past  fifteen  years. 

"I  mention  this  merely  to  show  the  Society  that  *  age  has 
not  dimmed,  nor  custom  staled,'  my  interest  in  my  favourite 
branch  of  research,  and  I  hope  that  future  work  may  prove  that 
the  medal  may  be  an  incentive  as  well  as  a  reward. 

"I  am,  dear  Rapson, 
"  Yours  very  truly, 

"  E.  J.  Rapson,  Esq.,  M.A." 

The  President  then  delivered  his  Annual  Address,  which  was 
as  follows  :  — 

It  is  again  my  pleasing  duty  to  offer  to  the  Numismatic 
Society  an  Anniversary  Address,  and  in  doing  so  I  would  begin 
by  thanking  for  their  presence  and  support  the  numerous 
members  who  honoured  me  with  their  company  last  June  at 
my  Jubilee  celebration  in  the  apartments  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  at  Burlington  House,  which  were  kindly  lent  for 
the  occasion.  My  family  and  I  much  enjoyed  the  pleasure  of 
their  company,  and  I  venture  to  hope  that  the  pleasure  was 

I  am  glad  to  say  that  the  condition  of  the  Society  at  the  end 
of  another  year  is  still  prosperous,  both  as  regards  numbers  and 
finances.  As  you  have  heard  from  the  Report  of  the  Council, 
our  numbers  exceed  by  five  those  of  the  corresponding  period 
last  year,  while  the  Treasurer's  account  shows  that  our  balance 
in  hand  is  rather  in  excess  of  what  it  was  at  the  corresponding 
period  of  last  year. 

Our  medal  has  this   year  been  awarded  to  Professor  Stanley 


Lane-Poole,  in  recognition  of  the  services  that  he  has  rendered 
to  Oriental  numismatics,  especially  in  connection  with  the 
Muhammadan  coinage ;  and  the  award  will,  I  am  sure,  give 
much,  satisfaction  to  all  those  in  the  dominions  of  the  Empress 
of  India  who  are  interested  in  its  history  and  coinage. 

Our  losses  by  death  have,  I  am  pleased  to  say,  been  below 
rather  than  above  the  average. 

M.  Jan  Pieter  Six,  of  Amsterdam,  had  been  an  Honorary 
Member  of  our  Society  since  1865,  and  was  one  of  the  most 
distinguished  numismatists  of  the  present  century.  His  know- 
ledge of  coins,  especially  those  belonging  to  the  Greek  series, 
was  singularly  wide  and  accurate,  and  not  even  the  minutest 
details  escaped  his  notice.  A  student  of  history,  he  was  always 
on  the  alert  for  any  assistance  that  coins  could  either  give  his 
studies  or,  on  the  other  hand,  receive  from  them.  He  was 
even  at  times  a  little  over-bold  in  his  speculations  ;  but  if  these 
led  to  discussion  by  others,  there  was  no  one  more  ready  than 
M.  Six  to  accept  an  amendment  of  his  views,  his  sole  object 
being  the  discovery  of  truth.  His  communications  to  the 
Numismatic  Chronicle  were  numerous  and  important.  The 
first  of  these,  dated  December,  1864,  was  in  the  form  of  a 
letter  to  Mr.  Reginald  Stuart  Poole,  and  related  to  the  coins  of 
the  Ptolemies.  The  letter  and  the  reply  did  much  towards  the 
elucidation  of  the  sequence  of  this  Egyptian  series. 

His  subsequent  communications  to  the  Chronicle  have  been 
some  fifteen  in  number,  and  many  of  them  of  great  importance, 
and  though  in  his  early  days  he  had  devoted  much  attention  to 
Roman  coins,  they  relate  almost  exclusively  to  the  Greek 
series.  It  would  be  a  needless,  and  perhaps  tedious,  task  to 
recount  the  subjects  of  these  papers  ;  but  those  on  Lycceios, 
a  dynast  of  the  Paeonians — on  the  coins  of  the  satraps  of  Caria 
and  of  Mazaios — on  Aphrodite-Nemesis — on  Phoenician  legends 
— and  the  more  recent  papers  on  rare  and  inedited  Greek 
coins — may  be  mentioned  as  illustrating  the  wide  field  that  his 
researches  embraced. 


His  great  works  on  the  classification  of  the  Cypriote  series 
and  on  Lycian  coins  found  a  place  in  the  Revue  Numismatique, 
and  he  also  contributed  important  papers  to  the  Zeitschrift  fur 
Numismatik  and  to  the  Annuaire  de  Numismatique.  In  1890 
he  was  awarded  the  medal  of  this  Society,  and  rarely  has  that 
medal  been  bestowed  on  a  more  worthy  recipient. 

M.  Six  was  not-  only  a  numismatist,  but  in  his  younger  days 
devoted  himself  earnestly  to  philology.  His  collection  of 
editions  of  Plautus  and  of  books  connected  with  that  author  he 
presented  to  the  University  of  Utrecht.  He  took  a  warm 
interest  in  the  antiquities  of  the  Low  Countries,  and  was  one 
of  the  founders,  if  not  indeed  the  originator,  of  the  Royal 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Holland.  He  inherited  a  love  for 
art,  being  one  of  the  direct  descendants  of  Jan  Six,  the  Burgo- 
master of  Amsterdam  from  1691  to  1702,  who  was  long  the 
friend  and  patron  of  Rembrandt,  Lievens,  and  FKnck.  The 
portraits  of  Jan  Six  and  of  his  mother,  Ann  Six,  painted  by 
Rembrandt  in  1656  and  1641,  are  among  the  gems  of  the 
world-renowned  Six  Gallery,  which,  through  the  characteristic 
liberality  of  M.  J.  P.  Six,  was  always  accessible  to  the  public, 
involving,  as  it  did  at  times,  no  little  personal  inconvenience 
to  its  proprietor.  In  him  we  lose  a  warm  friend  to  the 
Society,  full  of  erudition  and  endowed  with  great  powers  of 
induction,  whose  death  causes  a  gap  which  it  will  be  impos- 
sible to  fill.  He  was  born  on  November  6th,  1824,  and  died  at 
his  country  residence  of  Hilversum,  near  Amsterdam,  on 
July  17th,  1899. 

Since  these  few  lines  were  written,  a  far  more  complete  and 
interesting  biography  of  the  late  M.  J.  P.  Six  has  appeared  in 
the  Journal  International  d?  Archeologie  Numismatique,  from  the 
pen  of  his  son,  M.  J.  Six.  This  memoir  is  accompanied  by  an 
excellent  portrait. 

Sir  Henry  Edward  Leigh  Dryden,  Bart.,  of  Ambrosden, 
Oxon,  and  of  Canon's  Ashby,  Northants,  came  of  an  old 
Northamptonshire  family,  which  had  been  settled  in  that 


county  since  the  days  of  Elizabeth,  and  was  a  direct  de- 
scendant of  John  Dryden  the  poet.  He  was  born  on  August 
7th,  1818,  and  was  well  known  as  a  diligent  antiquary,  who 
took  a  warm  interest  in  all  that  related  to  the  history  of  his 
county,  and  who  especially  concerned  himself  with  church 
architecture  and  musie  and  with  the  remains  of  the  "late- 
Celtic  "  period.  He  was  educated  at  Shrewsbury  and  at 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  taking  his  M.A.  degree  in  1839. 
He  succeeded  to  the  title  on  the  death  of  his  father,  the 
Rev.  Sir  Henry  Turner  Dryden,  in  1837. 

In  1852  he  communicated  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
through  the  late  Mr.  C.  -Roach  Smith,  a  report  on  an  Anglo- 
Saxon -cemetery  in  the  parish  of  Marston  St.  Lawrence,  which 
was  followed  by  a  supplementary  paper  in  1882.  He  also  made 
frequent  communications  to  the  British  Archa3ological  Asso- 
ciation, the  Royal  Archa3ological  Institute,  the  Northampton 
Architectural  Society,  and  other  bodies. 

For  his  work  among  the  Scottish  brochs  and  his  accounts  of 
the  church  of  St.  Magnus,  Kirkwall,  Orkney,  he  was  made  an 
honorary  member  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland  in 
1865.  Perhaps  his  most  important  paper,  from  the  English 
point  of  view,  was  that  on  Hunsbury  or  Danes  Camp,  near 
Northampton,  communicated  to  the  local  Society  in  1885. 
The  remains  there  discovered  comprise  a  large  number  of  im- 
portant relics  of  the  "  late-Celtic  period,"  which  are  now  for  the 
most  part  deposited  in  the  Northampton  Museum.  Sir  Henry 
became  a  Member  of  the  Numismatic  Society  in  1861,  but  never 
communicated  any  article  to  the  Chronicle.  He  died  on  the 
24th  July,  1899,  not  from  old  age,  but  from  the  results  of  a 
slight  and  almost  unnoticed  accident,  which  led  to  blood- 

The  Rev.  William  Wright,  D.D.,  was  elected  a  Member  of  this 
Society  in  1883,  but  did  not  contribute  to  our  journal.  He  was, 
however,  an  active  member  of  the  Society  of  Biblical  Archasology 
and  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund.  He  was  a  man  of  wide 



sympathies,  who  took  a  warm  interest  both  in  archaeology  and 
numismatics,  especially  from  the  biblical  point  of  view.  He  was 
born  in  Rathfriland,  County  Down,  on  July  15th,  1837,  and 
was  educated  at  Queen's  College,  Belfast,  and  at  Geneva. 
Originally  intended  for  the  Civil  Service,  he  as  a  young  man 
joined  the  Presbyterian  ministry,  and  for  ten  years  was  actively 
associated  with  the  Jewish  Mission  at  Damascus.  It  was  there 
that  in  the  main  he  acquired  his  linguistic  and  archaeological 
knowledge,  and  his  important  work  on  the  Empire  of  the 
Hittites,  which  embodied  the  results  of  many  of  his  researches, 
obtained  for  him  in  1882  the  degree  of  D.D.  from  the  University 
of  Glasgow.  In  the  meantime,  in  1876  he  succeeded  Canon 
Girdlestone  as  Editorial  Superintendent  of  the  British  and 
Foreign  Bible  Society,  where  his  labours  were  unremitting. 
His  aid  to  the  translators  of  the  Revised  New  Testament  was 
recognized  as  of  the  highest  value  ;  and  besides  other  work,  he 
was  a  not  infrequent  contributor  to  the  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  the 
Contemporary  Review,  and  several  religious  periodicals.  Among 
his  other  works  may  be  mentioned  a  volume  on  the  Brontes  in 
Ireland,  and  one  upon  Palmyra  and  Zenobia.  He  died  of  heart 
disease  on  July  31st,  1899. 

Mr.  Samuel  Powell,  of  Ivy  House,  Welshpool,  was  one  of 
our  country  Members  who  from  geographical  reasons  are  but 
rarely  able  to  be  present  at  our  meetings.  He  was,  however,  a 
diligent  collector  of  coins,  and  took  a  warm  interest  in  the 
Society,  into  which  he  was  elected  in  1881.  He  belonged  to  an 
old  Montgomeryshire  family,  and  took  for  many  years  an  active 
part  in  public  affairs,  both  as  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  his 
county  and  as  concerned  in  the  administration  of  the  Poor 
Law.  He  died  at  Ivy  House  on  the  15th  of  February  last,  in 
the  83rd  year  of  his  age. 

In  Mr.  Francis  Latchmore,  of  Hitchin,  we  have  lost  an 
energetic  collector  not  only  of  coins,  but  of  antiquities  both 
historic  and  pre-historic.  Though  actively  engaged  in  a  retail 
business  that  required  close  attention,  he  found  time  to  devote 


himself  to  his  favourite  pursuits,  and  became  a  centre  towards 
which  any  objects  of  antiquity  discovered  within  a  radius  of  many 
miles  naturally  gravitated.  He  was  elected  a  Member  of  this 
Society  in  1881,  and  in  1889  communicated  to  us  a  short 
account  of  a  hoard  of  upwards  of  2,300  Roman  billon  and  small 
brass  coins  extending  from  the  reign  of  Gordian  III  to  that  of 
Aurelian,  found  near  Cambridge.  Again,  in  1897,  he  gave  us  a 
note  on  some  Saxon  coins  found  near  Hitchin  entangled  in  the 
roots  of  an  elm-tree  that  had  been  blown  down.  These  were 
of  Burgred  and  Aethelred  I ;  but  he  at  the  same  time  recorded 
the  discovery  of  some  sceattas  and  of  coins  of  Offa  and  Alfred. 
He  fell  a  victim  to  a  rapid  consumption,  and  died  on  July  17th, 
1899,  aged  59  years. 

Monsieur  Raymond  Serrure,  of  Paris,  who  died  rather 
suddenly  on  the  16th  of  September,  1899,  had  been  a  Member 
of  this  Society  since  the  year  1891.  He  attained  considerable 
distinction  as  a  numismatist,  especially  in  connection  with  the 
history  of  the  mediaeval  mints  of  France,  Belgium,  and  Holland, 
and  is  perhaps  best  known  for  his  important  work  on  the 
numismatics  of  France,  written  in  conjunction  with  M.  Arthur 
Engel.  Born  at  Ghent  on  Christmas  Day,  1862,  he  was  the  son 
of  M.  Constant  Antoine  Serrure  and  grandson  of  M.  Constant 
Philippe  Serrure,  professor  of  history  in  the  University  of 
Ghent,  of  which  at  one  time  he  was  rector.  Both  his  father  and 
grandfather  were  well  known  as  lovers  of  coins,  and  his  grand- 
father was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Revue  Beige  de  Numis- 
matique.  No  wonder,  then,  that  the  taste  for  numismatics  was 
inherited  ;  and  at  the  age  of  seventeen  young  Raymond  Serrure 
began  communicating  miscellanea  to  the  Revue.  In  1880  he 
published  a  geographical  dictionary  of  the  monetary  history  of 
Belgium,  and  in  1881  he  started  the  Bulletin  Mensuel  de 
Numismatique  et  d1  Archeologie.  This,  which  had  been  published 
at  Brussels,  was  succeeded  in  1891  by  the  Bulletin  de 
mattque,  published  at  Paris.  In  1897  he  became  editor  of  the 
Gazette  Numismatique  Franchise,  to  the  Third  Part  of  which  for 



1899  I  am  indebted  for  these  particulars.  The  same  periodical 
contains  a  list  of  no  less  than  a  hundred  and  fifty-six  articles 
and  separate  works  of  which  he  was  the  author,  or  occasionally 
the  joint  author.  His  death,  at  an  age  below  37,  has  cut  short 
a  most  promising  career.  Those  who  were  brought  in  contactwith 
him  in  business  relations  can  bear  testimony  to  the  uprightness 
of  his  character  and  to  his  quickness  of  perception.  Personally 
I  much  regret  his  loss,  and  not  the  less  so  because  I  had  in  old 
times  the  pleasure  of  being  acquainted  with  both  his  father  and 
grandfather  before  him. 

It  is  with  deep  regret  that  I  have  to  record  the  decease  of 
Professor  Adolf  Holm,  who,  though  not  an  Honorary  Member 
of  our  Society,  deserved  well  of  numismatic  science.  He  was 
one  of  those  few  historians  who  accept  the  testimony  of  coins 
at  its  proper  value  in  relation  to  history.  His  Griechische 
Geschichte  has  been  translated  into  the  English  language,  and 
occupies  a  deservedly  high  position,  while  his  History  of  Sicily 
and  its  coins  down  to  the  time  of  Augustus  formed  the  subject 
of  an  appreciative  review  by  my  son,  Mr.  Arthur  Evans,  in  the 
Chronicle  two  years  ago,  and  was  cited  by  me  as  one  of  the 
most  valuable  numismatic  works  of  the  year  in  my  Anni- 
versary Address  for  1898. 

He  died  after  a  long  illness  at  Freiburg  im  Breisgau,  on 
June  9th  of  the  present  year,  in  the  seventieth  year  of  his  age. 

Turning  now  to  the  subjects  that  have  been  brought  under 
our  consideration  during  the  past  year,  I  find  that,  apart  from 
numerous  and  important  exhibitions  of  rare  and  interesting 
coins  and  medals,  the  memoirs  that  have  been  read  at  our 
meetings  extend,  as  usual,  over  a  very  wide  field. 

Those  relating  to  the  Greek  coinages  occupy  the  first  place, 
at  all  events  chronologically,  if  not  indeed  otherwise. 

Sir  Hermann  Weber,  in  a  paper  on  Finds  of  Archaic  Greek 
Coins  in  Lower  Egypt,  has  described  between  thirty  and  forty 
coins  from  a  hoard  discovered  at  Sakha,  of  which  a  somewhat 
larger  number  of  coins  seem  to  have  been  dispersed.  They 



consist  in  the  main  of  early  issues  from  the  mints  of  Dicaea  in 
Thrace,  Lete,  Neapolis  of  Macedon,  Aegina,  Corinth,  Naxus, 
Paros,  Mytilene  in  Lesbos,  Chios,  Cyrene,  and  some  uncertain 
localities.  Particulars  of  another  portion  of  the  hoard,  of  which 
Sir  Hermann  gives  only  a  summary  account,  will  be  published 
in  the  Zeitschri/t  fur  Numismatik.  There  is  a  curious  general 
similarity  between  the  Sakha  hoard  and  that  from  Lower 
Egypt  described  by  Canon  Greenwell  in  the  Chronicle  ten 
years  ago,  and  it  seems  very  remarkable  that  so  many  archaic 
Greek  silver  coins  should  be  found  so  far  away  from  their 
original  homes.  The  reason,  however,  assigned  for  this  cir- 
cumstance, suggested  by  Mr.  Dutilh,  of  Alexandria,  and 
adopted  by  the  author,  seems  to  be  the  true  one.  They 
were  imported  into  Egypt  merely  as  bullion  ;  moreover,  the 
bulk  of  them  belong  to  a  period  two  hundred  years  before  the 
existence  of  any  indigenous  coinage  in  Egypt. 

Mr.  Warwick  Wroth  has  continued  his  laudable  custom  of 
annually  bringing  before  us  a  notice  of  the  Greek  coins 
acquired  by  the  British  Museum  during  the  preceding  year.  In 
1899  these  have  been  considerably  fewer  in  number  than  in 
any  of  the  previous  four  or  five  years,  but  among  the  acquisi- 
tions are  several  noteworthy  coins.  First  on  his  list  is  a  very 
rare  but  uncertain  silver  coin  of  Etruria,  possibly  of  Pisae. 
It  bears  as  type  a  singularly-formed  sepia,  composed  of  a 
central  amphora,  with  helmets  on  either  side  and  numerous 
tentacles.  The  reverse  is  plain,  and  the  only  letters  upon 
the  obverse  are  XX,  indicative  of  value.  It  was  bought  many 
years  ago  at  Portsmouth,  by  the  late  Mr.  Vaux,  for  the  sum 
of  twopence,  it  having  been  at  the  time  regarded  as  a  copper 
coin.  Among  the  gold  coins  acquired  is  a  stater  of  Antigonus, 
with  the  types  of  Alexander  the  Great,  but  the  Nike  on  the 
reverse  holds  an  acrostolium  instead  of  a  palm,  possibly  in 
commemoration  of  the  naval  victory  off  Salamis  in  B.C.  306. 
A  silver  didrachm  of  Aptera  in  Crete,  with  the  head  of  Artemis, 
and  a  tetradrachrn  of  Lampsacus,  with  the  head  of  a  bearded 


Priapus,  are  worthy  of  notice;  as  are  also  the  rare  tetradrachms 
of  Demetrius  II,  of  Cleopatra  and  Antiochus  VIII  of  Syria, 
and  that  of  Ptolemy  I  of  Egypt,  with  the  types  usually  found 
on  the  coins  bearing  the  name  of  Alexander.  There  are,  of 
course,  many  other  important  coins  on  the  list,  and  the  early 
notices  that  we  have  received  of  them  have  added  much  to  the 
utility  of  the  National  Collection. 

Mr.  George  Macdonald,  the  author  of  the  revised  catalogue 
of  the  Hunter  Collection  at  Glasgow,  has  contributed  a  valuable 
paper  on  the  amphora  letters  on  coins  of  Athens.  In  it  he 
shows  that  the  N  which  occurs  on  some  of  the  amphorae  is 
not  due  to  an  engraver's  error,  but  is  intentionally  placed 
there.  The  number  of  the  letters  on  the  amphorae  being  in 
excess  of  twelve,  they  cannot  refer  to  the  prytanies  or  tribes, 
but  in  all  probability  are  indicative  of  months,  which  did  not  in 
all  cases  correspond  with  the  duration  of  the  prytanies.  But 
the  difficulties  which  have  met  Beule  and  others  in  connecting 
the  magistrates'  names  with  the  dates  seem  to  have  arisen 
from  the  fact  that  in  the  second  century  B.C.  a  double  system 
of  time-reckoning  was  in  vogue  at  Athens,  one  secular  and 
the  other  religious  or  Kara.  6i6v.  It  is  impossible  here  to 
discuss  the  points  adduced,  but  the  amount  of  accurate  work 
bestowed  upon  the  paper,  and  the  number  of  coins  in  different 
cabinets  that  have  been  consulted,  justify  full  confidence  being 
placed  in  Mr.  Macdonald's  conclusions  and  in  his  rectification 
of  the  somewhat  numerous  errors  into  which  M.  Beule  has 

Mr.  Seltman's  paper  on  "  Nummi  serrati  and  astral  coin 
types  "  is  also  one  that  it  is  difficult  to  discuss  in  a  few  words. 
The  existence  of  astronomical  and  possibly  solar  types  upon  coins 
can  hardly  be  doubted,  but  the  extension  of  astral  radiation  to 
the  serrated  edge  of  the  coin  itself  is  more  susceptible  of 
question,  and  the  author  seems  inclined  to  regard  the  serration 
both  of  silver  and  copper  coins  as  a  preservative  against  the 
flans  cracking  under  the  blow  of  the  dies.  Even  if  this  were  the 


cause  of  the  peculiarity,  there  still  remains  something  to  be  said 
in  favour  of  the  old  view  that  in  the  Roman  denarii  the  cut 
edge  was  intended  to  show  that  the  coin  was  of  solid  silver  and 
not  plated.  The  old  Germans  had  probably  some  ground  for 
preferring  the  "  bigatos  serratosque  "  to  ordinary  coins. 

Mr.  Hill,  in  a  paper  on  "  Olba,  Cennatis,  Lalassis,"  has  pointed 
out  the  intimate  connection  of  the  numismatic  history  of  these 
three  localities,  the  high-priest  and  dynast  of  the  sanctuary 
of  Zeus  Olbius  being  also  toparch  of  the  districts  of  Cennatis 
and  Lalassis,  as  appears  on  some  of  the  coins  of  King  Polemo. 
The  name  of  Ajax  the  son  of  Teucer  does  not  carry  us  back  to 
the  time  of  the  Trojan  war,  but  only  to  the  days  of  Augustus  ; 
and  Strabo  states  that  most  of  the  high-priests  of  Olba  bore 
the  names  of  Ajax  and  Teucer.  The  Polemos  were,  it  seems, 
direct  descendants  of  Mark  Antony.  The  paper  is  of  geographi- 
cal as  well  as  of  numismatic  interest,  and  will  have  to  be 
consulted  by  all  those  who  study  the  topography  and  history 
of  Cilicia.  Mr.  Hill  has  also  given  us  a  notice  of  a  hoard  of 
Cyrenaic  bronze  coins  conglomerated  into  a  mass  weighing 
upwards  of  18  Ibs.,  and  has  continued  his  valuable  and  inter- 
esting bibliographical  notes  on  Greek  numismatics. 

We  have  had  four  papers  relating  to  Roman  numismatics. 

Mr.  H.  A.  Grueber,  one  of  our  Honorary  Secretaries,  has  fur- 
nished us  with  a  detailed  and  interesting  account  of  a  hoard  of 
Roman  gold  and  silver  coins  and  gold  rings,  lately  found  at  Sully, 
near  Cardiff.  The  silver  coins  with  one  exception  range  between 
the  days  of  Marcus  AureliusandPostumus,andare  316  in  number. 
The  gold  coins,  seven  in  number,  belong,however,to  a  later  period, 
being  all  of  Diocletian  or  Maximian  Herculius,  one  of  them  being 
a  double  aureus  of  a  type  hitherto  unpublished.  The  author 
accounts  for  the  gap  of  some  twenty  years  between  the  two 
series  of  silver  and  gold  coins  by  assigning  to  the  depositor  of 
the  hoard  the  not  unnatural  desire  to  lay  by  coins  of  fairly  good 
silver  instead  of  the  washed  copper  coinage  which  had  replaced 
the  Denarii  of  earlier  times.  The  presence  of  the  exceptional 


coin  that  has  been  mentioned  tends  to  support  this  view,  it 
being  of  good  silver  and  struck  under  Carausius.  This  coin  is 
in  fine  condition  and  of  the  interesting  EXPECTATE  YENI 
type.  Mr.  Grueber  suggests  that  the  figure  welcoming  the 
emperor  is  not,  as  commonly  described,  that  of  Britain,  but 
rather  of  Fides  Militum.  The  object  she  holds  is  a  vexillum, 
and  not  a  trident,  and  the  two  figures  closely  accord  with  those 
on  one  of  the  silver  coins  of  Carausius  with  the  legend, 
FIDE.  MI.  AV.  in  my  own  collection. 

The  interpretation  of  the  exergual  letters  R  S  R  has  long  been 
a  puzzle  to  numismatists.  They  occur  on  the  great  majority  of 
the  silver  coins  of  Carausius,  but  also  on  a  certain  number  of  his 
copper  coins.  These,  however,  are  in  the  main  of  the  same  types 
as  those  in  silver,  so  that  it  is  possible  that  they  were  originally 
plated.  The  letters  have  usually  been  regarded  as  in  some 
manner  denoting  the  place  of  mintage,  which  was  in  all  proba- 
bility Rutupiae.  or  Richborough,  and  Mr.  Grueber  suggests 
Rutupiae  Stativa,  or  Static  Romana,  as  their  extended  form. 
I  am  tempted  to  hazard  another  interpretation.  Mr.  Grueber 
has  pointed  out  that  the  issue  of  these  coins  of  comparatively 
fine  silver  was  an  absolute  anomaly,  as  in  no  other  part  of  the 
Roman  Empire  were  coins  of  the  same  standard  of  metal  or 
denomination — that  of  the  old  Roman  denarius — at  that  time 
struck.  It  is  probable,  therefore,  that  the  coins  of  this  new  issue 
had  some  distinctive  name  or  designation.  Now,  perhaps  the  most 
common  of  all  the  types  of  these  denarii  is  the  wolf  and  twins, 
with  the  legend  in  various  more  or  less  contracted  or  inverted 
forms,  ROMANORVM  RENOVATIO.  Can  this  be  held  to  refer 
to  the  renewal  of  the  old  Roman  coinage  ;  and  if  so,  was  the  new 
denarius  by  any  chance  known  as  the  Romanus  ?  In  the 
twelfth  century  we  find  certain  gold  coins  known  as  Romanati, 
and  if  eight  centuries  earlier  a  similar  habit  of  thought  pre- 
vailed, the  letters  R.S.R.  may  signify  (nummus)  Romanus 
Signatus  Rutupiis.  This  conjecture  must  be  taken  for  what 
it  is  worth,  but  all  who  study  Mr.  Grueber's  paper  will  feel 


that  he  has  added  much  value  to  an  interesting  hoard  of  coins 
by  the  manner  in  which  he  has  treated  it. 

When  speaking  of  possible  and  actual  names  of  Roman  coins, 
I  may  mention  a  derivation  of  the  word  traffic,  propounded  in 
the  Athenawri  by  Prof.  Eirikr  Magnusson.  He  shows  that 
the  current  name  for  the  Roman  quinarius,  or  rather  vic- 
toriatus,  among  the  Greeks  was  T^OTTOU/COV,  so  called  on  account 
of  the  trophy  on  the  reverse.  Among  the  Jews  the  name 
assumed  the  form  of  traffic,  plural  traffikim,  and  other  slightly 
varying  forms,  and  the  coin  traffic  is  frequently  mentioned  in 
the  Talmud.  To  connect  the  coin  with  commerce,  it  is  sug- 
gested that  the  early  Italian  trafficare  meant  to  transact  money 
business  with  the  Jews,  and  that  the  more  extended  modern 
sense  of  trafficking  was  developed  by  a  perfectly  natural  pro- 
cess of  evolution.  Without  at  once  accepting  this  etymology, 
I  must  confess  that  it  appears  at  least  as  possible  as  that  which 
derives  traffic  from  the  unknown  word  trans-vicare. 

But  to  return  to  our  own  proceedings.  Mr.  Haverfield  has 
favoured  us  with  an  account  of  a  hoard  of  base  denarii,  found 
at  Carhayes,  in  Cornwall,  about  thirty  years  ago.  They  are 
about  2,100  in  number,  extending  over  about  thirty  years,  from 
the  time  of  Valerian  to  that  of  Probus,  the  reigns  most  fully 
represented  being  those  of  Gallienus  and  the  usurpers  in  Gaul, 
Victorinus  and  his  successors.  In  character  this  hoard  closely 
resembles  many  others  that  have  been  found  in  Gaul  and 
in  Britain,  and  seems  to  be  significant  of  troublous  times  when 
it  was  consigned  to  the  earth. 

A  paper  by  M.  Jules  Maurice,  on  the  chronological  classifi- 
cation of  the  issues  from  the  mint  of  Antioch  during  the 
Constantino  period,  embraces  the  history  of  no  less  than  eleven 
separate  coinages  at  that  'mint.  It  is  of  great  value,  as  affording 
a  guide  to  the  arrangement  of  the  numerous  coins  struck  at 
Antioch  under  the  emperors  and  Caesars  and  their  wives  from 

1  April  7,  1900. 


the  time  of  Constantius  I  in  A.D.  306  to  the  death  of  Crispus 
and  Fausta  in  A.D.  326,  while  it  also  throws  light  on  the 
emissions  of  other  mints  during  that  period. 

In  a  posthumous  paper  the  late  Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers  has  given 
us  a  notice  of  a  hoard  of  Roman  denarii  of  the  Republic  and 
the  early  emperors  down  to  Hadrian,  found  in  the  Panjab. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  consideration  of  the  other  branches 
of  numismatics,  I  may  be  allowed  to  say  a  few  words  with 
regard  to  a  subject  of  rather  wide  interest. 

At  our  last  anniversary  meeting  I  mentioned  the  two 
exhaustive  memoirs  that  had  been  on  different  occasions  brought 
before  us  by  Mr.  Talfourd  Ely  and  Mr.  Seltman,  with  regard  to 
the  fresco  in  the  Casa  dei  Vettii  at  Pompeii,  which  was 
thought  to  represent  the  process  of  coining.  I  was  not  at  that 
time  aware  of  a  communication  made  to  the  French  Numis- 
matic Society,  in  February,  1899,  by  M.  Adrien  Blanchet,  in 
which  he  refers  to  a  short  note  of  his  in  the  Revue  Numis- 
matigue,2  and  re-states  his  opinion  that  it  is  not  a  mint  but  a 
silversmith's  workshop  that  is  depicted.  He  cites  a  curious 
brass  tessera  in  the  Museum  at  Vienna,  on  which  a  Roman 
moneyer  is  represented  at  work ;  and  again,  in  December  last, 
brings  forward  a  bas-relief  in  the  Naples  Museum  showing 
silversmiths  at  work.  In  the  meantime,  in  September  last,  a 
correspondence  is  published  in  the  Journal  International  d'Arche- 
ologie  Numismatique?  between  Messrs.  Svoronos  and  Seltman, 
the  former  advocating  the  view  of  a  Greek  mint  and  the 
latter  that  of  a  Roman.  There  is,  moreover,  Signer  A.  Sogliano's 
article  on  la  Casa  dei  Yettii  in  the  Monumenti  Anticldf  in  which 
he  regards  the  subject  of  the  picture  as  undoubtedly  a  scene  in 
a  silversmith's  shop,  the  seated  figure  or  Psyche  being  the 
buyer,  and  the  Cupid  in  front  of  her  with  the  pair  of  scales 
being  the  seller.  But  why  do  I  dwell  on  this  subject,  which 
during  the  past  year  has  not  been  immediately  brought  under 

2  1896,  p.  360.  3  1899,  p.  251.  *  Vol.  VIII.,  1898. 


the  notice  of  the  Society  ?  It  is  because,  during  the  time  that 
I  have  been  a  truant  from  my  duties  as  your  President,  I  have 
had  an  opportunity  of  again  visiting  Pompeii  and  forming  a 
personal  acquaintance  with  the  Casa  dei  Vettii.  I  went  there 
fully  hoping  to  recognize  as  correct  the  view  that  a  Roman 
mint  was  before  me,  and  I  came  away  compelled  to  put  up 
with  the  more  ordinary  representation  of  a  silversmith's  shop 
in  its  stead.  The  picture  is  one  of  a  series  representing  various 
trades  and  occupations,  and  doubts  naturally  arose  whether  a 
purely  governmental  establishment  such  as  a  mint  could 
properly  have  a  place  among  them.  In  the  scene  of  the 
apothecary's  shop  we  have  the  same  Amorino  with  the  sledge- 
hammer, the  same  seated  Psyche?  The  fuller's  shop,  the  wine 
shop,  the  vintage,  and  other  scenes  are  all  those  of  ordinary 
life,  and  the  silversmith's  shop  would  far  more  naturally  find  a 
place  among  them  than  a  mint,  the  nearest  example  of  which 
was  probably  at  Rome,  more  than  160  miles  away.  But  how 
about  Juno  Moneta,  with  the  eyes  from  the  peacock's  tail  on 
her  wings  ?  Here  again  I  was  disillusionized.  The  eyes  are 
by  no  means  distinct  in  the  picture  under  discussion,  but  are 
remarkably  clear  in  the  picture  of  three  "  Psyches  "  gathering 
flowers,  in  which  arises  no  question  of  a  Juno  being  present.  I 
regret  that  I  have  thus  to  take  the  part  of  a  Balaam,  but  I  have 
pleasure  in  presenting  some  photographs  of  scenes  in  the  Casa 
dei  Vettii  to  the  Society. 

Returning  to  our  papers,  we  have  but  little  to  record  with 
regard  to  the  coinage  of  the  ancient  Britons.  A  short  note  of 
mine,  relating  to  a  small  bronze  coin  of  Verulam  found  on  the 
sea-shore  at  Ostend,  has,  however,  been  printed. 

We  have  had  some  interesting  communications  on  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  and  English  series. 

Lord  Grantley  has  called  our  attention  to  an  unpublished  coin 
of  Heahberht,  King  of  Kent,  struck  by  the  ruoneyer  EOBA. 
This  king  signed  and  confirmed  charters  of  Ecgberht,  King  of 
Kent,  between  A.D.  765  and  791 ;  but  the  coin  probably  belongs 


to  the  close  of  his  reign,  as  the  moneyer  coined  not  only  for 
Offa  and  Cynethryth,  but  for  Coenwulf.  In  one  of  the  charters 
the  style  of  King  of  half  of  Kent  is  used,  and  this  joint  kingship 
may  prove  to  be  an  important  factor  in  Kentish  numismatics. 
The  resemblance  of  the  obverse  of  Lord  Grantley's  coin  to  that 
of  the  penny  of  Ecgberht  of  Kent  has  to  be  noticed  in  taking 
the  paper  next  to  be  mentioned  into  consideration.  In  this 
paper  Sir  Henry  H.  Howorth  discusses  Ecgberht,  King  of  the 
West  Saxons  and  the  Kent  Men,  and  his  coins,  and  raises 
gome  interesting  historical  and  numismatic  questions.  He 
considers  that  Ecgberht  was  not  a  West  Saxon  at  all,  but 
a  Kentish  prince  ;  that  he  was  the  same  Ecgberht  who  struck 
coins  as  King  of  Kent  at  the  end  of  the  eighth  century ;  that  he 
was  probably  the  Count  Egbert  who  was  one  of  Charlemagne's 
paladins;  that  about  A.D.  825  he  again  struck  coins  in  Kent 
alone  ;  and  that  the  coinage  of  Wessex  proper  did  not  commence 
until  after  his  death.  The  peculiar  coins  of  Ecgberht  with  the 
monogram  &  in  the  centre  have  been  regarded  as  struck  by  a 
King  of  Kent  unknown  to  history,  though  his  moneyers  prove 
him  to  have  been  a  contemporary  of  Offa,  King  of  Mercia.  One 
of  them  also,  Babba,  was  a  moneyer  of  Eadberht  Praen,  A.D. 
796  to  798.  Sir  Henry  Howorth  comments  on  the  inaccuracies 
and  discrepancy  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  but  that 
document  records  the  fact  the  Ecgberht  was  driven  out  of  this 
country  into  France  before  he  became  king,  possibly  for  the 
second  time.  That  an  Egbert,  between  A.D.  796  and  815,  and 
especially  in  809  and  oil,  was  one  of  Charlemagne's  counts 
appears  to  be  matter  of  history,  and  in  815  an  Ecgberht  re- 
appears in  England  as  conquering  the  West  Welsh  and  the  men 
of  Cornwall.  This,  however,  was  as  King  of  Wessex.  What 
Sir  Henry  contends  for,  is  that  none  of  Ecgberht's  coins  were 
struck  for  that  kingdom  until  after  his  conquest  of  Kent ; 
and  this  view  is  supported  by  the  fact  that,  as  has  been  pointed 
out  by  Messrs.  Grueber  and  Keary,  most  of  his  coins  were 
struck  by  well-known  Kentish  moneyers.  It  would  be  a  hope- 


less  task  to  attempt  to  resume  the  whole  argument  in  a  few 
sentences,  but  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  views  brought 
forward  are  worthy  of  the  most  thoughtful  consideration.  It 
would,  I  think,  clear  the  way  for  this  consideration  if  it  were  at 
once  recognized  that  there  may  have  been  two  Kings  of  Kent  of 
the  name  of  Ecgberht,  as  there  were  of  the  name  of  Eadberht. 
The  Ecgberht  of  Kent  who  signed  charters  in  A.D.  765  can 
hardly  be  the  same  person  as  the  Ecgberht  of  Wessex  who, 
after  an  interval  of  more  than  seventy  years,  signs  charters  in 
A.D.  888,  and  whose  death  is  by  some  authorities  placed  in 
A.D.  839. 

The  most  extensive  and  detailed  communication  that  we  have 
received  for  many  years  on  any  section  of  the  English  series  is 
that  by  Mr.  W.  J.  Andrew  on  the  coinage  of  Henry  I.  So 
important  has  this  paper  appeared  to  the  Council  to  be,  that  it 
has  been  determined  to  devote  the  volume  of  the  Numismatic 
Chronicle  for  1901  almost  entirely  to  its  publication ;  and  it 
will,  in  fact,  inaugurate  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  series  of  that 
periodical.  It  has  been  found  convenient  that  the  publications 
for  the  years  1900  and  1901  should  in  each  case  be  spread 
over  the  two  years,  so  that  Members  will  during  the  current 
year  receive  part  of  the  Chronicle  for  1901,  while  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Chronicle  for  1900  will  not  be  in  their  hands 
before  the  middle  of  1901.  It  would  have  been  a  misfor- 
tune if  one  portion  of  this  valuable  monograph  should  have 
appeared  in  the  last  volume  of  one  series  and  the  concluding 
portion  in  the  first  volume  of  another.  I  shall  not  at  the 
present  time  attempt  to  detain  you  with  any  analysis  of  its 

Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence  has  called  our  attention  to  the  coinage 
of  Henry  IV,  of  whose  groats  he  has  discovered  several  new 
types.  One  of  the  results  of  his  examination  of  the  coins  is 
that  he  would  transfer  some  of  the  coins  usually  assigned  to 
Henry  V  from  him  to  his  father.  He  would  also  place  the 
reduction  in  the  weight  of  the  coinage  of  Henry  IV  to  an  earlier 


date  than  his  thirteenth  year.  I  must  confess  that,  not  having 
had  the  advantage  of  hearing  the  paper,  I  do  not  know  the 
manner  in  which  the  author  reconciles  his  views  with  the  date 
of  the  Act  of  Parliament  authorizing  the  change  in  weight.  It 
is  by  no  means  improbable  that  the  puncheons  used  for  pro- 
ducing the  head  of  Richard  II  on  his  dies  remained  in  use  for 
those  of  his  successor  long  after  his  death.  Mr.  Lawrence  has 
also  supplied  us  with  a  note  on  a  new  variety  of  the  half-groat 
of  Charles  I,  and  Mr.  Hoblyn  with  one  on  a  pattern  farthing  or 
jetton  of  Mary  II. 

In  Oriental  numismatics  we  have  done  but  little,  though  a 
posthumous  paper  of  the  late  Mr.  Charles  J.  Rodgers  on  a  new 
coin  of  Aspavarma  of  Bactria,  in  continuation  of  a  paper  of  his 
in  the  Chronicle  for  1896,  has  appeared  in  our  pages. 

Mr.  J.  M.  C.  Johnston  has  also  supplied  us  with  a  list  of 
some  Mohammedan  coins  in  his  collection,  which  do  not  appear 
in  the  catalogues  either  of  the  British  Museum  or  of  the  Cabinet 
des  Medailles  at  Paris. 

Taken  altogether,  the  subjects  discussed  at  our  meetings  and 
the  articles  that  have  appeared  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle 
afford  satisfactory  evidence  that  our  Society  is  not  in  any 
degree  declining  in  its  activity. 

Among  the  publications  of  the  past  year  must  be  mentioned 
a  handbook  of  Greek  and  Roman  coins  from  the  pen  of  our 
Foreign  Secretary,  Mr.  G.  F.  Hill.  It  is  to  some  extent  con- 
structed on  a  new  plan,  and  is  intended  "chiefly  as  a  guide  to 
put  students  of  antiquity  in  the  way  of  bringing  numismatics 
to  bear  on  their  difficulties,"  and  not  as  a  means  for  the 
collector  "  to  identity  coins  which  he  happens  to  possess." 
This  statement  of  the  author  must  not,  however,  be  interpreted 
too  literally,  as  the  mere  collector,  as  well  as  the  professed 
student,  will  find  a  mine  of  useful  and  interesting  information 
within  its  pages.  In  the  first  part  of  the  book  the  origin,  the 
metals,  the  standards,  and  the  officials  of  both  the  Greek  and 
Roman  coinages  are  discussed,  as  well  as  the  relations  of  the 


coinage  to  the  State.  In  the  second  part,  fabric  and  style,  the 
meaning  and  classification  of  coin-types,  coin -inscriptions, 
and  the  dating  of  coins,  form  the  subjects  of  separate  chapters. 
Among  the  appendices,  those  of  ancient  standards,  Roman 
mint-marks,  and  the  Imperial  families  will  prove  of  great  service 
both  to  students  and  collectors.  Moreover,  the  book  is  illus- 
trated by  fifteen  autotype  plates,  and  is  provided  with  a  good 
index.  Among  the  illustrations  in  the  text,  the  picture  from 
the  House  of  the  Vettii  is  reproduced,  and  is  treated  as  repre- 
senting a  Roman  mint,  and  the  view  that  it  is  rather  a  gold  or 
silversmith's  workshop  is  dismissed  with  the  statement  that 
"jewels  are  not  made  with  sledge-hammers."  There  is,  how- 
ever, no  reason  why  gold  or  silver  plate  should  not  have  been 
drawn  out  by  hammer  and  anvil.  The  book,  as  a  whole,  is  ex- 
cellent, and  in  reading  it  the  only  doubt  that  occurs  to  the  mind 
is  whether  it  is  not  too  scholarly  and  thorough  to  meet  with 
popular  applause. 

Another  volume  that  undoubtedly  promises  to  be  deservedly 
popular  is  the  Handbook  of  the  Coins  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland  in  the  British  Museum,  written  by  our  able  Secretary, 
Mr.  Grueber.  It  does  not  pretend  to  be  an  exhaustive  treatise 
upon  the  whole  of  the  coins  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland, 
but  is  limited  to  descriptions  of  the  specimens  exhibited  in  the 
corridor  of  the  Medal  Room,  which,  however,  are  upwards  of 
1 ,300  in  number.  The  most  important  pieces  are  illustrated  in  64 
collotype  plates,  and  an  introduction  of  60  pages  gives  a  succinct 
account  of  the  successive  coinages  of  our  monarchs  from  Anglo- 
Saxon  times  onwards,  the  various  denominations  of  their 
coins,  the  places  where  they  were  minted,  their  standards  and 
types.  Altogether  it  is  a  book  which  will  prove  of  the  utmost 
service  to  collectors.  It  must  not,  however,  be  supposed  that, 
extensive  as  the  series  exhibited  is,  it  by  any  means  includes  all 
the  rarities  preserved  in  our  National  Collection.  A  certain 
number,  for  instance,  of  what  are  usually  regarded  as  pattern- 
pieces  are  included  in  the  show-cases,  while  others  equally 


important  have,  like  the  horseman -shilling  of  Edward  VI, 
been  excluded  for  want  of  space.  This  exclusion  may  per- 
haps account  for  the  third  issue  of  Edward  VI,  that  bearing 
the  ostrich-head  mint-mark,  being  limited  to  gold  coins  by  the 
author.  A  complete  list  of  mint-marks  from  Edward  IV  to 
Charles  II  is  appended,  as  also  a  list  of  the  mottoes,  etc.,  on 
the  coins  described,  together  with  translations  of  them.  With 
regard  to  a  probable  Irish  coinage  of  Edward  VI,  I  see  that 
Mr.  Grueber  is  unwilling  to  accept  my  views.  This,  however, 
is  not  a  proper  occasion  for  discussing  the  question,  and  I  can 
only  say  that,  on  re-reading  what  I  published  in  the  Chronicle 
in  1886,  I  see  no  reason  for  altering  the  opinion  I  then 

I  am,  however,  afraid  that  I  have  detained  the  meeting  too 
long  with  this  chronicle  of  our  losses  and  commentary  on  our 
achievements,  and  will  conclude  with  an  expression  of  a 
sincere  hope  that  in  future  years  our  losses  may  be  less,  while 
our  achievements  may  do  even  more  for  the  advancement  of 
numismatic  knowledge. 

A  vote  of  thanks  to  the  President  for  his  Address  was  moved 
by  Mr.  James  Cove  Jones,  the  senior  member  of  the  Society, 
and  seconded  by  Mr.  Talfourd  Ely. 

The  President  then  announced  to  the  meeting  the  result  of 
the  ballot  for  the  Council  and  the  Officers  for  the  ensuing  year, 
which  was  as  follows  : — 

SIR  JOHN  EVANS,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Sc.D., 
F.K.S.,  F.S.A.,  F.G.S. 

Vice- Presidents. 
SIR  HENRY  H.  HOWORTH,  K.C.I.E.,  M.P.,  F.B.S., 



Hon.  Treasurer. 

Hon.  Secretaries. 

EDWARD  J.  RAPSON,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  M.R.A.S. 

Foreign  Secretary. 

Hon.  Librarian. 

Members  of  the  Council. 


W.  C.  BOYD,  ESQ. 

ARTHUR  J.  EVANS,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 





A.  H.  LYELL,  ESQ.,  F.S.A. 








DECEMBEE,  1900. 




DECEMBEK,  1900. 

An  Asterisk  prefixed  to  a  name  indicates  that  the  Member  has  compounded 
for  his  annual  contribution. 


1873  *ALEX^IEFF,  M.  GEORGES  D',  Maitre  de  la  Cour  de  S.M. 
1'Empereur  de  Eussie,  40,  Sergnewskaja,  St.  Petersburg. 

1892  AMEDROZ,  HENRY  F.,  ESQ.,  7,  New  Square,  Lincoln's  Inn,  W.O. 

1882  ANDREW,  W.  J.,  ESQ.,  Cadster  House,  near  Whaley  Bridge, 

1884  ANDREWS,  E.  THORNTON,  ESQ.,  25,  Castle  Street,  Hertford. 

1888  ARNOLD,  G.  M.,  ESQ.,  D.L.,  F.S.A.,  Milton  HaU,  Gravesend, 

1900  AVEBURY,  ET.  HON.  LORD,  P.O.,  F.E.S.,  High  Elms,  Down, 


1882  BACKHOUSE,  J.  E.,  ESQ.,   The  Eookery,   Middleton  Tyas, 

E.S.O.,  Yorks. 

1881  BAGNALL-OAKELEY,  MRS.,  Tre  Cefn,  Monmouth. 
1892  BAKER,  F.  BRAYNE,  ESQ.,  The  College,  Malvern. 
1898  BAKER,  WM.  CLINTON,  ESQ.,  J.P.,  Bayfordbury,  Herts. 

1898  BANES,  ARTHUR  ALEXANDER,  ESQ.,  The  Eed  House,  Upton, 

1887  BASCOM,  G.  J.,  ESQ.,   109,  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York, 

1896  BEARMAN,  THOS.,  ESQ.,  Melbourne  House,  8,  Tudor  Eoad, 

1898  *BENSON,  FRANK  SHERMAN,  ESQ.,  214,  Columbia  Heights, 

Brooklyn,  N.Y.,  U.S.A. 

4  LIST    OF    MEMBERS, 


1880  *BIEBER,  Or.  W.  EGMONT,  ESQ.,  4,  Fenchurch  Avenue,  E.G. 

1883  BIGGE,  FRANCIS  E.,  ESQ.,  Hennapyn,  Torquay. 
1882  BIRD,  W.  S.,  ESQ.,  74,  New  Oxford  Street,  W.O. 

1885  BLACKETT,  JOHN  STEPHENS,  ESQ.,  O.E.,  Inverard,  Aberfoyle, 

1882  BLACKMORE,  H.  P.,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  Blackmore  Museum,  Salis- 

1896  BLEASBY,  GEO.  BERNARD,  ESQ.,  The  Prairie,  Lahore,  India. 

1882  *BLISS,  THOMAS,  ESQ.,  Coningsburgh,  Montpelier  Eoad, 
Ealing,  W. 

1879  BLUNDELL,  J.  H.,  ESQ.,  157,  Cheapside,  E.G. 

1896  BOULTON,  S.  B.,  ESQ.,   J.P.,   D.L.,   F.E.S.,  Copped  Hall, 

Totteridge,  Herts. 

1897  BOWCHER,  FRANK,  ESQ.,  35,  Fairfax  Eoad,  Bedford  Park,  W. 

1899  BOWLES,  HAROLD  BOLLES,  ESQ.,  Oakside,  35,  Oakfield  Eoad, 
Clifton,  Bristol. 

1892  BOYD,  WILLIAM  0.,  ESQ.,  7,  Friday  Street,  E.C. 

1899  BOYLE,  COLONEL  GERALD,  48,  Queen's  Gate  Terrace,  S.W. 

1877  BROWN,  G.  D.,  ESQ.,  77,  Mexfield  Eoad,  East  Putney,  S.W. 

1885  BROWN,  JOSEPH,  ESQ.,  C.B.,  Q.C.,  54,  Avenue  Eoad,  Eegent's 

Park,  N.W. 

1896  BRTJUN,  M.  L.  E.,  101,  Gothersgade,  Copenhagen. 

1878  BUCHAN,  J.  S.,  ESQ.,  17,  Barrack  Street,  Dundee. 

1889  BUCKLEY,  LADY,  Plas,  Dinas  Mawddwy,  Merioneth,  Wales. 

1884  BUICK,  DAVID,  ESQ.,  LL.D.,  Sandy  Bay,  Lame  Harbour, 


1881  BULL,  EEV.  HERBERT  A.,  Wellington  House,  Westgate-on- 


1897  BURN,  EICHARD,  ESQ.,  Allahabad,  India. 

1881  BURST AL,  EDWARD  K,  ESQ.,  M.Inst.O.E.,  38,   Parliament 

Street,  Westminster. 

1858  BUSH,  COLONEL  J.  TOBIN,  41,  Rue  de  1'Orangerie,  le  Havre, 

1900  BUSHELL,  STEPHEN  W.,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  C.M.G.,  Shirley,  Harold 

Eoad,  Upper  Norwood,  S.E. 

1878  *BUTTERY,  W.,  ESQ.  (address  not  known). 

1886  CALDECOTT,  J.  B.,  ESQ.,  Wallfields,  Hertford.  ; 

LIST    OF    MEMBERS.  0 


1873  CARFRAE,  EGBERT,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.Scot.,    77,   George  Street, 


1894  CARLYON-BRITTON,  CAPT.  P.  W.  P.,  D.L.,  J.P.,  F.S.A.,  14, 

Melbury  Mansions,  Kensington,  W. 

1898  CARNEGIE,   MAJOR  D.   LINDSAY,   6,  Playfair  Terrace,   St. 

Andrews,  N.B. 

1899  CAVE,  CHARLES  J.  P.,  ESQ.,  Binsted,  Cambridge. 

1886  CHURCHILL,  Wm.  S.,  ESQ.,  102,  Birch  Lane,  Manchester. 
1884  *CLARK,  JOSEPH,  ESQ.,  5,  Grosvenor  Gardens,  Muswell  Hill, 

1890  CLARKE,  CAPT.  J.  E.  PLOMER,  Welton  Place,  near  Daventry, 


1891  *CLATJSON,  ALBERT  CHARLES,  ESQ.,  12,  Park  Place  Villas, 

Maida  Hill  West,  W. 

1890  CLERK,  MAJOR-GEN.  M.  G.,  Bengal  Army,  c/o  Messrs.  H.  S. 

King  &  Co.,  45,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1886  CODRINGTON,  OLIVER,   ESQ.,  M.D.,  F.S.A.,  M.E.A.S.,  12, 
Victoria  Eoad,  Clapham  Common,  Librarian. 

1895  COOPER,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  Beckfoot,  Longsight,  Manchester. 

1877  *Copp,  ALFRED  E.,  ESQ.,  Dampiet  Lodge,  103,  Worple  Eoad, 

West  Wimbledon,  and  36,  Essex  Street,   Strand,  W.C., 
Hon.  Treasurer. 

1874  CREEKE,  MAJOR  ANTHONY  BUCK,  Westwood,  Burnley. 

1886  *CROMPTON-EOBERTS,  CHAS.  M.,  ESQ.,  16,  Belgrave  Square, 

1900  CRONIN,  ALFRED  C.,  ESQ.,  25,  Kensington  Palace  Mansions, 

Be  Vere  Gardens,  W. 

1882  CROWTHER,  EEV.  G.  F.,  M.A.,  Studland,  Court  Eoad,  Sutton, 

1899  CULL,   EEUBEN,   ESQ.,   Tarradale,   Glebe  Avenue,  Enfield, 


1875  CUMING,  H.  SYER,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.Scot.,  63,  Kennington  Park  Road, 


1884  DAMES,  M.  LONGWORTH,  ESQ.,  M.E.A.S.,  Alegria,  Enfield, 

1900  DATTARI,  SIGNOR  GIOVANNI,  Cairo,  Egypt. 

1891  DAUGLISH,  A.  W.,  ESQ.,  33,  Colville  Square,  W. 

1878  DAVIDSON,  J.  L.  STRACHAN,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Balliol  College, 


6  LIST    OF    MEMBERS. 


1884  DAVIS,  WALTER,  ESQ.,  23,  Suffolk  Street,  Birmingham. 

1898  DAVIS,  WILLIAM  JOHN,  ESQ.,  The  Lindens,  Trafalgar  Road, 
Moseley,  Birmingham. 

1888  DAWSON,  G.  J.  CROSBIE,  ESQ.,  M.Inst.C.E.,  F.G.S.,  F.S.S., 
May  Place,  Newcastle,  Staffordshire. 

1897  DAY,  EGBERT,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  M.E.I.A.,  Myrtle  Hill  House, 


1890  DEICHMANN,  HERR  CARL  THEODOR,  9,  Trankgasse,  Cologne, 


1886  *DEWICK,  REV.  E.  S.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  26,  Oxford  Square,  Hyde 
Park,  W. 

1888  DICKINSON,  REV.  F.  BINLEY,  M.A.,  Manor  House,  Ottery  St. 


1889  DIMSDALE,    JOHN,    ESQ.,    19,    Phillimore    Gardens,    Ken- 

sington, W. 
1868  DOUGLAS,    CAPTAIN    R.  J.  H.,  Junior    United    Service    Club, 

Charles  Street,  St.  James's,  S.W. 
1893  DUDMAN,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  JUN.,  RosslynHill,  Hampstead,  N.W. 

1893  ELLIOTT,  E.  A.,  ESQ.,  41,  Holland  Park,  W. 

1893  ELLIS,  LIEUT. -CoL.  H.  LESLIE,  Yeomanry  House,  Bucking- 


1895  ELY,  TALFOURD,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  13,  Well  Road,  Hamp- 
stead, N.W. 

1888  ENGEL,  M.  ARTHUR,  66,  Rue  de  1'Assomption,  Paris. 

1879  ERHARDT,  H.,  ESQ.,  9,  Bond  Court,  Walbrook,  E.G. 

1872  EVANS,  ARTHUR  J.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  V.P.S.A.,  Ashmolean  Museum, 

1849  EVANS,  SIR  JOHN,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A., 
Corr.  de  1'Inst.,  Nash  Mills,  Hemel  Hempstead,  President. 

1892  *EVANS,  LADY,  Nash  Mills,  Hemel  Hempstead. 

1861  EVANS,  SEBASTIAN,  ESQ.,  LL.D.,  15,  Waterloo  Crescent,  Dover. 

1886  FAY,  DUDLEY  B.,  ESQ.,  287,  Beacon  Street,  Boston,  Mass., 

1898  FORRER,  L.,  ESQ.,  Edelweiss,  Chislehurst,  Kent. 

1894  *FOSTER,  JOHN  ARMSTRONG,  ESQ.,  F.Z.S.,  Chestwood,  near 


1891  Fox,  H.  B.  EARLE,  ESQ.,  42,  Rue  Jouffroy,  Paris. 

1868  FRENTZEL,  RUDOLPH,  ESQ.,  96,  Upper  Osbaldeston  Road,  Stoke 
Newington,  N. 



1882  *FRESHFIELD,  EDWIN,  ESQ.,    LL.D.,    F.S.A.,   New  Bank 
Buildings,  31,  Old  Jewry,  E.G. 

1896  *FRY,  CLATJDE  BASIL,  ESQ.,  32,  Lansdowne  Road,  Netting 

Hill,  W. 

1897  GANS,  LEOPOLD,  ESQ.,  207,  Madison  Street,  Chicago,  U.S.A. 
1871  GARDNER,  PROF.  PERCY,  Litt.D.,  F.S.A.,  12,  Canterbury  Eoad, 


1889  GARSIDE,  HENRY,  ESQ.,  Burnley  Eoad,  Accrington. 
1894  GOODACRE,  H.,  ESQ.,  78,  Gloucester  Terrace,  Hyde  Park,  W. 

1885  GOSSET,  MAJOR-GEN.  MATTHEW  W.  E.,  C.B.,  Island  Bridge 

House,  Phoenix  Park,  Dublin. 

1899  GOWLAND,  WILLIAM,  ESQ.,  M.C.S.,  F.S.A.,  13,  Bussell  Eoad, 
Kensington,  W. 

1891  *GRANTLEY,  LORD,  F.S.A.,  2,  Buckingham  Palace  Gardens, 

1865  GREENWELL,  REV.  CANON  W.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  F.S.A.,  Durham. 

1894  GRISSELL,  HARTWELL  D.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  60,  High 

Street,  Oxford. 
1871  GRUBBER,  HERBERT  A.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Assistant-Keeper  of 

Coins,  British  Museum,  Hon.  Secretary. 

1899  HALL,  HENRY  PLATT,  ESQ.,  Toravon,  Werneth,  Oldham. 

1898  HANDS,  EEV.  ALFRED  W.,  21,  Lansdowne  Crescent,  Chelten- 


1864  HEAD,  BARCLAY  VINCENT,  ESQ.,  D.C.L.,  Ph.D.,  Keeper  of 
Coins,  British  Museum,  Vice-President. 

1886  *HENDERSON,  JAMES  STEWART,  ESQ.,  F.E.G.S.,  M.E.S.L., 

M.C.P.,  7,  Hampstead  Hill  Gardens,  N.W. 

1892  HEWITT,  EICHARD,  ESQ.,  28,  Westbourne  Gardens,  W. 

1900  HEWLETT,  LIONEL  M.,  ESQ.,  Parkside,  Harrow- on- the-Hill, 

1880  HEYWOOD,  NATHAN,  ESQ.,  3,  Mount  Street,  Manchester. 

1893  HILBERS,  THE  YEN.  G.  C.,  St.  Thomas's  Eectory,  Haverford- 

1898  HILL,  CHARLES  WILSON,  ESQ.,  Bendower,  Kenilworth. 

1893  HILL,    GEORGE   FRANCIS,  ESQ.,    M.A.,    British   Museum, 

Foreign  Secretary. 
1873  HOBLYN,  EICHARD  A.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  30,  Abbey  Eoad,  St. 

John's  Wood,  N.W. 

8  LIST    OF    MEMBERS. 


1898  HOCKING,  WILLIAM  JOHN,  ESQ.,  1,  Eoyal  Mint,  E. 

1895  HODGE,  EDWARD  G.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  13,  Wellington  Street, 

Strand,  W.C. 

1895  HODGE,  THOMAS,  ESQ.,  13,  Wellington  Street,  Strand,  W.C. 
1889  HODGES,  GEORGE,  ESQ.,  Thornbury,  Gloucestershire. 

1877  HODGKIN,!.,  ESQ.,  D.C.L.,  F.S.A.,  Benwelldene,  Newcastle. 

1878  HOWORTH,   SIR   HENRY    H.,    K.C.I.E.,     F.E.S.,    F.S.A., 

M.E.A.S.,   30,    Collingham    Place,  Earl's    Court,  S.W., 

1883  HUBBARD,  WALTER  E.,  ESQ.,  9,  Broomhill  Avenue,  Partick, 

1885  HUGEL,  BARON  F.  VON,  4,  Holford  Eoad,  Hampstead,  N.W. 

1897  HUTH,    EEGINALD,   ESQ.,    32,    Phillimore    Gardens,    Ken- 

sington, W. 

1892  INDERWICK,  F.  A.,  ESQ.,  Q.C.,  F.S.A.,  8,  Warwick  Square, 

1883   *IONIDES,     CONSTANTINE     ALEXANDER,     ESQ.,      23,    Second 

Avenue,  West  Brighton. 

1872  JAMES,  J.  HENRY,  ESQ.,  Kingswood,  Watford. 

1879  *JEX-BLAKE,  THE  VERY  EEV.  T.  W.,  D.D.,  F.S.A.,  Deanery, 


1880  JOHNSTON,  J.  M.  C.,  ESQ.,  The  Yews,  Grove  Park,  Camber- 

well,  S.E. 

1898  JONAS,  MAURICE,  ESQ.,  9,  Drapers'  Gardens,  E.G. 

1843  JONES,  JAMES  COVE,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Loxley,  Wellesbourne,  War- 

1873  KAY,  HENRY  CASSELS,  ESQ.,  11,  Durham  Villas,  Kensington,  W. 

1873  KEARY,  CHARLES  FRANCIS,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Savile  Club, 

Piccadilly,  W. 

1874  *KENYON,  R.  LLOYD,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Pradoe,  WestFelton,  Salop. 

1884  KING,  L.  WHITE,  ESQ.,  C.S.I.,  F.S.A.,  Deputy  Commissioner, 

Kohat,  Pan  jab,  India. 
1891  KIRKALDY,  JAMES,  ESQ.,  68,  East  India  Eoad,  E, 

K.C.M.G.,  c/o  Messrs.  Cox  &  Co.,  Charing  Cross,  S.W. 

1884  *KiTT,  THOS. W., ESQ., Snowdon, WoodbridgeEoad,  Guildford. 
1879  KRTJMBHOLZ,  E.  C.,  ESQ.,  Alcester  House,  WaHington,  Surrey. 



1883  *LAGERBERG,  M.  ADAM  MAGNUS  EMANTJEL,  Chamberlain  of 
H.M.  the  King  of  Sweden  and  Norway,  Director  of  the 
Numismatic  Department,  Museum,  Gottenburg,  and 
ESda,  Sweden. 

1864  *LAMBERT,  GEORGE,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  10,  Coventry  Street,  W. 

1888  *LAMBROS,  M.  J.  P.,  Athens,  Greece. 

1871  *LANG,  SIR  ROBERT  HAMILTON,  The  Grove,  Dedham,  Essex. 

1900  LANGTON,  H.  NEVILLE  S.,  ESQ.,  62,  Harley  Street,  W. 

1898  LAYER,  PHILIP  G.,  ESQ.,  M.E.C.S.,  Head  Street,  Colchester. 

1899  LA-WES,  SIR  CHARLES  BENNET,  BART.,  The  Studio,  Chelsea 

Gardens,  S.W. 

1877  LAWRENCE,  F.  G.,ESQ.,  Birchfield,  Mulgrave  Eoad,  Sutton, 

1897  LAWRENCE,  H.  W.,  ESQ.,  37,  Belsize  Avenue,  N.W. 
1885  *LAWRENCE,  L.  A.,  ESQ.,  51,  Belsize  Park,  N.W. 

1883  *LAWRENCE,  EICHARDHOE,  ESQ.,  31,  Broad  Street,  New  York. 
1871  *LAWSON,  ALFRED  J.,  ESQ.,  Smyrna. 

1898  LEVIEN,   J.   MEWBURN,   ESQ.,    56,   York    Street,   Portman 

Square,  "W. 

1892  LEWIS,  PROF.  BuNNELL,M.A.,F.S.A.,  Queen's  College,  Cork. 
1862  LINCOLN,  FREDERICK  W.,  ESQ.,  69,  New  Oxford  Street,  W.C. 

1900  LINCOLN,  FREDERICK  W.,  ESQ.,  JTJN.,  69,  New  Oxford  Street, 


1887  Low,  LYMAN  H.,  ESQ.,  36,  West  129th  Street,  New  York, 

1893  LTTND,  H.  M.,  ESQ.,  Makotuku,  New  Zealand. 

1885  *LYELL,  A.  H.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  9,  Cranley  Gardens,  S.W. 

1895  MACDONALD,  GEO.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  The  University,  Glasgow. 
1887  MACKERELL,  C.  E.,  ESQ.,  Dunningley,  Balham  Hill,  S.W. 

1895  MARSH,  WM.  E.,  ESQ.,  Marston,  Bromley,  Kent. 

1897  MARTIN,  A.  TRICE,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Eedborough  House, 
Perceval  Eoad,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

1876  MASON,  JAS.  J.,  ESQ.,  Maryfield  Villa,  Victoria  Eoad,  Kirk- 

1896  MASSEY,  COL.  W.  J.,  96,  Oakley  Street,  Chelsea,  S.W. 
1880  *MATJDE,  EEV.  S.,  The  Vicarage,  Hockley,  Essex. 



1868  MCLACHIAN,  R.  W.,  ESQ.,  55,  St.  Monique  Street,  Montreal, 

1897  MILNE,  J.  GRAFTON,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Holly  House,  Plaistow,  E. 
1887  MINTON,  TIIOS.  W.,  ESQ.,  Chase  Hidings,  Enfield. 

1887  MITCHELL,  E.  C.,  ESQ.,  c/o  Messrs.  H.  S.  King  &  Co.,  65, 


1898  MONCKTON,  HORACE  W.,  ESQ.,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S.,  3,  Harcourt 

Buildings,  Temple,  E.G. 

1888  MONTAGUE,  L.  A.  D.,  ESQ.,  Penton,  near  Crediton,  Devon. 

1879  MORRIESON,    MAJOR  H.   WALTERS,   E.A.,   E.A.   Barracks, 

Pembroke  Dock,  S.  Wales. 

1885  MURDOCH,  JOHN  GLOAG,  ESQ.,  Huntingtower,  The  Terrace, 
Camden  Square,  N.W. 

1894  MURPHY,  WALTER  ELLIOT,  ESQ.,  93,   St.   George's  Eoad, 
Pimlico,  S.W. 

1900  *MYLNE,  KEY.  EGBERT  SCOTT,  M.A.,  B.C.L.,  F.S.A.,  Great 
Amwell,  Herts. 

1893  NAPIER,  PROF.  A.  S.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Hedington  Hill,  Oxford. 

1890  NEALE,  C.  MONTAGUE,  ESQ.,  17,  Killieser  Avenue,  Streatham 

Hill,  S.W. 

1864  NECK,  J.  F.,  ESQ.,  c/o  Mr.  F.  W.   Lincoln,  69,  New  Oxford 
Street,  W.C. 

1892  NEIL,  E.  ALEXANDER,  ESQ.,  M.A..  Pembroke  College,  Cam- 

1898  NELSON,   PHILIP,  ESQ.,   M.B.,    Ch.B.,   73,  Eodney  Street, 

1880  NELSON,  EALPH,  ESQ.,  55,  North  Bondgate,  Bishop  Auck- 


1891  NERVEGNA,  M.  G.,  Brindisi,  Italy. 

1884  NUTTER,  MAJOR  W.,  Eough  Lee,  Accrington. 

1898  OGDEN,  W.  SHARP,  ESQ.,   Hill  View,   Danes  Eoad,   Eus- 
holme,  Manchester. 

1897  *0'HAGAN,    HENRY    OSBORNE,    ESQ.,    Al4,    The    Albany, 
Piccadilly,  W. 

1885  OLIVER,    E.    EMMERSON,     ESQ.,   M.E.A.S.,    M.Inst.C.E., 

229,  Cromwell  Eoad,  S.W. 



1882  OMAN,  C.  W.  0.,  ESQ.,   M.A.,  F.S.A.,  All  Souls  College, 

1890  PAGE,  SAMUEL,  ESQ.,  Hanway  House,  Nottingham. 
1890  PATON,  W.  E.,  ESQ.,  Calymna,  Turkey  in  Asia. 
1882  *PECKOVER,  ALEX.,   ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  F.L.S.,  F.R.G.S.,  Bank 
House,  Wisbech. 

1898  PEDLER,  G.  H.,  ESQ.,  L.E.C.P.,  6,  Trevor  Terrace,  S.W. 

1896  PEERS,  0.  R.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,107,  Grosvenor  Road,  S.W. 

1894  PERRY,  HENRY,  ESQ.,  Middleton  Mount,  Reigate. 
1862  *PERRY,  MARTEN,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  Spalding,  Lincolnshire. 

1888  PINCHES,  JOHN  HARVEY,  ESQ.,  27,  Oxenden  Street,  Hay- 


1889  POWELL-COTTON,   PERCY  H.   GORDON,  ESQ.,   Quex  Park, 

Birchington,  Thanet. 

1887  PREVOST,  AUGUSTUS,  ESQ.,  B.A.,  F.S.A.,   79,  Westbourne 
Terrace,  W. 

1897  PRICE,  F.  G.  HILTON,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  F.G.S.,  17,  Collingham 

Gardens,  S.W. 

1878  PRIDEAUX,    COL.  W.     F.,    C.S.I.,    F.R.G.S.,    M.R.A.S., 
1,  West  Cliff  Terrace,  Ramsgate. 

1899  PRITCHARD,  JOHN  E.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Guys  Cliff,  Sydenham 

Road,  Bristol. 

1887  RANSOM,  W.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  F.L.S.,  Fairfield,  Hitchin,  Herts. 

1893  RAPHAEL,  OSCAR  C.,  ESQ.,  Victoria  Foundry,  Savile  Town, 

1890  RAPSON,  E.  J.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  British  Museum,  W.C.,  Hon. 


1848  RASHLEIGH,    JONATHAN,    ESQ.,    Menabilly,   Par    Station, 

1887  READY,  W.  TALBOT,  ESQ.,  55,  Rathbone  Place,  W. 

1882  RICHARDSON,  A.  B.,  ESQ.,  F.S. A.Scot.,  4,  Malvern  Place, 

1895  RIDGEWAY,  PROFESSOR  W.,  M.A.,  Fen  Ditton,  Cambridge. 

1876  *ROBERTSON,  J.  D.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  21,  Park  Road,  Richmond 
Hill,  Surrey. 

1889  ROME,  WILLIAM,  ESQ.,  C.C.,  F.S.A.,  F.L.S.,  Oxford  Lodge, 
Wimbledon  Common. 

12  LIST    OF    MEMBERS. 


1900  BOSKELL,  EGBERT  N.,  ESQ.,  2,  Warwick  Gardens,  Ken- 
sington, W. 

1862  ROSTRON,  SIMPSON,  ESQ.,  1,  Hare  Court,  Temple,  E.G. 

1896  *KOTH,  BERNARD,  ESQ.,  J.P.,  Wayside,  Preston  Park, 

1872  *SALAS,  MIGUEL  T.,  ESQ.,  247,  "Florida  Street,  Buenos  Ayres, 
1877  *SANDEMAN,  LIEUT.- COL.  JOHN  GLAS,  F.S.A.,  24,  Cambridge 
Square,  Hyde  Park,  W. 

1875  SCHINDLER,  GENERAL  A.  H.,  c/o  Messrs.  W.  Dawson  and 
Son,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery  Lane,  W.C. 

1895  SELBY,  HENRY  JOHN,  ESQ.,  The  Vale,  Shortlands,  Kent. 
1890  SELTMAN,E.  J.,EsQ.,  Kinghoe,  Great  Berkhamsted,  Herts. 
1900  SHACKLES,  GEORGE  L.,  ESQ.,  Southfield,  Hessle,  near  Hull. 

1889  SIDEBOTHAM,  E.  J.,  ESQ.,  M.B.,Erlesdene,  Bowdon,  Cheshire. 

1896  SIMPSON,  C.  E.,  ESQ.,  Huntriss  Eow,  Scarborough. 

1893  *SiMS,  E.  F.  M.,  ESQ.,  12,  Hertford  Street,  Mayfair,  W. 

1896  SINHA,  KUMVAR  KusHAL  PAL — EAIS  OF  KOTLA,  Kotla,  Agra, 

1887  SMITH,  H.  P.,  ESQ.,  256,  West  52nd  Street,  New  York. 

1883  SMITH,  R.  HOBART,  ESQ.,  542,  West  150th  Street,  New 

1866  SMITH,  SAMUEL,  ESQ.,  JuN.,25,  Croxteth  lload,  Prince's  Park, 


1890  SMITH,  W.    BERESFORD,  ESQ.,  Kenmore,    Vanbrugh    Park 

Eoad  West,  Blackheath. 

1892  SMITH,  VINCENT  A.,  ESQ.,  Gwynfa,  Cheltenham. 

1881  SMITHS,  J.DOYLE,  ESQ.,  F.G.S.,  Ecclesdin,  Upper  Norwood. 
1890  *SPENCE,  C.  J.,  ESQ.,  South  Preston  Lodge,  North  Shields. 

1867  SPICE  R,  FREDERICK,  ESQ.,  Woodbank,  Prestwich  Park,  near 

1887  SPINK,  C.  F.,  ESQ.,  17,  Piccadilly,  W, 

1894  SPINK,  SAMUEL  M.,  ESQ.,  17,  Piccadilly,  W. 

1890  STANFORD,  CHARLES  G.  THOMAS-,  ESQ.,  3,  Ennismore 
Gardens,  S.W. 

1893  STOBART,  J.  M.,  ESQ.,  Glenelg,  18,  Eouth  Eoad,  Wandsworth 

Common,  S.W. 





1869  *STREATFEILD,  REV.  GEORGE    SIDNEY,  Christchurch  Vicarage, 

Hampstead,  N.W. 

1896  STRIDE,  ARTHUR  LEWIS,  ESQ.,  J.P.,  Bush  Hall,  Hatfield. 

1894  STROEHLIN,  M.,  P.  0.,  86,  Eoute  de  Chene,  Geneva,  Switzer- 

1864  *STUBBS,  MAJOR-GEN.  F.  W.,  E.A.,  M.E.A.S.,  2,  Clarence 
Terrace,  St.  Luke's,  Cork,  Ireland. 

1875  STUDD,  E.  FAIRFAX,  ESQ.,  Oxton,  Exeter. 

1893  STURT,  LIEUT. -CoL.  E.  N.  (address  not  known). 

1870  SUGDEN,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  Dockroyd,  near  Keighley. 

1885  SYMONDS,  HENRY,  ESQ.,  30,  Bolton  Gardens,  South  Ken- 
sington, S.W. 

1896  *TAFFS,  H.  W.,  ESQ.,  82,  Herbert  Eoad,  Plumstead,  S.E. 

1879  TALBOT,  LIEUT.-COL.   THE  HON.  MILO  GEORGE,   E.E.,  2, 

Paper  Buildings,  Temple,  E.C. 

1897  TALBOT,  W.   S.,   ESQ.,   0.   S.    Settlement    Officer,   Jhelum, 

Panjab,  India. 
1888  TATTON,  THOS.  E.,  ESQ.,  Wythenshawe,  Northenden, Cheshire. 

1892  *TAYLOR,  E,  WRIGHT,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  8,  Stone  Buildings, 
Lincoln's  Inn,  W.C. 

1887  TAYLOR,  W.  H.,  ESQ.,  The  Croft,  Wheelwright  Eoad, 
.  Erdington,  near  Birmingham. 

1887  THAIRLWALL,  T.  J.,  ESQ.,  12,  Upper  Park  Eoad,  Haverstock 

Hill,  N.W. 

1880  *THEOBALD,  W.,  ESQ.,  Budleigh  Salterton,  S.  Devon. 
1896  THOMPSON,  HERBERT,  ESQ.,  35,  Wimpole  Street,  W. 

1896  THORBURN,  HENRY  W.,  ESQ.,  Cradock  Villa,  Bishop  Auck- 

1888  THURSTON,  E.,  ESQ.,  Central  Government  Museum,  Madras. 

1895  TILLSTONE,  F.  J.,  ESQ.,  The  Librarian,  Brighton  Public 
Library,  Church  Street,  Brighton. 

1894  TRIGGS,  A.  B.,  ESQ.,  Bank  of  New  South  Wales,  Yass,  New 

South  Wales. 

1880  TRIST,  J.  W.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  F.S.I.,  3,  Great  St.  Helens,  E.C. 
1887  TROTTER,  LIEUT.-COL.  HENRY,  C.B.,  United  Service  Club. 

1874  VERITY,  JAMES,  ESQ.,  The  Headlands,  Earls  Heaton,  Dewsburj. 

14  LIST    OF    MEMBERS. 


1893  VIRTUE,  HERBERT,  ESQ.,  294,  City  Eoad,  E.G. 

1874  YIZE,  GEORGE  HENRY,  ESQ.,  Stock  Orchard  House,  526, 
Caledonian  Eoad,  N. 

1899  VLASTO,  MICHEL  P.,  ESQ.,  12,  Allier  des  Cappucines,  Mar- 
seilles, France. 

1892  VOST,  DR.  W.,  c/o  Messrs.  H.  S.  King  &  Co.,  45,  Pall  Mall, 

1875  WAKEFORD,  GEORGE,  ESQ.,  Knightrider  Street,  Maidstone. 

1883  WALKER,  E.  K,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Trin.  Coll.  Dub.,  Watergate, 
Meath  Eoad,  Bray,  Ireland. 

1897  WALTERS,   FRED.  A.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  37,  Old  Queen  Street, 
Westminster,  S.W. 

1894  WARD,    JOHN,    ESQ.,    J.P.,    F.S.A.,    Lenoxvale,    Belfast, 

1889  WARREN,  COL.  FALKLAND,  C.M.G.,  911,  Nicola  Street,  Van- 
couver, British  Columbia. 

1887  *WEBER,  EDWARD  F.,  ESQ.,  58,  Alster,  Hamburg,  Germany. 

1885  *WEBER,    FREDERIC   P.,   ESQ.,   M.D.,   F.S.A.,   19,   Harley 
Street,  W. 

1883  *WEBER,  SIR  HERMANN,  M.D.,  10,  Grosvenor  Street,  Gros- 

venor  Square,  W.,  Vice- President. 

1884  WEBSTER,   W.  J.,   ESQ.,  c/o  Messrs.  Spink,  17,  Piccadilly, 


1899  WELCH,  FRANCIS  BERTRAM,  ESQ.,  B.A.,  8,  Brandram  Eoad, 
Lee,  Blackheath,  S.E. 

1883  WHELAN,  F.  E.,  ESQ.,  6,  Bloomsbury  /Street,  W.C. 
1869  *WIGRAM,  MRS.  LEWIS  (address  not  known). 

1881  WILLIAMSON,  GEO.  C.,  ESQ.,  F.E.S.L.,  The  Mount,  Guild- 
ford,  Surrey. 

1869  WINSER,  THOMAS  B.,  ESQ.,  81,  Shooter's  Hill  Eoad,  Blackheath, 

1868  WOOD,  HUMPHREY,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Chatham. 

1860  WOKMS,  BARON  G.  DE,  F.E.G.S.,  F.S.A.,  V.P.E.S.L.,  E.G.S., 
D.L.,  J.P.,  17,  Park  Crescent,  Portland  Place,  W. 

1880  WROTH,  W.  W.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  British  Museum. 




1885  WYON,   ALLAN,    ESQ.,   F.S.A.,    F.S.A.Scot.,    2,   Langham 
Chambers,  Portland  Place,  W. 

1889  YEATES,  F.   WILLSON,   ESQ.,    7,  Leinster    Gardens,  Hyde 

•    Park,  W. 
1880  YOUNG,  ARTHUR  W.,  ESQ.,  12,  Hyde  Park  Terrace,  W. 

1898  YOUNG,   JAMES,    ESQ.,   11,   Porchester    Terrace,    Lancaster 
Gate,  W. 

1900  ZIMMERMAN,    KEY.    JEREMIAH,    M.A.,    D.D.,    109,  South 
Avenue,  Syracuse,  New  York,  U.S.A. 



1898  His  MAJESTY  THE   KING  OF    ITALY,    Palazzo   Quirmale, 

1891  BABELON,  M.  ERNEST,  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Paris. 
1862  BARTHELEMY,  M.  A.  DE,  9,  Eue  d'Anjou,  Paris. 

1898  BLANCHET,  M.  J.  A.,  164,  Boulevard  Pereira,  Paris. 
1881  DANNENBERG,  HERR  H.,  N.W.,  Lessingstrasse,  Berlin. 

1899  DROUIN,  M.  EDMOND,  11,  Eue  de  Verneuil,  Paris. 

1898  DRESSEL,  DR.  H.,  Miinz  Kabinet,  K.  Museen,  Berlin. 

1899  GABRICI,  PROP.  DR.,  Ettore,  Salita  Stella,  21,  Naples. 

1893  GNECCHI,  SIGR.  FRANCESCO,  10,  Via  Filodrammatici,  Milan. 

1886  HERBST,  HERR  C.  F.,  Director  of  the  Museum  of  Northern 
Antiquities  and  Inspector  of  the  Coin  Cabinet,  Copenhagen. 

1886  HILDEBRAND,  DR.  HANS,  Kiksantiquarien,  Stockholm. 

1873  IMHOOF-BLUMER,  DR.  F.,  Winterthur,  Switzerland. 

1893  JONGHE,  M.  le  Vicomte  B.  de,  Eue  du  Trone,  60,  Brussels. 

1878  KENNER,  DR.  F.,  K.  K.  Museum,  Vienna. 

1893  LOEBBECKE,  HERR  A.,  Cellerstrasse,  1,  Brunswick. 

1898  MADDEN,    F.    W.,   ESQ.,   Holt  Lodge,  86,   London  Eoad, 



1898  MILANI,  PROF.,  Luigi  Adriano,  Florence. 

1878  MOMMSEN,  PROFESSOR  DR.  THEODOR,  Charlottenburg,  Berlin. 

1899  PICK,  DR.  BEHRENDT,  Herzogliche  Bibliothek,  Gotha. 
1895  EEINACH,  M.  THEODORE,  263  Eue  Murillo,  Paris. 

1891  SVORONOS,  M.  J.  N.,  Conservateur  du  Cabinet  des  Medailles, 

1881  TIESENHAUSEN,  PROF.  W.,  Pont  de  la  Police,  17,  St.  Peters- 

1886  WEIL,  DR.  EUDOLF,  Konigliche  Museen,  Berlin. 




1884  AQUILLA  SMITH,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  M.K.I. A. 
1885.  EDWARD  THOMAS,  ESQ.,  F.E.S. 


1887  JOHN  EVANS,  ESQ.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  P.S.A. 

1888  DR.  F.  IMHOOF-BLUMER,  of  Winterthur. 


1890  MONSIEUR  J.  P.  Six,  of  Amsterdam. 

1891  DR.  0.  LUDWIG  MULLER,  of  Copenhagen. 


1893  MONSIEUR  W.  H.  WADDINGTON,  Senateur,  Membre  de  1'In- 

stitut,  Paris. 


1895  PROFESSOR  DR.  THEODOR  MOMMSEN,  of  Berlin. 

1896  FREDERIC  W.  MADDEN,  ESQ.,  M.E.A.S. 

1897  DR.  ALFRED  VON  SALLET,  of  Berlin. 

1898  THE  EEV.  CANON  W.  GREENWELL,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  F.S.A. 

1899  MONSIEUR  ERNEST  BABELON,  Membre  de  1'Institut,   Con- 

servateur des  Medailles,  Paris. 





IN  1899. 

(See  Plates  I,  II.) 

As  will  be  seen  from  the  table  given  below,  the  total 
number  of  Greek  coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum 
during  the  year  1899  is  485.  Most  of  these  have  been 
obtained  by  purchase  out  of  the  ordinary  Departmental 
Grant,  but  some  are  presentations  due  to  the  kindness  of 
the  Rev.  Arthur  Dixon,  Sir  John  Evans,  K.C.B.,  Mr.  G. 
F.  Hill,  Mr.  L.  A.  Lawrence,  Mr.  A.  J.  Lawson,  Mr.  E. 
J.  Seltman,  Mr.  T.  Fox  Sharp,  and  Mr.  S.  Spero.  Shortly 
after  the  death  of  Dr.  Jan  Pieter  Six,  the  distinguished 
numismatist  of  Amsterdam,  his  son,  Professor  Jan  Six, 
very  kindly  offered  to  present  to  the  British  Museum,  in 
his  own  name  and  in  that  of  Dr.  W.  Six,  some  Greek  coin 
of  importance  from  his  father's  collection,  in  remem- 
brance of  the  friendly  and  long-continued  relations  that 
had  existed  between  Dr.  Six  and  the  members  of  the 
Medal  Room  Staff.  The  coin  that  has  thus  passed  into  the 
Museum  is  the  very  rare  and  interesting  didrachm  of 
Hieropolis  (Bambyce)  in  Cyrrhestica,  with  the  reverse 
type  Atergatis  riding  on  a  lion.  It  has  already  been  well 
described  and  photographed  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  B 


(1878,  p.  104,  No.  2,  PL  VI.  2  ;   cf.  B.  M.  Cat.  Galatia, 
p.  liii.)  by  J.  P.  Six  himself.1 

GREEK  COINS  ACQUIRED  1887 — 1899. 


Gold  and 


Bronze,  &c. 





























99     • 






































Total  .     . 






1.  Obv. — Sepia  with  spreading  arms  and  tentacles  :  its  body 
is  represented  by  an  amphora,  and  its  lateral  fins 
by  the  lower  part  of  two  helmets  placed  side- 
ways. Beneath  amphora,  XX  (mark  of  value). 
The  whole  in  circular  border. 

;.— Plain. 

M.  Size  1-8. 

Wt.  349'5  grs.     [PI.  II.  2 

1  Important  Greek  acquisitions  of  the  Department  of  Coins 
and  Medals  from  the  year  1887  onwards  will  be  found  de- 
scribed by  me  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  for  1888,  p.  1  f.  ; 
1889,  p.  249  f.;  1890,  p.  311  f. ;  1891,  p.  116  f.  ;  1892, 
p.  1  f.  ;  1893,  p.  1  f. ;  1894,  p.  1  f.  ;  1895,  p.  89  f. ;  1896, 
p.  85  f. :  1897,  p.  93  f. ;  1898,  p.  97  f.  ;  1899,  p.  85  f.  In  pre- 
paring this  paper  I  have  had  the  advantage  of  consulting  the 


This  coin,  the  genuineness  of  which  is  undoubted,  was 
formerly  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  "W.  S.  W.  Vaux,  the 
numismatist,  who  found  it  many  years  ago  in  the  shop  of 
a  marine-store  dealer  at  Portsmouth.  Being  much  dis- 
coloured, it  was  supposed  by  the  dealer  to  be  an  old 
copper  medal,  and  he  sold  it  to  Mr.  Yaux  for  twopence. 

Two  similar  specimens  in  the  Strozzi  collection  are 
described  by  Garrucci  (Hon.  d*  ItaL,  p.  49,  No.  18 ;  PL 
Ixxi.,  18),2  who  is  inclined  to  attribute  them  to  the  ancient 
Pisae,  partly  because  they  were  both  procured  from  Pisa, 
and  partly  because  of  the  sepia  (revOi?)  type,  which  he 
takes  to  be  a  play  upon  Teuta,  the  name  by  which  (accord- 
ing to  one  of  several  varying  traditions)  the  town  of 
Pisae  was  originally  called.  But  these  reasons  for  the 
attribution  hardly  seem  cogent.  The  date  of  the  coin 
may  be  about  B.C.  450. 

The  type  consists  of  an  ordinary  amphora,  which  serves 
as  the  body  of  a  sepia,  and  on  each  side  is  a  projection 
which  Garrucci  takes  to  be  the  lateral  fins  of  the  sepia 
(Loligo).  Lateral  fins  are,  I  believe,  conspicuous  in 
Loligo  vulgaris,  though  much  less  prominent  in  Sepia 
officinalis,  which  latter  is  considered  by  Imhoof-Blumer 
and  Keller3  to  be  the  sepia  usually  found  on  Greek 
coins,  e.g.,  on  the  coins  of  Coresia  in  Ceos.  Doubtless 
these  projections  on  pur  coin  are  intended  to  represent 

section  on  Greek  coins  written  by  Mr.  B'arclay  Head  for  the 
Parliamentary  Report  of  the  British  Museum,  and  I  am  also 
indebted  for  several  suggestions  to  Mr.  Head  and  Mr.  G.  F. 

z  See  also  Bompois,  Rev.  Arch.,  1879,  n.s.,  vol.  xxxviii,  p.  76, 
PI.  XVII.  5;  Per.  di  num.,  vi.,  p.  65;  Head,  Hist.  Num., 
p.  13  ;  cp.  Garrucci,  op.  cit.,  p.  49,  No.  19,  with  the  mark  of 
value  X  and  Sepia-amphora  type  ivithout  lateral  projections. 

3  Tier-und  Pflanzenbilder. 


(or  caricature)  the  fins  of  the  Loligo,  but  what  they 
actually  consist  of  (as  Mr.  Cecil  Smith  has  pointed  out  to 
me)  is  two  helmets,  the  lower  parts  of  which  alone  are 
shown,  though  the  eye-slit  and  nasal  piece  are  clearly 
visible.  This  bizarre  combination  of  sepia,  amphora  and 
helmet  is  probably  without  parallel  on  autonomous  Greek 
coins,  but  is  less  surprising  in  Etruria  where,  for  instance, 
sepulchral  urns  were  often  surmounted  by  human  heads, 
and  vases  were  strangely  shaped  and  moulded  (see,  e.g.,  the 
illustrations  in  Martha's  L'Art  Etrusque,  pp.  331-336, 
p.  471). 


2.  Obv.—  [ME^jMA.  Female  head  r.  ;  hair  rolled  and 
flowing  behind  neck  (nymph  of  the  fountain 
Mesma  4)  ;  wears  earring  and  necklace  ;  in  front, 
crescent  ;  behind,  vase  reversed  ;  border. 

Rev.  —  Youthful  figure  naked  (River-god  ?)  seated  1.  on 
rock  covered  with  animal's  skin  ;  hair  long  ; 
legs  crossed.  His  1.  hand  rests  on  rock  ;  with 
his  r.  he  holds  up  a  crab  towards  which  a  dog  is 
leaping;  border. 

M.     Size  -85.     [PI.  I.  2.] 

This  beautiful  specimen,  which  is  covered  with  a  pale 
green  patina,  is  an  interesting  variety  of  the  coin  of 
Mesma,  published  by  Millingen  (Anc.  Coins  of  Greek  Cities, 
p.  21  ;  PL  II.,  I.5),  on  which  the  youth  holds  (apparently) 
a  patera,  while  the  dog  is  seated.  The  crab  here  held  by 
the  figure  seems  to  identify  him  as  a  river-god  —  either  the 
Bruttian  Metaurus,  or  the  local  river  now  called  Mesima. 

4  The  fountain  named  Medma  (Mesma)  is  mentioned  by 
Strabo,  vi.,  p.  256;  cp.  Steph.  Byz.,  M^rj,  TroAts  'IraAias  /cat 

6  See  also  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Italy,  *«  Mesma,"  No.  3;  Leake, 
Num.  Hell.,  p.  128  ;  De  Luynes,  Ckoix,  PI.  IV.  9. 


The  main  fact  in  the  little-known  history  of  Mesma  is 
its  capture,  in  B.C.  388,  by  Dionysius  the  Elder,  and  the 
bestowal  by  him  of  its  territory  upon  the  Locrians.  Mr. 
Head  (H.  N.t  p.  89)  thinks  that  the  coinage  (bronze)  of 
this  town  is  subsequent  to  B.C.  388,  and,  perhaps,  even 
later  than  B.C.  344,  the  date  when  Locri  herself  began  to 
coin  money.  The  style  of  our  reverse  type  (which  may 
be  almost  called  Praxitelean)  may  seem  best  suited  to  this 
latter  date,  but,  on  the  whole,  I  am  myself  inclined  to 
place  the  coinage  before,  rather  than  after,  B.C.  388.  For 
(i)  the  coinages  of  Bruttium  fas  is  pointed  out  in  the 
Historic*  Numorum,  p.  76)  come  to  an  end,  generally,  circ. 
B.C.  388,  the  period  of  the  ravages  of  the  Lucanians  and 
of  Dionysius ;  (ii)  the  coins  of  Mesma  differ  much  from 
the  bronze  coins  of  the  Locrians,  and  were  thus,  pre- 
sumably, struck  before  Locri  obtained  possession  of 
Mesma  ;  (iii)  the  type  of  a  naked  figure  seated  on  a  rock, 
and  holding  out  some  object  before  him,  belongs,  in  Italy, 
especially  to  the  end  of  the  fifth  and  the  early  part  of 
the  fourth  century.  Well-known  instances  occur  at 
Croton  and  Pandosia,  and  at  Tarentum,  where  the  type  of 
the  seated  Taras*or  Demos  playing  with  a  panther's  cub 
resembles  the  Mesma  reverse- type  (see  Gardner,  Types, 
PL  Y.,  3  =  Evans,  Horsemen  of  Tarentum,  PL  L,  12). 

The  only  silver  coins  that  have  been  attributed  to 
Mesma  are  "Corinthian"  staters  marked  M  E  and  M, 
and  issued 6  circ.  B.C.  344-300,  no  doubt  under  Locrian 


3.  Obv. — DA/VKVE  Dolphin  1.  within  enclosure  in  the 
shape  of  a  sickle  (taynXov) ;  on  each  side  of 
enclosure,  border  of  dots. 

6  Head,  B.  M.  Cat.,  Corinth,  p.  xlix. 


Rev. — The  type  of  the  obverse  repeated  in  incuse  to  r., 
but  without  the  inscription. 

M.     Size -95.     Wt.  87-7  grs.   [PL  I.  1.] 

This  coin  (an  Aeginetic  drachm)  was  discovered  near 
Messina  in  1895,  in  a  small  hoard  of  silver  money  of 
Zancle  and  Naxos,  probably  buried  in  493  B.C.,  at  the 
time  of  the  capture  of  Zancle  by  the  Samians  and 
Milesians.  Mr.  Arthur  Evans,  who  has  given  (Numis- 
matic Chronicle,  1896,  p.  101,  f.)  an  excellent  account 
of  this  hoard,  including  a  description  of  the  present 
specimen  (p.  101,  No.  2 ;  PL  VIII.  fig.  2),  remarks  that 
these  pieces,  with  the  reverse  type  in  incuse,  represent  an 
earlier  stage  of  the  coinage  of  Zancle  than  any  yet 
known,  and  may  be  as  early  as  the  middle  of  the  sixth 
century  B.C.,  when  various  cities  of  Magna  Gfraecia  began 
to  issue  their  characteristic  coins  with,  the  type  of  the 
obverse  repeated  in  incuse  on  the  reverse.7 


4.  Obv. — Ass  (ithyphallic)  advancing  1. ;  border  of  dots. 
Rev.— Incuse  square  divided  diagonally. 

M.     Size  -55.     Wt.  42  grs.     [PL  I.  3.] 

5.  Obv. — M     Forepart  of  ass  r.  ;  border  of  dots. 
Eev. — Incuse  square  divided  diagonally. 

M.     Size  -25.     Wt.  7'  3  grs.     [PI.  I.  4.] 

(Cp.  Weber,  Num.  Chron.,  1896,  PI.  II.  1,  incuse 

7  Another  specimen  was  sold  at  Sotheby's,  January  20th, 
1898,  lot  61. 


6.  Obv. — Head  of  young  Herakles  r.,  in  lion's  skin. 

Rev. — [M]    IN  A  .  .     Head  of  ass  r.  (whole  in  incuse 
square  ?). 

M.     Size  -25.     Wt.  4-3  grs.     [PI.  I.  5.] 

Many  new  varieties  of  the  curious  coinage  of  Mende 
have  come  to  light  within  the  last  twenty  years,  and 
several,  chiefly  the  smaller  denominations,  have  from  time 
to  time  been  published  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle,  by  Sir 
Hermann  Weber,  and  by  myself.8 

ANTIGONUS  (B.C.  306—301). 

7.  Obv. — Head  of  Athena  r.,  wearing  crested  helmet,  adorned 

with  serpent. 

Rev. — ANTIfoNfoY]     Nike,  winged,  standing  1.,  hold- 
BAZIAE[jQZ]  in    r.    acrostolium ;     in    1. 

trophy-stand  (or  orvAis  ?) ; 
wears  long  chiton  and  peplos 
wrapped  round  body :  in 
field  1.,  wreath.  (Double- 

N.     Size  -75.    Wt.  132  grs.     [PI.  I.  6.] 

On  this  very  rare  stater  9  Antigonus  adopts  the  types 
of  Alexander,  but  the  Nike  holds  an  acrostolium  instead 
of  the  usual  wreath.  Mr.  Head  suggests  that  this  varia- 
tion in  the  type  was  intended  to  commemorate  the  naval 

8  Num.  Chron.,   1890,  p.   2,   cp.  p.  11:  1892,  p.  6;  1893, 
p.  2  ;  1896,  p.  15  ;  1898.  p.   251  f.     Besides  Hist.  Num.  and 
the  Brit.  Mus.  and    Berlin    Catalogues,   see   Imhoof-Blumer, 
Monn.  Gfr.,  p.  82  f . ;  Num.   Zeit.,  1884,  243;  Annuaire  de  la 
Soc.franq.  Num.,  1884,  34  (Hirsch) ;  Z.  f.  N.,  x.,  73  (Loeb- 
becke)  ;  Num.  Chron.,  1897/p.  275  (Greenwell). 

9  A  specimen  is  in  the  Hunter  Collection    (Macdonald,  I., 
p.  336,  PL  XXIII.  14) ;  see  also  the  coin  in  Mion.,  Sup.,  iii., 
p.  244,  No.  587,  PI.  XL  1  ;  cp.  i.,  p.  576,  No.  822. 


victory  off  Salamis  (Cyprus)  in  B.C.  30G,10  when  Demetrius 
Poliorcetes,  the  son  of  Antigonus,  defeated  Ptolemy. 
After  this  engagement  Antigonus  and  Demetrius  each 
took  the  title  BacnXeue. 

In  connexion  with  the  wreath  that  appears  in  the  field 
of  the  coin,  it  should  be  remembered  that  J.  P.  Six  has 
proposed u  to  assign  to  Antigonus,  as  King  of  Babylon 
B.C.  317-311,  a  series  of  double- darics,  &c.,  bearing  a 
wreath,  an  object  which  he  regards  as  the  personal  badge 
of  Antigonus,  like  the  anchor  of  Seleucus. 



Head  of  Caracalla  r.,  laur.  ;  bearded. 

Rtv.—      KOI 


AKflNAAE     within  laurel-wreath. 





M.     Size  1-2. 

The  Pythia,  and  the  'A.\e%av%peia  (games  in  honour 
of  Alexander  the  Great),  are  commemorated  on  many 
coins  of  Caracalla  struck  at  Philippopolis  with  agon- 
istic types.  (See  the  Berlin  and  Brit.  Mus.  Cata- 


9.  Obv.— C6BAC  TOC    Head  of  Nero  r.,  laur.  ;  border 

of  dots. 

10  So  Clinton  and  Droysen,  Gesch.   der  Diadochen,  p.  133, 
note.      Kaerst    (s.v.  "Antigonos"    in  Pauly,    Real-Encyclop.) 
assigns  the  battle  to  B.C.  307. 

11  Num.  Chron,,  1898,  p.  219  f. 

GREEK    COINS    ACQUIRED    BY   THE    BRITISH    MUSEUM.          y 

Rev.—  MAP  NH[TflN]  The  Centaur  Cheiron  r.  ; 
r.  hand  outstretched  ;  1.  hand  holds  branch 
resting  on  shoulder ;  beneath,  M  ? 

M.     Size  -65.     [PL  II.  1.] 
(Purchased,  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  13  March,  1899,  lot  115.) 

The  coinage  of  Thessaly  in  Imperial  times  consists 
almost  exclusively  of  bronze  money,  with  names  of 
Strategi,  struck  by  the  Thessali  at  Larissa.12  The  rare 
coin  of  the  Magnetes  here  published  must  have  been 
struck  at  Demetrias. 


10.   Obv. — Female  head  r.  (Artemis  ?) ;  hair  tied  in  knot  be- 
hind ;  wears  earring  [and  necklace  ?]. 

Rev.— P  I  I  O  Y  .   .  .  .   N     Star  of  ten  rays. 
M.     Size  -65.     [PL  I.  7.] 

Four  letters  of  this  unpublished  coin  are  indistinct. 
One  would  expect  to  find  PI  I OY  NT  I  HIM,  but  the  sixth 
letter  looks  like  the  lower  part  of  ^,  and  the  seventh  like 
A  (?);  thus,  PHOY^AiniM.  The  coin  is  of  brass, 
partly  coated  with  a  bright  green  patina.  The  style  and 
fabric  are  suggestive  of  Thessaly,  and  the  coin  is  appar- 
ently of  Rhizus,  a  place  situated  in  Magnesia.  Rhizus  is 
mentioned  by  Strabo  (ix.,  p.  436 ;  443)  and  Stephanus 
Bvz.  :  'Pifoi;9,  7roXf9  Gecr(raX/a9.  TO  iOvucov  *PiFouv- 

if  O  ^ 

-no9.13   According  to  Strabo  it  was  one  of  eight  neigh- 
bouring 7roX/^i/at,  whose  inhabitants  were  removed  by 

12  Gardner,  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Thessaly,  p.  xxxii. 

13  See  also  Scylax,   §  65.     Plin.,  N.H.,  iv.,  9,  16,  «  Oppida 
Meliboea,  Rhizus,"  &c. 



Demetrius  Poliorcetes  [in  B.C.  290]  to  people  his  new 
foundation  called  Demetrias.  In  Strabo's  own  day,  Rhizus 
was  regarded  as  a  village  of  Demetrias. 

We  should  not  have  looked  for  a  coinage  at  Rhizus,14 
yet  it  may  in  reality  have  been  of  more  importance  than 
Strabo's  mention  implies,  and  have  enjoyed  a  period  of 
prosperity  during  the  fourth  century,  the  time  to  which 
this  coin  must  belong. 

The  earliest  coins  of  Demetrias  have  on  the  obverse  a 
head  of  Artemis.  (Hist.  Num.  p.  250.) 

It  is  desirable  to  point  out  the  resemblance  that  our 
coin  bears  in  types  and  style  to  the  coins  of  Issa,  the 
island  off  the  Illyrian  coast.  Three  specimens  are 
photographed  in  Brunsmid's  Inschriften  und  Munzen  tier 
Griech.  Stddte  Dalmatian*  (Wien,  1898),  pi.  iv.  63-65  ; 
p.  62.  I  was  at  first  inclined  to  think  that  this  might 
be  a  coin  of  the  Illyrian  town  Rhizon  in  the  variant  form 
Rhizus.15  But  the  only  civic  coins  of  Rhizon  at  present 
published  are  two  bronze  pieces  struck  circ.  B.C.  168  or 
later,  and  our 'coin  shows  no  traces  of  the  characteristic 
fabric  of  Illyrian  money.  The  attribution  to  Thessaly, 
therefore,  seems  preferable. 


11.   Obv. — Head  of  Demeter  facing,  wreathed  with  corn:  in 
field  1.,  A 

4  Mr.  G.  F.  Hill  thinks  that  we  may  recognise  a  coin  of 
Rhizus  in  the  bronze  Thessalian  piece  first  published  by  me  in 
Num.  Chron.t  1896,  p.  89  (obv.  Head  of  Zeus,  rev.  Vine-branch 
with  grapes).  He  proposes  to  read  P  [HOY]^I[H]N. 

15^  Steph.  Byz.  :  cP/£an/  iroAts  'IXXvpcas  KOL  Trora^os  o/xoW/AOS.  6 
woAfrnjs  "Pi^on/mys.  It  may  be  inferred  from  Scylax,  §§  24,  25, 
that  €P(£ovs  was  an  alternative  form  for  the  usual  'Pi£<ov 
(Miiller,  Georj.  yraec.  min.,  i.,  pp.  31,  32,  notes). 


Rev.— [EAE]  ATAN      Kerberos  1. ;  beneath,  A  ;  con- 
cave field. 

M.16    Size  -8.     [PL  I.  9  obv.] 

.  [Restruck  on  coin  of  Philip  II  of  Macedon  :  on  the 
obv.  is  visible  the  head  of  Apollo  (Ares  ?)  r. ;  on 
the  rev.,  <j>[l]AIPPoY,  horseman.] 

This  coin  is  of  the  fourth  century,  earlier  than  the  regal 
coinage  of  Epirus  (which  begins  B.C.  342),  but  not  earlier 
than  B.C.  359,  as  is  proved  by  its  being  restruck  (as  is 
also  a  specimen  in  the  Berlin  Museum)  on  a  bronze  coin 
of  Philip  of  Macedon.  Friedlaender  (Z.  f.  N.  vi.  15) 
points  out  that  the  correct  reading  is  EAE  ATAN,  not 
EAEAIfUN].  The  cross-bar  of  the  T  is  not  clear  on -our 
coin,  but  is  distinct  on  another  Elean  coin  in  the  British 
Museum,  acquired  in  1891. 

THEBES  (B.C.  480—456). 

12.  Obv. — Boeotian  shield. 

Rev. — Amphora  in  incuse  square. 

JR.     Size  -45.    Wt.  45*3  grs.     [PI.  I.  10.] 

This  denomination  (the  triobol)  is  new  to  the  Museum, 
and  is  not  mentioned  in  Head's  Coinage  of  Bceotia,  where 
(p.  23)  the  stater,  drachm,  and  obol  of  the  amphora  type 
are  described. 


13.  Obv.—AV      KMAVPKOMO  .  .  .  ANTCO  .  .      Head 

of  Commodus  r.,  laur. 

16  The  coin  is  of  brass,  and  is  covered,  like  several  other 
coins  of  Elea,  with  a  bluish-green  patina,  which  forms  a  kind 
of  glaze. 


Rev. — TJ  A         Temple  1.,  seen  from  front  and  side  ;  on  I., 
FAIWN  palm-tree;  on  r.,  olive-tree,  on  which 

owl  is  perched. 

Size  -95.     [PL  II.  3  rw.] 
(Purchased,  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  13  March,  1899,  lot  125.) 

The  trees  beside  the  temple  may  represent  a  grove 
within  which  the  building  stood,  or  may  be  sacred  trees 
like  the  palm  of  Delos  and  the  platanus  of  Gortyna.  The 
owl  (perched  on  the  olive-tree  as  on  the  Imperial  coins 
of  Athens n)  would  rather  seem  to  indicate  that  the 
temple  is  of  Athena.  But,  on  the  other  hand,  the  god- 
dess is  not  otherwise  known  to  have  been  connected  with 
Pagae,  the  divinities  of  which,  were  I  sis,  Cybele,  Diony- 
sos,  Herakles,  and  Artemis  Soteira.18  Probably  the  temple 
is  of  this  Artemis,  who  appears  to  have  been  an  impor- 
tant goddess  at  Pagae  from  the  time  of  the  Persian  Wars 
onwards.  At  Pagae  there  was  a  statue  of  Artemis  Soteira, 
modelled,  apparently,  upon  the  statue  made  by  the  sculptor 
Strongylion  for  the  neighbouring  Megara.  This  statue 
appears  upon  the  coins,  and  in  one  case  19  the  goddess  is 
represented  in  a  temple,  on  each  side  of  which  (it  is  im- 
portant to  notice)  is  a  tree,  seemingly  an  olive-tree. 


14.  Olv.— AVKMAVPAN      TUJN€INOC[C€]      Bust 
of  M.  Aurelius  r.,  laur.,  wearing  cuirass. 

lien. — AIFIGUJN      Asklepios,    wearing   himation    over 
shoulder  and  lower  limbs,  seated  r.   on  throne ; 

7  Imhoof-Blumer  and  Gardner,  Num.  Comm.  on  Pans,  PI.  Z. 
11  Imhoof-Blumer  and  Gardner,  op.  cit.,  p.  8  f. ;  p.  154. 
19  Inihoof-Blumer  and  Gardner,  op.  cit.,  PI.  A.  II. 


r.  hand  on  long  sceptre  ;  1.  hand  open,  resting  on 
1.  knee  ;  before  him,  serpent,  headr.,  coiled  round 
altar  with  conical  top  ;  in  exergue,  ACT. 

M.     Size  1-1.     [PI.  II.  4  rev.] 

15.  Obv.— [AVKJMAVPANTUJ  NeiNOC[CG]B    Bust 

of  M.  Aurelius  r.,  laur.,  wearing  cuirass. 

fieVt — A  IF!  .  .  .  Temple  r.,  seen  from  front  and  side; 
on  r.,  before  temple,  two  tall  torches;  in 
exergue,  ACT. 

M.     Size  M.     [PL  II.  5  rev.] 

16.  Obv.— AVKMAVPANTU)     NeiNOCCGB      Bust 

of  M.  Aurelius  r.,  laur.,  wearing  cuirass.  (Same 
die  as  No.  15.) 

Eev. — UJN       On  1.,    female   figure    standing   1. ; 

wears  chiton  [and  head-dress  ?]  ;  r.  hand  on 
rudder  ;  1.  hand  holds  cornucopiae  ;  on  r,  another 
female  figure,  wearing  chiton,  peplos,  and  modius, 
stands  1. ;  r.  hand  extended ;  1.  hand  holds 
cornucopiae;  in  exergue,  AC  "I". 

M.     Size  M. 

(These  coins  were  purchased  at  Sotheby's,  13  March, 
1899,  lot  125.  Each  is  partially  covered  with  a 
reddish  brown  coating,  and  the  three  specimens 
probably  come  from  the  same  "  find."  ACT 
is  the  mark  of  value  for  three  ao-trapia.20  A 
similar  indication  occurs  on  the  Imperial  coins  of 
Sparta  (Hist.  Num.,  p.  365).) 

The  reverse  of  No.  14  is  here  photographed  as  an  interest- 
ing type  in  somewhat  better  preservation  than  the  specimen 
in  Imhoof-Blumer  and  Gardner,  Num.  Comm.  on  Pamanias, 
PL  R.  IX.  On  a  companion  coin  (PL  R.  X.),  Hygieia 

20  The  AC  I  of  the  coin  of  Aegium,  figured  in  Imhoof- 
Blumer  and  Gardner,  Num.  Comm.  on  Pans.,  PI.  K.  VII.,  p. 
83,  should,  I  imagine,  be  read  ACT. 


stands  feeding  the  serpent  coiled  round  the  altar,  and 
on  a  third  coin  of  Aegium  (PL  R.  XL),  the  Asklepios 
and  the  Hygieia  are  grouped  together  with  the  snake- 
encircled  altar  between  them.  Imhoof-Blumer  and  Gardner 
have  already  pointed  out  that  with  the  aid  of  these  coins 
we  may  reproduce  the  group  of  Asklepios  and  Hygieia 
made  for  Aegium  by  Damophon  of  Messene  (Paus.  vii. 
23,  7).21 

Near  the  temple  and  temenos  of  Asklepios  there  stood 
(according  to  the  description  of  Pausanias,  vii.  23,  5)  an 
ancient  temple  of  Eileithyia,  containing  a  statue  of  the 
goddess  by  the  same  Damophon.  This  goddess  is  repre- 
sented on  the  coins  of  Aegium  (Num.  Comm.  Paus.  p.  83/.) 
holding  a  torch  in  each  hand,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  it  is  her  temple  that  is  represented  on  our  coin  No. 
15.  The  torches  standing  (like  two  gigantic  maypoles) 
before  the  temple  were  probably  erected  on  the  occasion 
of  some  festival.  They  recall  the  large  torches  seen  on 
the  Imperial  coins  of  Megara,22  Byzantium,23  Pergamum 
and  Cyzicus.24 

No.  16  is  similar  to  a  coin  published  by  Kenner 
(St.  Florian,  p.  59 ;  pi.  ii.  8),25  who  calls  the  figures 
Isis  (on  1.)  and  Sarapis  (on  r.).  But  the  figure  on  the 
right  is  certainly  female,  as  the  dress  on  our  specimen 

51  On  Damophon,  see  A.  S.  Murray,  ii.,  246  ;  E.  Gardner, 
p.  400  f.  ;  Collignon,  ii.,  626  f.  He  is  usually  assigned  to  the 
fourth  century  B.C.  ;  Collignon  thinks  that  he  worked  in  the 
first  half  of  the  second  century  B.C. 

;2  Num.  Comm.  Paus.,  PI.  A.  XII.,  XIII. 

13  Svoronos  in  Ephemeris  Arch.,  1889,  pp.  84-87. 

4  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.  Mysia,  Index  ii.,  s.v.  Torches. 

5  Kenner's  description  is  repeated  in  Num.  Comm.  Paus., 
p.  88. 



17.  Obv,—  I/iniASATHA.  Head  of  Artemis  of  Aptera  1., 
wearing  earring  (necklace  ?)  and  stephane  ;  hair 

\£O]'X  [IO]IAOTT  Warrior  (Apteros  or 
Pteras)  standing  1.,  wearing  helmet,  (sword  ?)  and 
cuirass  ;  in  1.  hand  spear  and  shield  ornamented 
(with  star  ?)  ;  r.  hand  raised  to  salute  tree  before 
him  ;  circular  incuse. 

M.     Size  1.     Wt.  171  grs.     [PL  I.  8.] 

This  specimen  was  acquired  in  Crete,  and  formed  lot  126 
in  the  sale  at  Sotheby's  on  January  20th,  1898.  The 
obverse  is  from  the  same  die  as  a  coin  in  the  British 
Museum,  published  Num.  Chron.  1891,  p.  128,  No.  17.26 

The  model  for  the  head  of  Artemis  on  the  didrachms  of 
Aptera  was  evidently  furnished  by  the  skilful  engraver 
Pythodorus,  who  signs  the  coin  in  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.  Crete, 
PI.  II,  3.  This  was  copied  and  somewhat  simplified  by 
less  competent  workmen  (Ib.  PI.  II.  4,  5),  the  present  coin 
being  one  of  the  best  of  the  copies.  The  mouth  and  chin 
have  suffered  a  little  through  double  striking. 


18.  Obv.—  [PYOOAjnPOY      Head  of  Artemis  Diktynna 
1.,  wearing  earring  and  necklace. 

Rev.  —  Bull's  head  facing,  bound  with  fillet. 

M.     Size  -65.     Wt.  33  grs.     [PI.  I.  11.] 

This  specimen  is  restruck  on  a  coin  of  Argos  of  the 
period,  B.C.  350-228  (Gardner,  B.  M.  Cat.  Peloponnesus,  p. 

6  The  coin  is  poorly  preserved  :  the  reading  on  the  obv.  can 
now  be  corrected  by  our  new  coin  to 


140/).  On  the  obverse  the  forepart  of  the  wolf  1.  is  clearly 
seen,  and  on  the  reverse  are  remains  of  the  large  A  with 
letters  above  it  and  the  incuse  square.  Polyrhenian  coins 
of  this  type  are  nearly  always  restruck,  generally  on  money 
of  Argos  (see  Svoronos,  Crete,  pp.  278,  279).  As  is  well 
known,  the  slovenly  practice  of  stamping  Cretan  types  on 
the  coins  of  other  countries  (Gyrene,  Argolis,  &c.)  prevailed 
everywhere  in  the  island,  even  when  (as  here)  the  dies 
had  been  prepared  by  a  capable  engraver  (Pythodorus).27 


19.  Obv.— Lyre. 

Rev. — I  AHA  between  the  spokes  of  a  wheel. 

M.     Size  -35.     Wt.  5  grs.     [PI.  I.  12.] 

A  specimen  of  this  scarce  coin  was  in  the  collection  of 
Mr.  H.  P.  Borrell,  who  described  it  (without  an  illustra- 
tion) in  the  Num.  Chron.  V.  p.  175.  The  date  may 
possibly  be  earlier  than  circ.  B.C.  480,  though  certainly 
later  than  the  coins  with  obv.  A  and  lyre  (rev.  incuse 
square)  attributed  by  Sir  Hermann  Weber  to  Delos.28  The 
wheel  is  a  remarkable  type  for  Delos,  and  BorrelPs  asser- 
tion that  it  refers  to  the  worship  of  Apollo  requires  proof. 
It  might  be  worth  while  to  bring  together  and  discuss  the 
various  wheel-types  that  occur  on  coins. 


20.  Obv.— CABEINA    CEBACTH      Head  of  Sabina  r., 


"  167,"   dating   from   era  B.C.   31  =  A.D.  136). 

27  Cp.  B.  M.  Cat.,  Crete,  p.  xxiv. 

28  Num.   Chron.,   1892,  p.  201;  cp.  Six,  N.C.,  1895,  p.  179 
(owl  type). 


Sabina  as  Homonoia  (Concordia 29),  wearing  ste- 
phane,  chiton,  and  peplos,  standing  1.  ;  in  r. 
hand,  patera ;  1.  arm  rests  on  column. 

M.     Size  -8.     Wt.  38'6.     [PI.  II.  6.] 


21.  Obv. — Head  of  bearded  Priapus  r.,  wreathed  with  ivy  ; 
border  of  dots. 

Rev.— A  A  M*  A  r.  ;  in  exergue,  [A]HMHTPIoVToV 

.  KAAo  - 

Apollo  Citharoedus  standing  r. ;  in  r.,  plectrum  ;  in 
1.,  lyre;  in  field  1.,  W;  in  field  r.,  bow  and 

JR.    Size  1-1.  Wt.  245-9  grs.  30  [PI.  II.  1  obv.] 

Tetradrachms  of  this  type  (doubtless  struck  soon  after 
the  battle  of  Magnesia,  B.C.  190)  are  still  rare.  Yet  it  is 
probable  that  there  was  a  not  inconsiderable  issue,  as 
extant  specimens  give  us  the  names  of  four  different  magi- 
strates, each  with  the  patronymic.31 


22.  obv.— AVKAiAcenr  CGOVHPOCTT    Bust  of 

Sept.  Severus  r.,  laur.,  wearing  paludamentum 
and  cuirass ;  before  head,  countermark,  female 
figure  1. 

Rev.— eniAPX  AVPH  .  .  .  K[or  N  ?]OV  Bull  r. 
approaching  lighted  altar,  before  which  stands  r. 
a  draped  figure  holding  in  r.  patera  ;  in  1.  staff 
(?)  resting  on  shoulder ;  behind  altar,  tall  column, 

29  Cp.  Cohen,  Monn.  imp.  ii.,  p.  248  (Roman  coins  of  Sabina 
with  "  Concordia  "  types). 

30  Struck  on  a  somewhat  thick  flan,  too  small  for  the  die. 

31  Brit.  Mas.  Cat.,  Mysia,  "  Lampsacus,"  No.  68;  Babelon, 
Invent.  Waddington,  Nos.  884,  885. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERTES.  D 


on  which  a  bird  (eagle  ?)  is  seated  1.  ;  in  ex., 

M.     Size  1-45.     [PI,  II.  8  rev.] 

This  rare  coin  is  probably  identical  with  one  published 
in  Yaillant's  Numismata  Graeca  (=  Mion.  II.  p.  656,  No. 
180),  p.  81,  with  engraving  in  the  appendix  :  —  Reverse. 
11  ETTIAPX  <NAI  TTTTOY  in  ex.,  AAPAANIH  N  Aquila 
supra  columnam,  ad  cujus  imum  ara  ignita,  ante  quam 
sacerdos  succinctus  d.  pateram,  humero  sinistro  baculum  ; 
prope  taurus." 

The  reading  <|>IAITTTTOY  is,  I  think,  to  be  suspected. 
On  our  coin  AVPH  (occupying  the  same  position  as  Yail- 
lant's <|>IAI)  is  certain,  though  the  rest  of  the  legend  is 
doubtful.  The  type  may  perhaps  be  explained  as  a  sacri- 
fice to  Zeus  by  the  Emperor. 


23.  Olv.—  <t>AVCT€INA  [C6BAC0GAOY]32    Bust  of 
Faustina  the  younger  r.,  draped  ;  head  bare. 

Rev.  —  Kill  UN  Female  figure  standing  1.  ;  r.  hand 
extends  patera  to  serpent  coiled  round  altar  ;  in 
outstretched  1.  hand,  wreath. 

M.     Size  1-2.     [PL  II.  9.] 
(Purchased,  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  13  March,  1899,  lot  146.) 

The  bracketed  portion  of  the  legend  is  somewhat  obscure, 
but  probably  reads  as  given  above.  The  Latin  equivalent 
would  be  "  Faustina  Augusta  divi  Antonini  filia." 

The  reverse  type  is  not  the  usual  representation  of 
Hygieia  (as  seen,  e.g.,  in  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Caria,  '*  Cos," 

32  2e/3aor?7   6eov  '  Avrwveivov  Ovyaryp.      Cp.  OYP  On  coins  of 
Faustina  II  of  Alexandria  (B.  M.  Cat.,  No.  1322). 


No.  246),  but  may  be  described  as  Faustina  herself  in  the 
character  of  Hygieia,  or  rather  of  Salus.  The  Roman 
money  of  Faustina  of  the  "  Salus  "  type  shows  the  ser- 
pent coiled  round  an  altar  as  here  (Cohen,  Med.  imp., 
Faustina  II,  No.  195  f.). 


24.  Obv.— AYTKAICA[q?]  AMTflMI  HOC    Head  of 
M.  Aurelius  r.,  laur. 

Rev. — MATYA6  fl  M  Athena,  wearing  helmet  and 
chiton,  standing  to  front,  looking  1. ;  in  r.,  Nike 
with  wreath;  in  1.,  spear  supporting  shield; 
before  her,  serpent ;  in  field,  1.,  K. 

M.  Size  -75. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  giving  a  list  (rather  fuller 
than  any  yet  published)  of  the  numerals  that  appear  on 
the  coins  of  Magydus.33  Specimens  from  Domitian  to 
Gallienus  are  marked  with  numerals  that  form  a  pro- 
gressive series  through  the  period  in  which  they  occur. 
The  peculiarity  (as  Waddington  has  pointed  out)  is  that 
these  numerals  do  not  indicate  regular  intervals  :  they  are 
not  regnal  years,  nor  do  they  belong  to  any  regular  era. 
Waddington  suggests  that  the  coins  were  struck  on  the 
occasion  of  public  games  which  took  place  at  varying 
intervals.  Another  alternative  would  be  to  suppose  that 
the  numbers  represent  successive  issues  of  the  coinage,  but 
it  seems  unlikely  that  different  coinages  would  be  indi- 
cated by  a  running  number  covering  such  a  long  period  as 
that  from  Domitian  to  Gallienus.  It  may  be  noted  that  a 

33  For  previous  lists  see  Waddington,  Voy*  en  As.  Min., 
p.  91 ;  Imhoof-Blumer,  Griech.  Munzen,  p.  680 ;  Hill,  B.  M. 
Cat.,  Lycia,  &c.,  p.  Ixxvii. 



frequent  though,  not  invariable  type  on  the  numbered  coins 
is  Athena  Nikephoros. 

Numerals  on  Coins  of  Magydus. 

Antoninus  Pius 
M.  Aurelius 
L.  Verus 

Sept.  Severus 
J.  Domna 
Caracalla,  Geta 
Sev.  Alexander 
Maximinus  I 
Gordian  I— III 
Philip,  jun. 
Trajan  Decius 
Treb.  Gallus 
Valerian  I 

IB  (W.)34 

I A  (B.M.);  16  (W.)35 

IH  (W.)       . 

10  (B.M.) 


K  (W.) 

K  (Loebbecke,  Z.  f.  N.,  xii. 

326) ;  KA  (B.M.)37 
KA  (W.) 

KB  (Imhoof,  op.  cit.) 
KB  (B.M.) 

KA  (W.) ;  KS  (W.) 

K0  (B.M.) 
AA  (W.) 

A€  (W.);  AZ  (W.) 

AH  (W.) 
AH  (W.) 

A0  (B.M.) ;  MA  (B.M.) 
A0  (W.) 

Without  attempting  a  minute  analysis  of  this  list,  I  may 
point  out  that  the  coins  with  K  must  have  been  struck  at 

34  "W  =  Waddington  Collection,  see  Babelon's  Inventaire, 
p.  181  f.  B.M.  =  Brit.  Mus.  On  the  coin  of  Domitian  in  the 
Brit.  Mus.,  H  has  been  doubtfully  read  (Hill,  Cat.,  Lycia,  p.  115, 
No.  1),  but  this  numeral  is  very  obscure,  and  is  one  that  is 
unlikely  to  occur  under  Domitian.  Probably  it  is  IB- 

16  Hill,  op.  cit.,  p.  Ixxvii.,  gives  also  IB  ? 

36  Leake,  Num.  Hell.,  Sup.,  p.  68,  gives  a  coin  of  Aurelius 
with  KZ.     There  is  probably  some  mistake  in  the  description. 

37  Brit.    Mus.,   acquired    in   1898.        On  obv.,  AVTKAIA- 
OC.     Head  of  young  Commodus  r. 


some  time  in  the  period  12th  October,  166 — January  169. 
For  K  occurs  on  the  coins  of  M.  Aurelius,  L.  Yerus,  and 
Commodus,  and  cannot  be  later  than  January,  169,  the  date 
of  the  death  of  Yerus,  nor  can  it  be  earlier  than  October, 
166,  when  Commodus  became  Caesar.  KA  occurs  both  on 
coins  of  Commodus  and  Crispina.  It  cannot  be  earlier 
than  A.D.  178,  the  date  of  Crispina's  marriage,  nor  later 
than  182,  the  date  of  her  banishment.38 

The  numbers  KA,  K9  (and  no  doubt  also  a  no  longer 
extant  K6),  are  remarkable  as  occurring  in  the  short  reign 
of  Macrinus,  i.e.,  between  llth  April,  217,  and  July,  218. 


of  Gordian  III  r.,  radiate,,  wearing  paludamentum 
and  cuirass. 

Rev.— FORTVNACOL      CCESANTIOC          In 

exergue,  A3I  ;  in  field,  S  R  Fortuna  of 
Antioch,  wearing  chiton,  peplos,  and  modius, 
seated  r.  on  rock ;  r.  hand  rests  on  knee  •.  1. 
holds  ears  of  corn ;  at  her  feet,  river-god 
'(Anthios)  swimming  r. 

M.  Size  1-15.     [PI.  II.  11.  rev.] 

The  "  Fortuna  "  or  "  Genius  "  of  Antioch  is  represented 
on  other  coins  of  the  city  as  a  standing  female  figure 
holding  branch  and  cornucopise,39  or  as  sacrificing  in  a 
temple.40  In  this  case  the  representation  resembles  the 
famous  group  by  Eutychides  of  the  Tyche  of  the  Syrian 
Antioch  and  the  Orontes.41 

38  For  these  dates  see  Klebs,  Prosopographia,  Pt.  i.,  p.  242. 

39  Hill,  Cat.  Lycia,  pp.  180,  181,  PI.  XXXI.  7. 

40  Babelon,  Invent.  Waddington,  No.  3,605,  PL  VIII.  2. 

41  Wroth,  Cat.  Galatia,  p.  Ixi. 


The  reverse  legend  appears  to  be  blundered.  COL  C 
perhaps  =  COLO(niae).  CES  =  CAESABIAE.42  AN- 
TIOC  with  the  letters  in  the  exergue  may  be  intended 


26.  Obv.—  AV  KAI[CAP?]  ANTnNGIN[OC?]     Head 
of  Antoninus  Pius  r.,  laur. 

jfeVm  —  KO  ABA  CGflN  Men,  wearing  short  chiton, 
Phrygian  cap,  and  crescent  at  shoulder,  standing 
1.  ;  in  outstretched  r.,  patera  ;  1.  hand  on  long 

M.  Size  -7.     [PL  II.  12  rev.] 

The  coins  of  Colbassa  43  are  rare,  and  the  present 
specimen  is  unpublished.  The  following  (all  -ZE)  are  now 
known  :  — 

Antoninus  Pius. 

Eev.-~  KOABACGHN  Apollo  standing.  Paris. 
(Invent,  W  aldington,  No.  3,671.) 

^t,._KOABAC€jQN  Men.  Brit.  Mus.  (See  No. 
26,  supra.) 

Sept.  Severus. 

Rev.  —  KOABACGHN  Dionysos  standing.  Berlin. 
(Dressel,  Z.f.  N.,  xxi.,  p.  223.) 

Severus  Alexander. 

Rev.—  KOABACC6HN  "Ares  debout."  Paris. 
(Invent.  Waddington,  No.  3,672.)44 

42  Cp.  Babelon,  op.  cit.,  No.  3,606. 

43  Ramsay,  Cities  and  Bishoprics,  i.,  327;   Hill,  Cat.  Lycia, 
p.  cxi. 

44  Cp.  Huber's  specimen  in  Berl.  Blatter,  ii.,  184  ;  sold  at 
Huber  Sale,  London,   Sotheby's,  1862,  lot  667,  fig.  667,  and 
purchased  by  Curt,  the  coin-dealer,  for  £8  10s. 


J.  Mamaea. 

^.— KOABACCeilN  Star  in  crescent.  Paris. 
(Babelon,  Eev.  Num.,  1893,  p.  339.) 

On  the  earlier  coins  the  spelling  with  one  C  seems  to 
be  the  rule,  as  in  the  Ko\/3ao-ci  of  Hierocles.  The  star  and 
crescent  may  be  explained  as  referring  to  Men. 


27.  Qbv.— AVK  .  TT.  Al  .  TAAIHNOE  (sic}.      Bust  of 

Gallienus  r.,  laur.,  wearing  paludamentum  and 

Rev. — TTfir  A€.QN  Distyle  arched  shrine,  contain- 
ing simulacrum  of  the  Pergaean  Artemis. 

M.  Size  -85. 

The  latest  coin  of  Pogla  previously  known  was  of 
Trebonianus  Gallus  (Hill,  Cat.  Lycia,  &c.,  p.  xcviii.). 


28.  Obv.— 4>OVA  .  TTAA    VTIA  .  C6B      Bust  of  Plau- 

tilla  r. 

Eev.— KAAVAIOC  GACVKGIIN  Hygieia,  wearing 
chiton  and  peplos,  standing  r. ;  r.  hand  holds 
serpent,  which  she  feeds  from  vase  held  in  her 
1.  hand.  (Cp.  Mion.,  Sup.,  vii.,  p.  129,  No.  185, 
from  Vaillant.) 

M.  Size  -8.     [PI.  II.  10.] 


29.  Obv.— AVKMAV   ANTniSIINO    C       Bust  of  Cara- 

calla  r.,  laur. 

Eev. — OV6PBI  ANUN  Young  Dionysos,  wearing 
chlamys  and  boots,  standing  1.  ;  in  r.,  kantharos; 
1.  supports  thyrsos ;  before  him,  panther. 

M.  Size  1.     [PI.  II.  13  rev.] 


30.  Obv.— AVKMANT  TOPAIANOC       Bust  of  Gor- 

dian  III  r.,  laur.,  wearing  paludamentum  and 

Eev.—OVCPB\  AN.QN  Tyche,  wearing  chiton, 
peplos  and  modius,  standing  1. ;  in  r.,  rudder  ; 
in  1.,  cornucopiae. 

M.  Size  -95. 

The  coinage  of  Verbe,45  which  some  years  ago  was 
almost  unknown,  is  now  proving  to  be  somewhat  exten- 
sive. Caracalla  and  Gfordian  III  are  unpublished  em- 
perors. Dionysos  occurs  on  coins  of  Commodus45  and 
Philip  jun.  (Brit.  Mus.  Cat.),  and  Tyche  on  a  coin  of 

B.C.  130-125  (Second  Reign). 

31.  Qbv, — Head  of  Demetrius  II,  r.,  bearded ;  wears  diadem  ; 

bead  and  reel  border. 

fe;.— BAZIAE.QZ  The  so-called  "monument  of 

AHMHTPloY  Sardanapalus  "  ;    in  field  1., 

OEoY  A!  ,  Pi 

M.  Size  1-2.     Wt.  257  grs.     [PL  I.  13.] 

This  very  rare  tetradrachm  is  similar  to  the  specimen 
in  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Seleucid  Kings,  p.  78,  No.  22,  PL  xxi., 
6,  but  is  in  much  finer  preservation.  The  reverse  type 
has  been  discussed  by  Imhoof-Blumer,  Journ.  Hellenic 
Studies,  xviii.  (1898),  p.  169  f.,  and  by  Hill,  Brit.  Mus. 
Cat.,  Cilicia,  p.  Ixxxv.  f.  (Cp.  Babelon,  Rois  de  Syrie,  p. 
clvi.  f.) 

45  See  Hill,  B.M.  Cat.  Lycia,  &c.,  p.  xcvii.  Cp.  N.C.  1863, 
p.  104. 

16  Babelon,  Rev.  Num.,  1893,  p.  342;  Inventaire  Waddington, 
No.  4,035. 


B.C.  125-121. 

32.  Obv. — Heads,  r.,  jugate,  of  Cleopatra,  wearing   diadem, 

stephane,  and  veil,  and  of  Antiochus  VIII,  wear- 
ing diadem  ;  bead  and  reel  border. 

Zfc?;.— [BA]ZIAIZZH[Z]      "Monument    of  Sardana- 
[K1AEOTTATPAZ  palus";  infield,  1.,  Pfl; 

KAI  in  exergue,  ^^ 


M.  Size  1-1.     Wt.  256-6  grs.     [PI.  I.  14.] 

The  usual  reverse  type  of  Cleopatra  and  Antiochus  is 
an  eagle,  or  the  seated  Zeus. 


33.  O^.-TIBEPIOECEBACTOEKAICAP        Head  of 

Tiberius  r.,  bare  ;  in  front,  branch  of  laurel. 

^.-Eni4>l[AinnOYTE]TP         APXOYKTIC 

Tetrastyle  temple  r.,   between  the    columns    of 
which  L  A  A  =  year  34  =  A.D.  30-31. 

M.  Size -8.    .[PI.  II.  14.] 

A  comparison  of  this  specimen  with  the  coins  of  Herod 
Philip  II  described  in  Madden*  s  Coins  of  the  Jews,  p. 
123  f.,  will  show  that  it  is  new  in  several  respects.  The 
date  "  34  "  fills  part  of  the  gap  between  "  33  "  and  "  37," 
the  years  hitherto  known.  The  usual  inscription  is  <!>!  A I  fl- 
TETPAPXOY,  without  the  addition  of  EH  I. 
is  also  a  new  epithet,  referring  to  the  founda- 
tion or  refoundation  of  a  city  in  Philip's  tetrarchy,  pos- 
sibly Julias  (Beth-saida),  but  more  probably  Caesar ea 
Philippi  (the  older  Caesarea  Panias).47 

47  Cp.  B.  M.  Cat.  Galatia,  p.  Ixxx. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  E 



34.  Olv. — Head  of  Alexander  the  Great  r.,  with  horn  of 
Ammon,  elephant's  skin  and  aegis ;  border  of 

Rev. — PToAEMAloY  Athena  Alkis  r. ;  in  front,  eagle 
r.  on  thunderbolt ;  behind,  caduceus ;  border  of 

M.  (thick  fabric).     Size  1.     Wt.  242'5  grs. 
[PI.  I.  15.] 

This  coin  was  lot  821  in  the  Hoffmann  Sale,  Paris, 
1898.  It  is  remarkable  for  reading  PToAEMAloY 
instead  of  AAEZANAPoY,  usual  on  the  money  of 
these  types,  and  must  have  been  issued  between  B.C.  311, 
the  date  of  the  death  of  Alexander  IV.,  and  B.C.  305, 
when  Ptolemy  assumed  the  regal  title. 




(See  Plate  III.) 

THE  find  of  Roman  gold  and  silver  coins  and  gold  rings, 
of  which  an  account  is  here  given,  was  made  in  October 
of  last  year  at  Sully,  near  Cardiff.  The  following  par- 
ticulars respecting  the  discovery  of  the  find  were  com- 
municated by  H.M.  Treasury,  when  its  contents  were 
forwarded  to  the  British  Museum  as  treasure-trove  for 
examination ;  and  further  information  was  supplied  to 
the  Western  Mail  by  Mr.  John  Storrie,  of  Cardiff,  into 
whose  hands  the  greater  portion  of  the  hoard  passed 
shortly  after  its  being  unearthed. 

From  information  supplied  to  H.M.  Treasury  by  the 
Coroner  of  the  district,  it  appears  that  on  the  17th  Octo- 
ber last,  whilst  a  labourer,  named  Jezer  Long,  was  digging 
foundations  for  the  Armstrong  Pioneer  Syndicate  Com- 
pany on  the  Sully  Moors,  near  Cardiff,  he  turned  up  an 
old  metal  vessel,  which  he  found  to  contain  many  Roman 
coins  and  jewellery.  The  vessel,  which  was  4^  inches 
in  height,  broke  under  his  spade.  Long  was  working 
with  a  mate,  and  at  the  time  there  were  two  other  men 
watching  them.  As  soon  as  he  struck  the  find,  Long 
fell  bodily  upon  it  and  at  once  began  to  fill  his  pockets. 
He  took  all  the  gold  articles,  he  believed ;  but  one  of  the 


onlookers,  a  bricklayer,  also  in  the  service  of  the  Com- 
pany, got  possession  of  a  gold  ring.  This  man  is  now 
employed  by  the  Company  in  Paris.  Subsequently  Long 
got  into  communication  with  Mr.  John  Storrie,  of  104, 
Frederick  Street,  Cardiff,  the  local  antiquary,  who  gave 
him  £18  18s.  for  his  treasure-trove.  About  20  or  30 
feet  from  the  place  where  the  treasure  was  found  a  human 
skull  was  unearthed.  A  portion  of  the  hoard,  consisting 
of  a  gold  ring,  a  gold  coin,  and  21  other  coins  in  silver, 
came  into  the  possession  of  the  steward  of  the  Lord  of 
the  Manor,  who  claimed  them  for  his  master.  On  the 
coroner  deciding  that  these  objects  were  also  treasure- 
trove,  they  were  given  up,  and  forwarded,  with  the  other 
portion  of  the  find,  to  H.M.  Treasury,  and  from  thence 
they  came  to  the  British  Museum. 

A  few  days  after  Mr.  Storrie  got  possession  of  his 
portion  of  the  hoard  he  sent  a  communication  to  the 
Western  Mail  under  date  26  October,  1899,  of  which 
the  following  are  the  chief  points.  After  giving  a  de- 
scription of  the  district  in  which  the  coins  and  rings 
were  found,  he  says,  "  A  faint  rumour  got  my  length 
that  old  coins  had  been  found  somewhere.  I  spent  the 
day  in  endeavouring  to  trace  the  origin  of  the  rumour, 
and  had  given  up  the  attempt,  as  I  have  had  to  do  in 
many  other  instances,  when  a  visitor  entered  my  office. 
Instantly,  before  he  had  spoken,  although  I  had  never 
seen  him  or  he  me,  I  knew  he  knew  what  he  knew,  as 
the  saying  is  ;  so  it  is  needless  to  describe  the  bargain- 
ing between  two  men,  who  want  each  to  get  some  advan- 
tage over  the  other.  The  share  of  three  of  the  men  out 
of  the  four  who  had  found  the  coins  and  rings  came  into 
my  possession,  the  fourth  man  having  taken  himself  off 
to  Liverpool.  I  am  now  endeavouring  to  trace  this  por- 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS    NEAR   CARDIFF.         29 

tion  of  the  hoard  and  the  missing  man.  My  reason  for 
doing  so  is  that,  unless  immediate  action  is  taken,  when 
one  of  these  finds  occurs,  the  things  get  scattered,  and 
no  record  is  kept ;  so  that  the  lesson  they  may  teach  is 
lost.  I  have  noted  to  the  authorities  my  possession  of 
treasure-trove  in  this  case,  and  will  how  keep  it  till 
it  is  safely  placed  in  some  public  collection,  where  all 
such  finds  should  go."  Mr.  Storrie  then  gives  a  long 
description  of  the  coins  and  rings,  accompanied  by  some 
very  fair  illustrations  of  the  more  important  pieces.  The 
portion  of  the  hoard  secured  by  Mr.  Storrie  consisted  of 
280  silver  and  4  gold  Roman  coins  and  3  gold  rings. 
By  his  prompt  and  very  commendable  action  Mr.  Storrie 
has  enabled  us  to  place  on  record  one  of  the  most  in- 
teresting finds  of  Roman  coins  and  rings  which  has  been 
made  in  recent  times,  and  thus  the  object  which  he  had 
in  view  has  been  attained. 

The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  find.  It  has  not  been 
considered  necessary,  in  this  communication  to  the 
Society,  to  keep  separate  the  coins  and  rings  secured  by 
Mr.  Storrie  from  those  which  were  obtained  by  the  steward 
of  the  Lord  of  the  Manor. 


Diocletian          .        ..     Aureus 
Maximian  Herculius  .         „ 


Marcus  Aurelius  .  Denarius    .  .     1 

Septimius  Severus  .           ,,          .  .5 

Julia  Domna      .  .           ,,          .  .6 

Caracalla  .         .  .           „          .  .12 

„  Antoninianus  .     1 

Carried  forward  .  25 




Brought  forward   . 
Geta          .         .         .     Denarius    . 
Macrinus  .         .         .     Antoninianus 
Elagabalus         .         .     Denarii 

„  .         .     Antoniniani 

Julia  Paula        .         .     Denarii 
Julia  Soaemias  . 
Julia  Maesa 
Severus  Alexander 
Maximinus  I 
Julia  Mamaea    . 
Gordian  III 

Philip 'l      . 
Otacilia  Severa  . 
Philip  II    . 
Trajan  Decius     . 
Etruscilla  . 
Herenmus  Etruscus 
Trebonianus  Gallus 
Volusian    . 
Valerian  I . 
Gallienus  . 
Salonina    . 
Saloninus  . 
Valerian  II 
Postumus  . 
Carausius  . 
Uncertain  . 






















—  301 

Besides  the  above,  there  were  the  four  gold  rings,  and 
I  would  further  add  to  the  number  of  gold  coins  two 
others — the  double  aureus  of  Diocletian,  No.  1  in  the  des- 
criptions, and  the  aureus  of  Maximian  Herculius,  No.  4, 
which  have  come  under  my  notice,  and  which,  from  in- 
formation recently  received,  I  have  every  reason  to  suppose 
formed  a  portion  of  the  hoard.1 

1  In  addition  to  these,  fifteen  silver  pieces  have  also  been 
reported  as  having  been  in  the  hoard.     They  are  as  follows  : — 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS   AND    RINGS    NEAR   CARDIFF.          31 

The  list  shows  that  the  gold  coins  and  those  of  silver 
belong  to  separate  periods.  With  one  exception,  that  of 
Carausius,  the  silver  coins  range  from  A.D.  180  (the  year 
of  the  84th  tribuneship  of  Marcus  Aurelius),  to  circ.  A.D. 
267,  the  last  year  of  the  reign  of  Postumus,  supposing 
some  of  his  undated  coins  to  have  been  struck  as  late  as 
that  year.  The  gold  coins  range  from  A.D.  286  to  about 
A.D.  306,  if  we  are  right  in  supposing  that  one  of 
those  of  Maximian  may  have  been  issued  after  the  re- 
signation of  Diocletian,  in  A.D.  305.  It  is  quite  easy  to 
account  for  the  coins  of  the  two  metals  being  of  distinct 
periods.  The  original  owner  of  the  hoard,  who  concealed 
it  in  the  earth,  must  have  desired  only  to  possess  coins 
and  other  objects  of  the  finer  metals,  and  in  this  manner 
the  baser  pieces  which  were  current  after  A.D.  267  were 
excluded  from  his  treasure. 

As  the  majority  of  the  silver  coins  are  of  the  later  part 
of  the  first  half  of  the  third  century  they  are  chiefly 
antoniniani,  which,  as  is  well  known,  were  first  struck 
under  Caracalla  ;  but  of  this  Emperor  the  hoard  con- 
tained only  a  single  specimen.  These  pieces  are  distin- 
guished from  the  denarii  in  being  of  larger  size,  in 
showing  the  Emperor  wearing  a  radiate  crown,  whilst 

Severus  Alexander,  as  No.  78 ;  Gordian  III,  as  Nos.  93, 
116 ;  Valerian  I,  (i)  Rev.— ORIENS  AVGG.  Sol  running  1., 
holding  whip  (Cohen,  No.  135) ;  (ii)  SALVS  AVGG.  Salus 
feeding  serpent  and  holding  sceptre  (Cohen,  No.  196);  Gal- 
lienus,  as  Nos.  167,  170;  and  (i)  Rev.— FIDES  MILITVM. 
Eagle  standing  on  globe  between  two  standards  (Cohen,  No. 
249) ;  and  (ii)  Rev.—VIRT  .  GALLIENI  AVG.  Emperor, 
armed  with  spear  and  shield,  striding  to  r.  over  fallen  captive 
(Cohen,  No.  1206);  Salonina,  as  No.  175;  Saloninus,  as  No  180; 
Postumus,  as  Nos.  193,  195  ;  and  (i)  Rev.—  VLRTVS  EQVIT. 
Soldier  walking  r.  with  spear  and  shield;  in  exergue,  T.  (Cohen, 
No.  440). 


under  the  bust  of  the  Empress  is  a  crescent.  The  single 
coin  of  Carausius  having  a  laureate  head  shows  a  return 
to  the  denarius  class. 

Following  a  very  good  precedent,  I  now  append  a  more 
detailed  account  of  the  hoard.  With  the  exception  of 
the  denarius  of  Carausius,  the  reverse  types  only  of  the 
silver  pieces  are  given,  with  references  to  the  second 
edition  of  Cohen's  Medailles  Imperials,  any  varieties 
not  recorded  by  Cohen  being  specially  noted.  Of  the 
gold  coins,  however,  full  descriptions  of  both  obverse  and 
reverse  type  are  supplied,  together  with  the  weight  in 
grains  troy,  of  each  piece. 


Double  Aureus. 

Cohen.       No. 

1.  Obv.—IMP.    C.  G.    VAL.  DIOCLETIANVS 

P.  F.  AVG.  Bust  of  Diocletian  r., 
with  radiate  crown  and  slight  drapery 
over  his  shoulders.  Rev.— PEEPETVA 
FELICITAS  AVGG.  (in  exergue)  P.  R. 
Jupiter  standing  1.,  places  his  r.  foot  on 
the  back  of  a  kneeling  captive  :  he  holds 
in  his  r.  hand  a  thunderbolt,  resting  his 
arm  on  his  knee,  and  with  his  1.  hand  he 
leans  on  a  sceptre  :  Victory  advances 
towards  him,  and  offers  him  a  globe  with 
both  hands.  Wt.  199-2  grs.  Unpub- 
lished. [PL  HI.  1.]  .  .  .  .  —  I  . 


2.  Ol>v.—  IMP.    C.    G.   VAL.   DIOCLETIANVS 

P.  F.  AVG.  Bust  of  Diocletian  r., 
laureate,  wearing  cuirass  and  mantle  on 
1.  shoulder.  Eev.—IOVI  CONSERVAT. 
AVGG.  (in  exergue)  P.  E.  Jupiter  stand- 
ing 1.,  his  mantle  hanging  down  behind, 
holding  thunderbolt.  Wt.  81  '8  grs. 

[PL  III.  2.] 208         1 

— —         2 

Carried  forward  2 

FIND   OF    ROMAN    COINS   AND    RINGS    NEAR   CARDIFF.          33 

Brought  forward        ......        2 



Cohen.     No. 

3.  Obv.—  IMP.   0.  M.  AVE.  VAL.  MAXIMIA- 

NVS P.  F.  AVG.  Bust  of  Maximian  r., 
with  radiate  crown,  and  wearing  paluda- 
mentum  and  cuirass.  Rev. — 10  VI  CON- 
SEE  VAT.  AVGG.  Jupiter  standing  1., 
his  mantle  hanging  down  behind,  holding 
thunderbolt  and  sceptre.  Wt.  86 '5  grs. 
[PI.  III.  3.]  .  .  348  1 

4.  Similar ;  but  the  bust  less  draped,  the  paluda- 

mentum  showing  on  1.  shoulder  only,  and 
on  the  reverse  in  the  exergue  S.  M.  T. 
Wt.  80-5  grs.  [PI.  III.  4.]  ...  1 

5.  Obv.—  MAXIMIANVS  AVGVSTVS.      Head 

of  Maximian  r.,  laureate.  Rev.  P.  M. 
TE.  P.  P.P.  Armed  figure,  Maxen- 
tius(?),  standing  1.  between  four  standards, 
two  on  either  side ;  spear  in  1.  hand. 
Wt.  102-0  grs.  [PI.  III.  5.]  .  .467  1 

6.  Obv.— VIETVS  MAXIMIANI  AVG.      Bust 

of  Maximian  r.,  laureate,  wearing  cuirass, 
and  holding  one  spear  in  r.  hand  and  two 
spears  and  shield  in  1.  .Rev.— VIETVS 
AVGG. ;  (in  exergue)  P.  E.  Hercules  r. 
strangling  the  lion  ;  behind  him,  club. 
Wt.  91-0  grs.  [PI.  III.  6.]  .  .  .  591  1 

7.  Olv.— MAXIMIANVS  AVG.    Head  of  Maxi- 

mian r.,  laureate.  Rev.—  VIETVS  AVGG. ; 
(in  exergue)  TE.  Hercules  r.,  seizing 
stag  by  the  horns.  Wt.  87 '0  grs.  [PI. 
III.  7.]  .  .  •  .  .  .  .  596  1 

—       5 




8.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  XXXIIII.  IMP.  X.  COS.  III. 
P.P.  Fortuna  seated  1.,  holding  rudder 
and  cornucopise  .....  972  1 

—        1 

Carried  forward I 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  F 


Brought  forward          ......       1 



Cohen.     No. 
9.  FVNDATOE  PACIS.      Emperor  1.,   veiled, 

holding  branch  and  book         .          .          .     203         1 

10.  P.  M.   TE.  P.   II.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Jupiter 

seated  L,  holding  Victory  and  sceptre      .379          1 

11.  P.   M.  TE.     P.    XIIII.    COS.   III.    P.    P. 

Abundantia  standing  L,    holding  ears  of 

corn  and  cornucopias  ;  at  her  feet,  modius     476         1 

12.  EESTITVTOE    VEBIS.      Eoma   seated  L, 

holding  palladium,  and  sceptre         .          .606          1 

13.  VICT.    AVGG.    COS.    II.    P.  P.      Victory 

walking  L,  holding  wreath  and  palm        .     694         1 

—  5 


14.  DIANA    LVCIFEEA.     Diana   standing  1., 

holding  torch 27          1 

15.  FECVNDITAS.     Fecunditas  seated  r.,  nurs- 

ing Geta ;  Caracalla  standing  before  her  .       42         1 

16.  IVNO.     Juno  standing  L,  holding  patera  and 

sceptre ;  at  her  feet,  peacock  ...       82          1 

17.  LAETITIA.      Laetitia  standing  L,    holding 

wreath  and  rudder  ....      101          1 

18.  PIETAS     PVBLICA.      Pietas    standing  1., 

before  altar,  both  hands  raised          .          .156          1 

19.  VESTAE    SANCTAE.     Vesta    standing    1., 

holding  patera  and  sceptre       .          .          .     246          1 

—  6 


20.  DESTINAT.  IMPEEAT.    Sacrificial  instru- 

ments with  bucranium  in  centre  53         1 

21.  FELICITAS  AVGG.     Felicitas  standing  1., 

holding  caduceus  and  cornucopias     .          .61          1 

Carried  forward  .  2      12 


Cohen.      No. 
Brought  forward 2      12 

22.  INDVLGENTIA     AVGG.     IN.     CAETH. 

Carthage    seated  on  lion,    galloping   r. ; 

behind,  rock 97          1 

23.  MAETI  PEOPVGNATOEI.     Mars  walking 

1.,  holding  spear  and  trophy    .          .          .150         1 

24.  MAETI  VLTOEI.  Mars  walking  r.,  holding 

spear  and  trophy    .          .          .          .          .154         1 

25.  PAET.  MAX.  PONT.  TE.  P.  III'I.     Trophy 

and  captives .          .          .          .         .          .175          1 

26.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  XV.  COS.  III.  P.  P.     Sarapis 

standing  1.,  holding  spear        .'         .         .195         1 

27.  P.  M.   TE.  P.   XVIII.  COS.  IIII.    P.   P. 

Aesculapius  standing  towards  1.,  holding 
serpent-staff;  globe  at  his  feet         .          .302          1 

28.  PONTIF.  TE.  P.   X.    COS.  II.     Caracalla 

standing  r. ,  holding  spear  and  parazonium ; 

foot  on  helmet 440         1 

29.  SECVEITAS  PEEPETVA.     Pallas  standing 

towards  1.,  holding  shield  and  spear         .     566         2 

30.  SECVEIT.     OEBIS.       Securitas    seated  r., 

holding  sceptre ;  before  her,  altar    .          .     574         1 


31.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  XVIII.  COS.  IIII.  P.P.  Jupiter 

standing    r.,     holding    thunderbolt    and 

sceptre 278         1 

—  13 



32.  SECVEIT.  IMPEEII.    Securitas  seated  1., 

holding  globe 183         1 

—  1 

A  ntoninianus. 

33.  IOVI  CONSEEVATOEI.     Jupiter  standing 

1.,    holding    thunderbolt     and     sceptre ; 

before  him,  Emperor      ....       38         1 

—  1 

Carried  forward .  .  27 


Brought  forward  .         .         .         .         .         .27 



Cohen.     No. 

31.  ABVNDANTIA  AVG.  Abundantia  stand- 
ing I.,  emptying  her  cornucopise  ;  behind 
her,  star  .  ....  1  1 

35.  CONCOEDIA  MILIT.     Four  standards       .15         1 

36.  CONSVL.   I'.  P.  P.     Aequitas  standing  1., 

holding  scales  and  cornucopias         .         .21          1 

37.  INVICTVS  SACEEDOS  AVG.      Elagabalus 

standing  1.  before  altar,  holding  patera 
and  club ;  near  altar,  bull ;  before  Em- 
peror, star  ......  61  2 

38.  LAETITIA    PYBL.      Laetitia   standing    1., 

holding  wreath  and  rudder      ...        70          1 

39.  PAX  AYGVSTI.     Pax  walking  1.,  holding 

branch  and  sceptre          .          .          .          .120         2 

40.  P.  M.   TE.   P.  III.    COS.   III.   P.  P.     Sol 

running  1.,  holding  whip          .          .          .153          2 

41.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  IIII.    COS.   II.  P.  P.  Victory 

1.,    holding    wreath;     at  her    feet,   two 

shields  ......     194         1 

42.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  IIII.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Elaga- 

balus sacrificing  at  altar  ;     branch  in  1. 

hand;  before  him,  star  ....     196         1 

43.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  V.  COS.  IIII.  P.  P.     Similar 

type      .  213          1 

44.  PEOYID.  DEOEVM.     Providentia  standing 

1.,  holding  staff  and  cornucopise;  globe  at 

her  feet 242          1 

45.  SACEE.    DEI  SOLIS    ELAGAB.      Elaga- 

balus standing  r.   and  sacrificing  before 

an  altar          ......     246          1 

46.  SYMMVS    SACEEDOS    AYG.    Elagabalus 

holding  patera  and    branch,    standing  1. 

and  sacrificing  at  altar  ;  before  him,  star     276          1 

47.  TEMPOEYM    FEL.     Felicitas  standing  1., 

holding  patera  and  caduceus  .          .          .278          1 

Carried  forward  .  .  17      27 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS    NEAR    CARDIFF.          37 

Cohen.       No. 

Brought  forward 17     27 

48.  TEMPOEVM  FELICITAS.    Felicitas  stand- 

ing  1.,  holding  caduceus  and  cornucopiae  .     282        . 1 

49.  VICTOEIA  AVQ.   Victory  flying  1.,  holding 

fillet ;  before  her,  star ;  at  her  feet,  two 

shields '299         1 

50.  Similar ;  but  star  behind  Victory          .          .  1 


51.  FIDES  MILITVM.     Fides  Banding  facing, 

holding  two  standards  39         1 

52.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  COS.  II.  P.  P.      Eoma  seated 

1.,  holding  Victory  and  spear  .          .          .138         1 

53.  VICTOE.  ANTONINI  AVGL  Victory  walk- 

ing r.,  holding  wreath  and  palm     .          ,291          1 

—  23 


54.  CONCOEDIA.     Concordia  seated  1.,  holding 

patera;  before  her,  star          ...         6         1 

55.  VENVS     GENETEIX.      Venus   seated    1., 

holding  globe  and  sceptre        .          .          .21          1 

—  2 


56.  VENVS   CAELESTIS.     Venus  standing  1., 

holding  apple  and  sceptre;  on  r.,  star      .       10         1 

57.  VENVS    CAELESTIS.      Venus    seated    1., 

holding  apple  and  sceptre        .          .          .14         2 

—  3 


58.  PVDICITIA.     Pudicitia  seated  1.,  holding 

sceptre  .          ..        .          .  .36         1 

59.  SAECVLI  FELICITAS.    Felicitas  standing 

1.,  sacrificing  at  altar  and  holding  cadu- 
ceus ;  on  r.,  star  .          .          .        ,^      45         1 

— •         2 

Carried  forward  .......     57 


Brought  forward  .......     57 



Cohen.      No. 

60.  AEQVITAS    AVG.     Aequitas    standing   1., 

holding  scales  and  cornucopise  ..91 

61.  ANNONA     AVG.      Annona     standing    1., 

holding  ears  of  corn  and  cornucopise;  be- 
fore her,  modius     .          .          .          .  28         3 

62.  FIDES  MILITVM.     Fides  standing  1. ,  hold- 

ing two  standards  .....       *2         1 

63.  Similar,  Fides  seated  .          .          .          .51          1 

64.  IOYI  CONSEEVATOEI.     Jupiter  standing 

1.,  holding  thunderbolt  and  sceptre;  before 

him,  Emperor        .....       73         1 

65.  MAETI  PACIFEEO.  Mars  standing  1. ,  hold- 

ing branch  and  reversed  spear          .          .173          1 

66.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  COS.  P.  P.     Same  type.          .     207         1 

67.  P.  M.;TE.  P.  II.  COS.  P.  P.     Salus  seated 

1.,  feeding  serpent,  rising  from  altar         .     239         2 

68.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  II.  COS.  P.  P.     Pax  standing 

1.,  holding  branch  and  sceptre.          .          .     236         1 

69.  P.   M.    TE.  P.    III.  COS.  P.  P.     Emperor 

standing  L,  holding  globe    and   reversed 

spear 256          2 

70.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  III.  COS.  P.  P.     Pax  standing 

1.,  holding  branch  and  sceptre          .          .      254          I 

71.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  III.  COS.  P.  P.     Salus  seated 

1.,  feeding  serpent,  rising  from  altar         .     255         1 

72.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  IIII.  COS.  P.  P.     Mars  walk- 

ing r.,  holding  spear  and  trophy        .          .      260          1 

73.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  V.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Pax  stand- 

ing 1.,  holding  branch  and  sceptre     .          .     281          1 

74.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  Y.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Emperor 

standing  1.,  sacrificing  at   altar;  book  in 

1.  hand  ...  .          .     289          1 

75.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  VI.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Aequitas 

standing  1.,  holding  scales  and  cornucopias.     312          1 

Carried  forward  20     57 

FIND   OF    ROMAN   COINS   AND    RINGS   NEAR   CARDIFF.          39 

Cohea.       No. 
Brought  forward 20      57 

76.  P.  M.  TR.  P.  VIIII.  COS.  III.  P.  P.    Sol 

standing  towards  1. ,  holding  globe  .          .387         2 

77.  PROVIDENTIAAVG.  Providentia  standing 

1.,  holding  staff  over  globe  and  in  1.  hand 

sceptre          ......     512         1 

78.  VICTORIA  AVG.    Victory  walking  r.,  hold- 

ing wreath  and  palm      ....      560         1 

79.  Similar :  Victory  to  1.  .          .          .          .563         1 

80.  VIRTVS  AVQ-.     Virtus  standing  r.,  holding 

reversed  spear  and  shield         .          .          .575         2 

—  27 


81.  CONCORDIA  AVGG.     Concordia  seated  1., 

holding  patera  and  double  cornucopise     .         1         1 

—  1 


82.  IVNO   CONSERVATRIX.     Juno   standing 

1.,  holding  patera  and  sceptre  ;  at  her  feet, 

peacock          ......       35         2 

83.  VENVS  VICTRIX.    Venus  standing  1.,  hold- 

ing helmet  and  spear  ;  at  her  feet,  shield .       76         1 

84.  VESTA.     Vesta  standing  1.,  holding  palla- 

dium and  sceptre    .         .         .         .         .81         2 

85.  Similar  ;  but  Vesta  holds  patera  and  sceptre.       85         1 

—  6 


86.  PAX  AVGVSTI.     Pax  standing  1.,  holding 

branch  and  sceptre          ....       37          1 

87.  P.  M.  TR.  P.  II.  COS.  P.  P.     Emperor  lean- 

ing on  sceptre  to  1.,  between  two  stand- 
ards     .          .         .         .          .          .      •!'.>:     55         1 

Carried  forward  2      91 


Cohen.       No. 
Brought  forward          .  ...         2     91 

88.  PEOVIPENTIA  AVG.     Providentia  stand- 

ing 1.,  holding  staff  over  globe  and  cornu- 

copise  .....  75         2 

89.  VICTOEIAAVG.  Victory  walking  r.,  hold- 

ing wreath  and  palm       .          .          .  99         1 

—        5 



90.  IOVISSTATOE.    Jupiter  turned  tor.,  hold- 

ing sceptre  and  thunderbolt     .          .          .113         1 


91.  AEQVITAS  AVG.     Aequitas   standing  1., 

holding  scales  and  cornucopias          .          .17          1 

92.  Similar ;  but  Aequitas  holds  patera  instead 

of  scales  :  Obv.  IMP.  CAES.  GOEDIA- 
NVS  PIYS  AVG.  Bust  radiate  and 
draped  to  r.  .....  1 

93.  AETEENITATI  AVG.     Soldier  standing  1., 

holding  globe         .          .          .          .          .41          1 

94.  CONCOEDIA  AVG.     Concordia  seated  1., 

holding  patera  and  double  cornucopise       .       53         1 

95.  Similar;    but   Olv.  IMP.  CAES  M.  ANT. 

GOEDIANVSAVG       ....       50         1 

96.  FELICIT.    TEMP.     Felicitas  standing  1., 

holding  caduceus  and  cornucopiae     .          .71          r 

97.  POET.  EEDVX.  Fortuna  seated  1.,  holding 

rudder  and  cornucopise   .          .          .          .97          3 

98.  FOETVNA  EEDVX.  Similar  type  and  same 

vbv.  with  radiate  head     ....  2 

99.  IOVI  STATOEI.     Jupiter  naked,  standing 

to  r.,  holding  sceptre  and  thunderbolt     .      109          3 

100.  LAETITIA  AVG.  N.    Laetitia  standing  1., 

holding  wreath  and  anchor      .          .          .121          5 

101.  OEIENS  AVG.     Sol   standing  towards  1., 

holding  globe          .         .          .          .          .167          1 

Carried  forward  21      96 

FIND   OF    ROMAN    COINS   AND    RINGS    NEAR    CARDIFF.          41 

Cohen.       No. 
Brought  forward 21     96 

102.  PAX  AVGVSTI.     Pax  standing  1.,  holding 

branch  and  sceptre          .          .          .         .181          1 

103.  P.   M.   TR.  P.  II.  COS.  P.  P.      Emperor 

veiled,   sacrificing  at  altar,  sceptre  in  1. 

hand     . 216'        2 

104.  P.  M.  TR.  P.  II.  COS.  P.  P.  Pax  standing 

1.,  holding  branch  and  sceptre  .          .     203          1 

105.  P.   M.  TR.  P.  III.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Em- 

peror standing  r.,  holding  spear  and  globe. 
AVG.  ...  ...  242  1 

106.  P.  M.  TR.  P.  IIII.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Simi- 

lar type         253          1 

107.  P.  M.  TR.  P.  V.  COS.  II.  P.  P.     Apollo 

seated  1.,  holding  branch  of  laurel  and 

resting  1.  arm  on  his  lyre        .        ' .          .     272          2 

108.  PROVID.     AVG.        Providentia    standing 

towards  1.,  holding  staff  over  globe  and 

sceptre  .          ...          .          .296         3 

109.  PROVIDENTIA  AVG.     Providentia  stand- 

ing 1.,  holding  globe  and  sceptre      .          .     302         2 

110.  SAECVLI  FELICITAS.   Emperor  standing 

r.,  holding  spear  and  globe      .          .          .319         1 

111.  SECVRIT.  PERPET.    Securitas  leaning  on 

column    and    holding    sceptre,    standing 

towards  1.      .          .          .          .          .          .327          1 

112.  SECVRITAS  PERPETVA.     Same  type     .     336         1 

113.  VICTORIA  AETERNA.     Victory  standing 

L,  leaning  on  shield  and  holding  palm      .     353-         1 

114.  VIRTVS  AVG.   Virtus  standing  L,  holding 

shield  and  reversed  spear         .          .          .381          3 

115.  VIRTVS  AVG.     Mars  standing  L,  holding 

branch  and  spear ;  at  his  feet,  shield         .     383         1 

116.  VIRTVTI  AVGVSTI.     Hercules  standing, 

leaning  on  his  club          ....     404          2 

—     44 

Carried  forward   ......  140 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  G 


Brought  forward         ......     140 



Cohen.        No. 

117.  AEQVITAS   AVG.     Aequitas  standing  1., 

holding  scales  and  cornucopise          ..92 

118.  AETEENITAS  AVGG.  Elephant  to  1.  with 

rider     .......       17          2 

119.  ANNONA    AVaa.     Annona  holding  ears 

of  corn  above  modius  and  cornucopise     .       25          2 

120.  Same,  but  obv.   legend  IMP.  PHILIPPVS 

AVG.   .  .  .  1 

121.  FELICITAS  TEMP.     Felicitas  standing  1.  , 

holding  caduceus  and  cornucopise    .          .       43 

122.  FIDES  MILIT.  Fides  standing  L,  between 

two  standards        .....        55          1 

123.  LAETIT.  FVNDAT.     Laetitia  standing  L, 

holding  wreath  and  rudder      ...       80          1 

124.  PAX   FVNDATA    CVM    PEESIS.       Pax 

standing  L,  holding  branch  and  sceptre    .      113          1 

125.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  II.  COS.  P.  P.     Philip  seated 

1.,   on   curule    chair,  holding    globe    and 

sceptre  ......      120          1 

126.  P.  M.  TU.  P.  II.  GO'S.  P.  P.     Pax  standing 

L,  holding  caduceus  and  cornucopia?         .124          1 

127.  P.  M.  TE.  P.  IIII.   COS.   II.  P.  P.     Pax 

standing  1.,  holding  caduceus  and  cornu- 

copia)  .          .          .          .          .          .          .136          1 

128.  EOMAE    AETEENAE.     Eoma    seated   L, 

holding  Victory  and  spear        .          .          .      165          2 

129.  SAECVLAEES  AVGG.     Stag  standing  r., 

in  exergue  w        .          .          .          .          .     182          1 

130.  VIETVS  AVG.     Virtus  seated  L,  holding 

branch  and  spear  .....     240          1 

—      19 

Curried  forward  159 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS    NEAR    CARDIFF.          43 

Brought  forward 159 



Cohen.      No. 

131.  CONCOEDIA  AVGG.     Concordia  seated  1., 

holding  patera  and  cornucopias         .          .14          1 

132.  IVNO  CONSEEVAT.    Juno  veiled,  stand- 

ing 1. ,  holding  patera  and  sceptre  20          1 

133.  PVDICITIA    AVG.     Pudicitia    seated   1., 

holding  sceptre       ...  53          1 

—       3 


134.  PEINCIPI  IVVENT.     Philip  standing  1., 

holding  globe  and  spear  ...       48          1 

135.  PEINCIPI  IWENT.     Philip  standing  1., 

holding  globe   and   spear;    at  his    feet, 

captive  ......       57         2 

136.  PEINCIPI  IVVENT.     Philip  standing  r., 

holding    spear   and    globe,     and   accom- 
panied by  a  soldier          ....       59          1 

137.  PEINCIPI  IVVENTVTIS.      Philip  stand- 

ing  1.,    holding  standard    and    reversed 

spear    .  .       ,  .          .          .          .61          1 

—       5 


138.  ABVNDANTIA  AVG.   Abundaiitia  stand- 

ing r.,  emptying  her  cornucopiae     ..22 

139.  ADVENTVS    AVG.      Emperor  on  horse- 

back 1.,  holding  sceptre  ...         4         2 

140.  DACIA.     Dacia  standing  1.,   holding  staff 

surmounted  by  ass's  head       ,         .          .13         2 

141.  Similar,  but  Dacia  holds  standard2  27          1 

Carried  forward  .         .         .         ,         .         .         7   167 

2  This  coin  is  struck  over  a  denarius  of  Maximinus  I  reading 
VICTOEIA  AVG.,  and  with  Victory  r.,  holding  palm  and 
wreath  (Cohen,  No,  99). 


Cohen.     No. 
Brought  forward         .  ...         7    167 


nius standing  1.,  holding  patera  and  cor- 

nucopise ;  at  his  side,  standard 3  .64         2 

143.  VBERITAS  AVG.      Uberitas  standing  1., 

holding  purse  and  cornucopise  .          .105          1 

—  10 


144.  PVDICITIA    AVG.       Pudicitia   seated   1., 

holding  sceptre      .          .          .          .          .17          1 

—  1 


145.  PEINCIPI IVVENTVTIS.  Apollo  seated  1., 

holding  branch  and  leaning  on  his  lyre. 
Obv.— Q.  HEE.  ETE.  MES.  DECIVS 
NOB.  C.  Bust  of  Herennius  radiate  and 
draped  to  r.  Unpublished  .  .  —  1 

146.  PEINCIPI      IVVENTVTIS.        Herennius 

standing  1.,  holding  small  staff  and  spear        26          1 

147.  SPES    PVBLICA.     Spes  walking  1.,   and 

holding  flower         .....        38          1 

148.  VICTOEIA     AVG.     Victory    walking    1., 

holding  wreath  and  palm.  Obv.—  HEEEN. 
Bust  to  r.,  radiate  and  draped.  Unpub- 
lished ....  .  —  1 



149.  ANNONA  AVG.     Abundantia  standing  r., 

her  foot  on  prow,  and  holding  rudder  and 

ears  of  corn  .  .  .  .  .17  1 

Carried  forward  1    182 

3  One  of  these  is  struck  over  a  denarius  of  Geta  ;  but  the  type  is 
not  traceable. 

FIND   OF   ROMAN   COINS   AND   RINGS   NEAR    CARDIFF.         45 

Cohen.      No, 

Brought  forward  .         .         .         .  1    182 

150.  FE  LICIT  AS  PYBLICA.     Felicitas  stand- 

ing 1.,  holding  caduceus  and  cornucopias        37         2 

151.  IVNO    MAETIALIS.        Juno    seated    L, 

holding  ears  of  corn  and  spear          .  46         2 

152.  LIBEETAS  AVGG.     Libertas   leaning  on 

column,  standing  1.,  and  holding  cap  and 

sceptre  .  .          .          .          .67          1 

153'.  PIETAS    AVGG.      Pietas,  her  both  hands 

raised,  standing  1.  before  an  altar  88          1 

154.  PEOVIDENTIA  AVG.    Providentia  stand- 

ing 1. ,  holding  globe  and  sceptre     .         .103         1 

155.  VICTOEIA  AYGG.     Victory  standing  1., 

holding  wreath  and  palm         .          .          .128         2 

—     10 


156.  CONCOEDIA  AVGG.    Concordia  seated  L, 

holding  patera  and  double  cornucopise      .       25         3 

157.  Similar,  but  Concordia  standing  1.  .20         1 


158.  CONCOEDIA  AVGG.     Concordia  standing 

1.,  holding  patera  and  double  cornucopise        31          1 

159.  FELICITAS  AVGG.     Felicitas  standing  1., 

holding  caduceus  and  cornucopise  55          1 

160.  LIBEEALITAS  AVGG.  Liberalitas  seated 

1.,  holding  tessera  and  cornucopise  .          .108         1 

101.  VICTOEIA  AVGG.     Victory  standing  1., 

holding  wreath  and  palm         .          .         .     230         1 

162.  Similar,  but  different  obverse  legend  .         »     231         3 


Carried  forward  .  .          .  .    203 


Brought  forward  .          .          .     .     .       .,,         .    203 



Cohen.      No. 

163.  CONCORDIA       MILITVM.        Concordia 

standing  1.,    holding  patera   and  cornu- 

copise  .......     137         1 

164.  GERMANICVS  MAX.  V.      Trophy,  at  the 

base   of  which  are   seated   two  German 

captives          ...  .     308       16 

165.  Similar,  but  bust  to  r.,  and  holding  sceptre 

and  shield      .  ....     310         2 

166.  PEOVID.  AVGG.     Providentia  standing  1., 

holding  staff  and  cornucopise    .         .          .     868         1 

167.  VICT.  GERMANICA.    Victory  standing  1., 

her  foot  on  captive,  holding  wreath  and 

palm     .  ....    1049          4 

168.  Similar:  but  king's  bust  to  1.,  radiate  and 

holding  spear  and  shield  .          .          .   1047          1 

169.  VICT.  GERMANIC  A.     Victory  running  r., 

holding  wreath  and  palm          .          .          .  1053          1 

170.  VICT.  GERMANIC  A.     Victory  r. ,  on  globe 

between  two  captives :    she  holds  wreath 

and  trophy    .          .          .          .          .          .    1 062          4 

171.  VIRTVS  AVGG.     Virtus  standing  1.,  hold- 

ing shield  and  reversed  spear  .          .   1284          1 

172.  VIRTVS    AVGG.     Gallienus   standing    r., 

holding  spear  and  standard      .          .          .   1309         5 

—      36 


173.  FELICITAS    PVBLICA.     Felicitas  seated 

1.,  holding  caduceus  and  cornucopiee          .       50         2 

174.  PVDICITIA    AVG.     Pudicitia    seated    1., 

holding  sceptre        .          .  98         1 

175.  VENVS  FELIX.     Venus  seated  1.,  holding 

sceptre ;  before  her,  child         .          .          .115         1 

Carried  forward     .  4    239 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS    NEAR    CARDIFF.          47 

Cohen.      No. 
Brought  forward 4    239 

176.  VENVS     VICTBIX.     Venus     seated     1., 

holding  helmet  and  sceptre;  before  her, 
shield.  Obv.  SALONIKA  AVG.  Bust 
to  r.,  diademed,  draped  and  with  crescent.  —  5 

177.  VENYS  VICTBIX.  Venus  standing  1.,  hold- 

ing apple  and  palm  ;  shield  at  her  side      .130         3 

178.  VESTA.     Vesta  standing  1.,  holding  patera 

and  sceptre    ......     137          2 

179.  VESTA.    Vesta  seated  1.,  holding  palladium 

and  sceptre    ......     142          1 

—  15 

Antoniniani  i 

180.  IOVI  CEESCENTI.     Jupiter  seated  on  goat 

to  r 26       14 

181.  PIETAS  AVG-.     Sacrificial  implements        .       41         4 

182.  Similar;  but  Obv.  P.  LIC.  VALEEIANVS 

CAES —         1 

183.  Similar;  but    Obv.   D.   N.  VALEBIANVS 

CAES —         1 

—  20 


184.  DEO    VOLEANO.      Vulcan    standing    in 

temple,  holding  hammer  and  pincers         .         2          1 

185.  OEIENS  AVGG.     Sol  walking  1.,  and  hold- 

ing whip          ......         6         6 

—  7 



186.  CONCOED  AEQVIT.    Fortuna,  herfoot  on 

prow,    standing   1.,    holding  patera    and 

rudder  .......       17          1 

187.  FELICITAS  AVG.     Felicitas  standing  1., 

holding  caduceus  and  cornucopise    .  39         4 

Carried  forward  5   281 


Cohen.     No. 
Brought  forward   .  .          .         .  5    281 

188.  FIDES  MILITVM.    Fides  standing  1.,  hold- 

ing two  standards.  Obv.,  IMP.  0.  POS- 
TVMVS  P.  F.  AVG.  Bust  of  Emperor 
r.,  radiate  and  draped  .  .  var.  67  1 

189.  HEEC.  PACIFEEO.  Hercules  standing  1., 

holding  branch  and  club          .          .          .101          3 

190.  IOVI  VICTOBI.     Jupiter  walking  1.,  hold- 

ing thunderbolt  and  sceptre    .          .          .161          1 

191.  MONETA  AVG.     Moneta  standing  1.,  hold- 

ing scales  and  cornucopiae       .          .          .199         1 

192.  OEIENS   AVG.     Sol   walking   1.,   holding 

whip     .  ...     213          1 

193.  PAX  AVG.  Pax  standing!,,  holding  branch 

and  sceptre   ......     215          1 

194.  Similar  ;  but  PAX  walking  1.     .          .          .220          3 

195.  P.  M.  TE.   P.  COS.   II.  P.  P.     Postumus 

standing  1.,  holding  globe  and  spear          .     243          1 

196.  VICTOEIAAVG.    Victory  walking!.,  hold- 

ing wreath  and  palm  ;  captive  at  her  feet  .377          1 



197.  EXPECTATE  VENI,  (in  exergue)  E.  S.  E. 

Female  figure,  Fides  (?),  holding  vexillum 
in  1.  hand  and  with  r.  grasping  r.  hand  of 
Carausius,  who  holds  spear.  Obv.  IMP. 
CAEAVSIVS  P.  F.  AV.  Bast  of  Carau- 
sius to  r.,  laureate,  wearing  paludamen- 
tum  and  cuirass  [PI.  III.  8.]  .  58  1 


198.  Uncertain  denarius     .....  1 



It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  descriptions  that,  with 
one  exception,  there  is  but  little  of  special  interest 
amongst  the  silver  coins.  The  types  are  of  the  most  ordi- 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS   NEAR   CARDIFF.          49 

nary  character,  generally  representing  some  divinity  with 
his  or  her  attributes;  and  the  hoard  is  not  sufficiently 
large  to  show  the  degree  of  rarity  of  any  particular  type. 
The  few  varieties  which  exist  consist  mainly  of  slight 
differences  in  the  obverse  and  reverse  types  or  legends  from 
those  given  by  Cohen.  These  differences  have  been  noted 
in  each  case.  Thus :  Nos.  92  and  105  of  Gordian  III 
supply  new  obverse  legends  ;  as  also  do  No.  120  of  Philip  I 
and  Nos.  182  and  183  of  Saloninus.  No.  98  of  Gordian  III 
and  No.  188  of  Postumus  show  the  head  of  the  Emperor 
radiate  instead  of  laureate.  These  last,  I  think,  must  be 
only  mis-descriptions  of  Cohen.  There  are  only  two  new 
varieties  of  reverse  types  :  No.  145  of  Herennius  Etruscus 
IYVENT.,  and  No.  176  of  Salonina  with  Venus  Victrix 
seated  instead  of  standing.  The  only  new  type  is  that 
of  Herennius  Etruscus,  No.  148,  with  rev.  VICTORIA 
AVGf.,  and  Victory  with  wreath  and  palm. 

The  antoniniani  of  Trajan  Decius,  Nos.  141  and  142 
(one  specimen),  were  struck  on  denarii  of  Maximinus  I  and 
Geta,  which  shows  that  at  that  time  the  weight  of  the 
antoninianus,  originally  current  for  about  two  denarii, 
had  fallen  to  that  of  the  old  denarius.  It  was,  no  doubt, 
this  fall  in  the  weight  of  the  antoninianus  that  caused 
the  cessation  of  the  issue  of  the  denarius,  which  was 
then  made  use  of  for  striking  a  coin  of  originally  a 
higher  current  value. 

The  antoninianus  of  Philip  I,  No.  124,  with  the  legend 
PAX  FVNDATA  CVM  PERSIS,  refers  to  the  treaty 
which  that  emperor  had  concluded  with  the  Persians  after 
the  murder  of  Gordian  III,  and  when  by  intrigue  he  in- 
duced the  army  to  declare  himself  Emperor.  On  his  return 
to  Rome,  Philip,  desirous  of  obliterating  the  memory  of  his 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  H 


crime  and  of  gaining  the  goodwill  of  the  people,  solemnised 
with  infinite  pomp  and  magnificence  the  secular  games, 
which  commemorated  the  thousandth  year  of  the  tradi- 
tional foundation  of  Rome,  and  which  are  referred  to  on 
No.  129  with  the  legend  SAECVLAKES  AVGG. 

By  far  the  most  interesting  among  the  silver  coins  in 
this  hoard  is  the  denarius  of  Carausius,  which  commemo- 
rates his  welcome  to  the  shores  of  Britain  in  A.D.  286. 
Unlike  the  usual  currency  of  this  period,  the  coin  is  of  fairly 
fine  silver,  and  of  a  different  denomination  from  any  at  that 
time  issued.  In  the  type  of  the  reverse  the  female  figure, 
who  is  welcoming  the  Emperor,  and  addresses  him  in  the 
words  of  the  legend  EXPECTATE  YENI  (Come,  0  thou 
long  expected),  has  usually  been  considered  to  be  a  repre- 
sentation of  Britannia  ;  but  considerable  uncertainty  has 
existed  as  to  the  nature  of  the  object  which  she  holds  in 
her  left  hand.  It  has  been  described  as  a  sceptre.  Aker- 
man4  thought  it  was  evidently  a  trident,  but  Roach 
Smith5  says  "  the  object  held  by  the  female  resembles  the 
caduceus  of  Felicity."  I  think  there  will  be  no  difficulty 
in  proving  that  the  figure  was  not  intended  to  be  a  repre- 
sentation of  Britannia,  and  that  the  object  which  she  holds 
is  not  a  caduceus,  a  trident,  or  a  sceptre.  One  circum- 
stance alone  negatives  the  interpretation  of  the  figure 
being  that  of  Britannia.  It  is  that  the  arrival  of  Carausius 
to  the  shores  of  Britain  was  most  unexpected  and  sudden. 
Though  it  may  have  been  suspected  by  the  Roman  army 
quartered  in  this  country,  it  could  not  have  been  generally 
known.  The  power  and  influence  which  Carausius  had 
gained  over  the  fleet  which  was  stationed  at  Gesoriacum 

4  Coins  of  the  Bomans  relating  to  Britain,  p.  54. 

5  Collectanea  Antigua,  vol.  v.,  p.  153. 

FIND   OF    ROMAN   COINS   AND    KINGS    NEAR   CARDIFF.         51 

(Boulogne),  and  of  which  he  had  the  chief  command, 
had  roused  the  jealousy  of  the  Emperor  Maximian,  who 
issued  an  order  that  he  should  be  put  to  death.  The 
shrewd  commander,  however,  anticipated  the  execution  of 
this  mandate,  and  speedily  collecting  his  fleet  he  crossed 
the  Channel  and  landed  in  Britain,  most  probably  at 
Hutupiae  (the  modern  Richborough),  which  from  its 
proximity  to  Gaul  and  Germany  was  the  usual  port 
selected  for  military  operations.  Carausius  appears 
to  have  experienced  no  difficulty  in  persuading  the 
legion  and  the  auxiliaries  which  guarded  the  island 
to  embrace  his  cause,  and  boldly  assuming  the  title  of 
Augustus,  he  defied  the  arms  of  his  injured  sovereign.6 
The  arrival  of  Carausius  in  Britain  must  therefore  have 
been  very  unexpected,  though  it  is  probable  that  some 
intimation  of  what  was  passing  on  the  other  side  of  the 
Channel  had  reached  the  army.  These  facts  are,  therefore, 
against  the  attribution  of  the  figure  to  Britannia. 

As  regards  the  origin  of  this  legend,  which  is  peculiar  to 
these  coins  of  Carausius,  Eckhel7  has  remarked  that  the 
greeting  of  Carausius  finds  a  parallel  in  the  terms  in 
which  Yirgil  makes  Aeneas  address  the  shade  of  Hector : 

"  0  Lux  Dardaniae,  spes  o  fidissima  Teucrum 
Quae  tantae  tenuere  morae  ?  quibus  Hector  ab  oris 
Expectate  venis  ?  ut  te  post  multa  tuorum 
Funera,  post  varies  hominumque  urbisque  labores 
Defessi  aspicimus ! 

Aen.,  lib.  ii.,  281—5. 

Another  uncertainty  which  exists  regarding  this  and 
similar  coins  of  Carausius  is  their  place  of  mintage. 

6  Gibbon,  Roman  Empire,  Ed.  W.  Smith,  vol.  ii.,  p.  71. 

7  Doct.  Num.  Vet.,  vol.  viii.  45. 


Unlike  the  so-called  antoniniani  of  Carausius,  which  are 
chiefly  composed  of  copper,  they  are  all  of  pure  or  fairly 
pure  silver  ;  they  are  of  the  type  of  the  old  denarius,  and 
they  all  bear  the  letters  R.S.R.  in  the  exergue  on  the 
reverse.  At  first  sight  the  issue  of  these  coins  appears  to 
be  an  absolute  anomaly ;  seeing  that  at  this  time  in  no 
other  part  of  the  whole  Roman  Empire  were  coins  of  this 
standard  of  metal  or  denomination  struck.  That  the  letters 
R.S.R.  are  the  initials  of  the  place  of  mintage  there 
can  certainly  be  but  little  doubt.  Most  of  the  gold  and 
copper  or  base  metal  pieces  struck  by  Carausius  in  Britain 
bear  the  mint  letters.  Thus  M.L.  (Moneta  Londinensis) 
show  that  the  coins  were  struck  in  London,  whilst  those 
issued  at  Camulodunum  (Colchester)  have  the  initials  M.C. 
(Moneta  Camulodunensis).  These  letters  occupy  precisely 
the  same  place  on  the  reverse  as  do  the  R.S.R.  on  the 
silver  coins.  Some  writers  have  suggested  Rouen  (Roto- 
magus)  as  their  place  of  mintage,  as  occasionally  speci- 
mens have  been  found  there.  De  Salis  was  of  opinion 
that  they  were  probably  struck  in  London,8  whilst 
Roach  Smith9  suggests  that  they  may  be  of  Rutupiae 
or  Richborough,  and  he  reads  the  inscription  as  "  Ru- 
tupis  signata"  —  "struck  at  Rutupiae."  Against  the 
first  opinion,  it  may  be  argued  that  whatever  power 
Carausius  possessed  in  Gaul  after  his  assumption  of 
Imperial  authority,  it  was  most  probably  limited  to  the 
coast  near  Boulogne  ;  and  the  occasional  discovery  of  one 
or  more  of  these  silver  coins  at  Rouen  is  no  direct  evidence 
of  its  being  their  place  of  mintage,  as  a  considerable 
number  of  these  pieces  have  also  been  unearthed  at  so 

8  Num.  Chron.,  N.S.,  vol.  vii.,  p.  57. 

8  Antiquities  of  Richborovyh,  Reculver,  and  Lymne,  p.  136. 


many  places  in  England.  Against  the  view  of  De  Salis,  the 
argument  would  naturally  be,  that  if  Carausius  placed  M.L. 
on  his  gold  and  copper  coins  to  indicate  the  London  mint, 
he  would  have  used  the  same  letters  for  his  silver  coins  to 
mark  their  place  of  mintage. 

A  close  examination  of  these  silver  coins  will  easily 
convince  anyone  accustomed  to  handle  Roman  coins  of  the 
third  century  that  they  are  of  British  workmanship.  The 
head  of  the  Emperor  on  the  obverse  is  similar  to  that  on  the 
gold  coins  of  Carausius  struck  in  London  ;  and  the  fabric 
of  the  reverse  is  very  like  that  of  the  British  imitations 
of  Roman  coins  of  the  same  period.  There  can  therefore 
be  but  slight  hesitation  in  deciding  these  pieces  to  be  of 
British  origin.  I  am  on  that  account  strongly  disposed  to 
accept  the  view  expressed  by  Roach  Smith,  and  to  class 
them  to  Rutupiae.  In  explaining  the  meaning  of  the 
letters  R.S.R.,  Roach  Smith  omitted  to  take  into  account 
the  final  letter  R.  At  first  sight  the  letter  S  may  appear 
to  stand  for  Signata  or  Sacra,  as  there  are  coins  of  Carau- 
sius and  Allectus  struck  both  at  London  and  Colchester, 
which  bear — in  conjunction  with  the  initial  of  the  mint, 
L.  or  C. — the  letters  M.S.  or  S.M.,  or  S.P.,  which  are 
usually  interpreted  as  Moneta  Signata  or  Sacra,  and  Sacra 
or  Signata  Pecunia.  In  fact,  there  is  in  the  National 
Collection  another  specimen,  but  in  copper,  of  the  "  Ex- 
pectate  veni  "  type,  which  has  in  the  exergue  the  letters 
M.S.C.,  i.e.,  Moneta  Signata  or  Sacra  Camulodunensis.  As, 
however,  the  letters  R.S.R.  on  the  coins  of  Carausius  do 
not  appear  to  admit  of  a  similar  interpretation,  I  would 
venture  to  suggest  that  they  are  the  initials  only  of  the 
mint,  and  that  as  Rutupiae  was  the  headquarters  of 
the  Roman  Army  in  that  district,  they  may  stand  for 
Rutupiae  Statwa  Romano,  or  Rutupiae  Statio  Romana. 


The  word  stativa,  meaning  a  "  standing  camp "  or  a 
"  fortified  place,"  was  constantly  used  by  Livy,  Tacitus, 
and  other  Roman  authors,  and  Ammianus  Marcellinus 
describes  Rutupiae  as  a  Statio.10  Either  epithet  would 
well  apply  to  Richborough.  This  suggestion  leaves 
ample  ground  for  further  conjecture,  but  the  attri- 
bution of  these  silver  coins  to  this  place  of  mintage 
would  materially  assist  in  clearing  up  two  difficult  ques- 
tions. It  will  account  for  the  solitary  re-issue  of  the 
denarii  of  a  fine  standard  of  metal  after  a  lapse  of  so 
many  years,  and  it  will  also  explain  the  origin  of  nearly 
all  the  types  of  the  coins  which  bear  the  mint-mark 

During  the  whole  of  the  Roman  occupation  of  Britain, 
Rutupiae  was  an  important  military  place,  being  selected 
chiefly  on  account  of  its  good  harbour,  which  has  now 
quite  disappeared.  It  was  at  this  spot  that  Julius  Caesar 
effected  his  first  landing ;  but  not  without  losing  a 
number  of  his  ships,  as  a  heavy  gale  caused  them  to  miss 
the  harbour,  and  drove  them  on  to  the  rocks.  From 
its  proximity  to  Gaul  and  Germany,  Rutupiae  soon  became 
the  chief  port  selected  for  military  and  commercial  inter- 
course between  Britain  and  those  countries.  The  Itinerary 
of  Antoninus  tells  us  that  it  was  situated  450  stadia  from 
Gesoriacum  ;  and  as  the  distance  to  no  other  port 
in  Britain  is  mentioned,  it  would  almost  appear  as  if 
this  was  the  chief  line  of  communication  between  Gaul 
and  Britain.  The  route  taken  by  Caesar  was  most  prob- 
ably followed  by  other  Roman  commanders  during  the 
first  and  second  centuries.  And  we  know  that  it  was 

10  Ees  Gest.,  xxvii.,  8,  6.  "  Rutupias,  stationem  ex  adverse 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS   NEAR   CARDIFF.          55 

chosen  by  Constantius  Chlorus  when  he  came  over  to 
attack  Allectus  after  the  death  of  Carausius,  and  subse- 
quently by  Lupicinus  and  Theodosius,  the  generals  of 
Julian  and  Yalens.  In  addition,  Rutupiae  was  in  a 
direct  line  of  communication  by  road  with  London,  and 
thence  with  Chester,  York,  and  Northern  Britain.  But 
what  made  Rutupiae  of  still  greater  importance  was,  that 
it  was  one  of  the  chief  military  stations  of  the  Roman 
army.  During  the  first  and  second  centuries  a  portion  of 
the  2nd  Legion  was  quartered  there ;  but  the  coins  of 
Carausius  tell  us  that,  when  he  proclaimed  himself 
emperor,  it  was  occupied  by  the  4th  Legion,  since  one  of 
the  silver  coins  with  R.S.R.  bears  the  legend,  LEG.  IIII. 
FYL  (Legio  IY.  Fulvia).  Naturally  this  large  military 
depot  must  have  attracted  a  considerable  civil  population, 
probably  of  a  somewhat  mixed  character,  seeing  that 
Rutupiae  was  in  close  commercial  relation  with  Germany. 
Now  it  is  clear,  from  finds  of  coins  which  have  recently 
been  unearthed,  that,  in  spite  of  the  debased  state  of 
the  Roman  money  at  this  particular  period,  there  was  still 
a  considerable  currency  of  the  purer  silver  coins,  which 
had  been  issued  before  the  debasement  took  place.  This 
is  shown  by  the  hoard  recently  described  in  the  pages  of 
the  Numismatic  Chronicle  by  our  President n ;  and  it  is 
also  proved,  but  to  a  lesser  degree,  by  the  Sully  find,  in 
which  there  was  not  a  single  piece  of  the  more  debased 
money.  It  is  also  known  that  Germany  never  would 
accept  the  base  Roman  money ;  but  adhered  exclusively 
to  a  silver  Roman  currency,  until  it  struck  its  own  coinage 
in  that  metal.  If  we  accept  these  conditions,  we  have  no 
difficulty  in  ascertaining  why  Carausius  issued  these  coins 
of  pure  silver,  and  of  the  standard  and  type  of  the  former 

11  Ser.  iii.,  vol.  xviii.  126. 


denarius.  It  was  a  purely  military  coinage  to  pass  in 
currency  with  the  denarius  still  in  circulation  both  here 
and  on  the  Continent.  By  choosing  the  type  of  the 
denarius,  Carausius  copied  a  coin  which  had  not  been 
debased  like  the  antoninianus,  and  which  would  not  be 
confused  with  the  latter  piece.  The  denarius  most  com- 
mon in  currency  at  that  time  was  that  of  Severus  Alex- 
ander, and  if  an  analysis  were  made  of  the  silver  coins  of 
Carausius,  there  is  little  doubt  but  that  it  would  closely 
tally  with  that  of  the  coins  of  the  earlier  emperor.  What 
also  proves  these  coins  to  be  a  military  issue  is  the  nature 
of  their  types.  That  of  "  Felicitas  "  and  a  ship  refers  to 
the  journey  of  Carausius  from  Gesoriacum  to  Britain  ; 
those  of  "  Adventus  Aug."  and  a  horseman ;  and  of 
"  Expectate  veni,"  and  a  figure  greeting  the  emperor  to  his 
arrival  here  ;  those  of  "  Concordia  Milit."  and  two  hands 
joined,  and  "Fides  Milit."  with  Fides  holding  a  standard 
to  the  goodwill  and  confidence  of  the  Eoman  troops  here, 
and  lastly,  that  with  "  Leg.  IIII.  Ful."  and  a  lion,  the 
symbol  of  this  legion,  is  an  actual  record  of  the  legion 
then  stationed  in  this  district.  There  are  others  of  more 
general  types,  some  of  which  are  personal  to  the  emperor ; 
and  these,  and  all  the  other  types  mentioned,  have  the  mint 
letters  K.S.E.  The  military  character  of  this  issue 
furnishes  us  with  the  clue  for  ascertaining  of  whom  is  the 
figure  on  the  reverse  of  the  "  Expectate  Veni "  piece, 
which  welcomes  the  emperor.  It  is  not  Britannia  but 
"  Fides  Militum,"  and  the  object  which  she  holds  is  not  a 
sceptre  or  a  caduceus,  but  her  usual  attribute,  a  standard, 
and  in  this  particular  instance  the  vexillum.  The  drapery 
at  the  top  of  the  standard  is  only  represented  in  bare 
outline,  and  is  not  clearly  traceable  except  on  very  well- 
preserved  specimens,  such  as  that  which  occurred  in  the 

FIND   OF    ROMAN   COINS   AND   RINGS   NEAR   CARDIFF.         57 

Sully  hoard.  As  it  has  been  noted,  the  army  was  prob- 
ably aware  of  what  was  passing  on  the  other  side  of  the 
Channel ;  so  that  the  arrival  of  Carausius,  though,  per- 
haps, unknown  generally,  had  been  for  some  days  eagerly 
expected  by  the  army,  and  the  hearty  welcome  of  the 
troops  co-operating  with  the  goodwill  of  the  fleet  was 
probably  one  of  the  chief  causes  which  induced  Carausius 
to  proclaim  himself  emperor. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  foregoing  remarks  will  have  thrown 
some  light  on  the  origin  and  the  cause  of  this  excep- 
tional issue  of  silver  denarii  by  Carausius ;  but  I  regret 
that  no  better  solution  has,  so  far,  suggested  itself  to 
me  as  to  the  meaning  of  the  mint  letters.  However, 
having  ascertained  the  origin  of  these  coins,  it  is  not  im- 
probable that,  if  the  suggestion  offered  is  not  considered 
sound,  this  point  also  will  be  more  satisfactorily  solved. 

Let  us  now  turn  to  the  gold  coins  which  occurred  in 
the  hoard,  some  of  which  are  of  considerable  interest. 
The  first  piece  to  be  noticed  is  the  double  aureus  of 
Diocletian,  or  as  such  pieces  are  more  commonly  called, 
the  medallion.  Coins  of  this  denomination  are  of 
extreme  rarity.  There  was  not  a  single  specimen  either 
in  the  Ponton  d'Amecourt  collection,  nor  in  that  of  the 
late  Mr.  Montagu,  both  of  which  were  extremely  rich  in 
gold  coins  of  the  reign  of  Diocletian.  Also  Cohen 
has  described  only  two  examples.  The  coin  from 
the  Sully  hoard  is  unique.  It  bears  on  the  obverse 
the  older  portrait  of  Diocletian,  which  is  not  found  on  his 
money  before  A.D.  295,  when  the  great  re-coinage  took 
place,  and  the  reverse  type  is  clearly  a  record  of  the  long 
series  of  brilliant  achievements  which  had  happened 
during  his  reign.  The  chief  of  these  were  the  defeat  of 
Allectus  in  Britain,  the  repulse  of  the  Alemanni  in 



Gaul,  the  rout  of  the  Mauretanian  hordes  by  Maximian, 
the  abject  submission  of  all  Egypt  to  Diocletian,  and  in 
the  East  the  defeat  by  Galerius  of  the  Armenians,  and  the 
submission  of  Persia.  These  great  victories  were  completed 
when  Diocletian  entered  upon  the  twentieth  year  of  his 
reign  in  A.D.  303,  and  the  games  common  at  each  decennial 
period  were  combined  with  a  triumph,  the  most  gorgeous 
which  Rome  had  witnessed  since  the  days  of  Aurelian. 
Gibbon 12  says  : — "  Africa  and  Britain,  the  Rhine,  the 
Danube  and  the  Nile  furnished  their  respective  trophies ; 
but  the  most  distinguished  ornament  was  of  a  more 
singular  nature,  a  Persian  victory  followed  by  an  import- 
ant conquest.  The  representations  of  rivers,  mountains, 
and  provinces  were  carried  before  the  Imperial  car.  The 
images  of  the  captive  wives,  the  sisters,  and  the  children 
of  the  Great  King  afforded  a  new  and  grateful  spectacle 
to  the  vanity  of  the  people.  In  the  eyes  of  posterity, 
this  triumph  is  remarkable  by  a  distinction  of  a  less 
honourable  kind.  It  was  the  last  triumph  that  Rome  ever 

It  was,  therefore,  on  this  occasion  that  this  coin 
was  struck,  and  its  unusual  size  was  a  fitting  record  of 
so  remarkable  an  event.  The  whole  spirit  of  the  reverse 
type  shows  that  it  must  refer  to  such  an  occasion. 
Victory  holding  the  world  in  her  hands  offers  it  freely  to 
the  Emperor,  who  is  represented  in  his  favourite  personi- 
fication of  Jupiter.  His  whole  attitude  is  one  of  repose. 
His  foot  is  placed  on  the  back  of  an  Eastern  captive  ;  in 
his  right  hand  he  holds  the  thunderbolt,  resting  his  arm 
on  his  knee,  and  with  his  left  hand  he  leans  on  a  sceptre. 

2  Decline   and  Fall   of  the   Roman  Empire,  ed.  W.   Smith, 
vol.  ii.,  p.  89. 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS   AND    RINGS    NEAR  CARDIFF.          59 

It  is  also  an  attitude  of  supreme  power.  The  legend,  too, 
tells  us,  that  the  great  victories  recently  won  were  to  bring 
everlasting  happiness  to  the  Emperors  and  to  the  Empire, 
a  prophecy  which  was  not  to  be  fulfilled  ;  as  shortly  after- 
wards Diocletian  resigned  and  the  Empire  was  torn 
asunder  by  rival  claimants  to  the  purple.  Of  the  two 
other  double  aurei  which  are  known,  one  has  the  figure 
of  Victory  standing  on  a  globe,  evidently  a  record  of  the 
same  events  as  our  piece.  It  was  also  struck  at  Rome. 
The  other,  struck  at  Antioch,  commemorates  Diocletian's 
election  to  the  Consulship  for  the  sixth  time  in  A.D.  296. 

The  other  gold  coin  of  Diocletian  is  an  aureus  of  the 
usual  reverse  type  of  the  Emperor  represented  as  Jupiter 
the  Preserver.  This  piece  is  of  some  importance,  as  it 
bears  on  the  reverse  the  initials  of  the  Roman  mint, 
which  are  wanting  on  a  similar  coin  already  in  the 
British  Museum,  but  which  had  been  attributed  from  its 
fabric  to  that  mint.  The  lowness  of  relief  and  the  style 
of  the  portrait  show  that  this  coin  belongs  to  the  earlier 
period  of  Diocletian's  reign,  and  was  therefore  struck  be- 
fore the  re-coinage  of  A.D.  295.  The  gold  coins  of  Dio- 
cletian and  Maximian,  struck  after  A.D.  295,  can  easily  be 
distinguished  from  those  issued  before  that  date.  The 
former  have  the  types  generally,  but  more  especially  the 
head  or  bust  of  the  Emperor,  in  very  high  relief,  and  the 
flan  is  smaller  and  thicker. 

The  first  two  coins  of  Maximian  in  the  list  are  of 
precisely  the  same  type  as  the  preceding  piece  of  Dio- 
cletian, except  tfyat  the  head  of  the  Emperor  is  adorned 
with  a  radiate  crown.  Nearly  all  the  gold  coins  of 
Maximian  struck  before  A.D.  295  represent  the  Emperor's 
head  laureate.  The  issue  of  these  two  coins  was  contem- 
porary with  that  of  the  similar  piece  of  Diocletian  ;  but 


one  of  them  emanated  from  the  mint  at  Rome,  whilst  the 
other  was  struck  at  Thessalonica.  The  similarity  of 
fabric  of  the  coins  of  these  two  mints,  which  were  at  such 
a  distance  apart,  is  very  remarkable,  more  especially 
with  respect  to  the  portrait  of  the  Emperor.  It  rather 
suggests  that  at  this  particular  period,  when  the  local 
mints  were  still  in  their  infancy,  and  were  striking  coins 
of  purely  Roman  types  and  standard,  the  dies  were  pre- 
pared at  the  central  mint  at  Rome,  and  thence  trans- 
ferred to  the  local  centres.  Otherwise  it  would  be  diffi- 
cult to  account  for  this  minute  similarity.  The  subject 
is,  however,  too  far-reaching  for  us  to  consider  at  this 
moment.  It  will  require  a  most  minute  examination  of 
all  the  coins  of  the  imperial  world  struck  at  this  and 
at  later  times. 

Taking  the  coins  of  Maximian  in  their  chronological 
order,  the  next  piece  to  be  noticed  is  the  aureus,  No.  6, 
with  the  reverse  type  of  Hercules  strangling  the  Nemean 
lion.  This  piece  is  of  much  interest,  for  its  obverse  as 
well  as  its  reverse  type.  Though  Maximian  on  his 
accession  to  the  purple  adopted  the  cognomen  Herculius, 
as  Diocletian  did  that  of  Jovius,  he  did  not,  like  the  latter, 
represent  himself  in  the  guise  of  his  favourite  divinity 
on  his  gold  coins  before  A.D.  295,  except  in  this  one  in- 
stance. All  his  other  types  are  complimentary  to  his 
colleague  Diocletian,  as  they  consist  of  some  representa- 
tion of  Jupiter.  On  the  other  hand,  it  may  be  noticed 
that  during  this  period,  A.D.  285-295,  Diocletian  did  not 
pay  the  same  compliment  to  his  colleague  by  placing 
the  figure  of  Hercules  on  his  coins.  It  is  quite  possible 
that  Diocletian,  as  the  senior  emperor,  may  have  con- 
sidered that  he  had  a  prior  right  in  selecting  the  types 
for  the  money.  The  obverse  type  is  remarkable,  as  it 

FIND   OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS    NEAR   CARDIFF.          61 

shows  the  Emperor  in  full  armour,  holding  one  spear  in 
his  right  hand  and  two  spears  and  a  shield  in  his  left. 
He  is  in  full  attire  as  a  general  of  his  army,  saving  the 
helmet.  This  is  one  of  the  very  few  instances  of  Maxi- 
mian  being  represented  half-length  on  his  coins,  and  show- 
ing his  hands  and  arms.  On  his  medallions  we  often  see 
him  in  half-length  holding  his  horse  and  shield,  or  with 
sceptre,  or  with  sceptre  and  shield  ;  but  these  were  medals, 
and  with  these  the  engraver  always  took  greater  license 
in  representing  the  portrait  of  his  emperor.  The  obverse 
and  reverse  types  of  the  coin,  taken  in  conjunction  with 
the  legend  "  Virtus  Maximiani  Aug./'  undoubtedly  com- 
memorate the  successful  military  expeditions  of  Maximian, 
more  especially  those  against  the  Gauls  and  the  Maure- 
tanians.  On  the  obverse  he  is  shown  as  the  successful 
general,  and  on  the  reverse  in  the  character  of  Hercules 
strangling  the  lion  ;  i.e.  destroying  the  enemies  of  the 
empire.  The  inscriptions  on  both  sides  testify  to  the  valour 
for  which  Maximian  was  noted  from  his  youngest  days. 

The  remaining  two  gold  coins  of  Maximian  in  the 
hoard,  Nos.  5  and  7,  belong  to  the  later  period  of  his 
reign,  viz.,  after  A.D.  295.  The  bust  of  the  Emperor,  and 
also  the  reverse  type,  are  in  high  relief.  No.  7,  with  a 
representation  of  Hercules  seizing  the  stag  of  Ceryneia, 
is  probably  the  earlier  of  the  two  pieces  ;  as  this  type  is 
found  on  coins  of  Diocletian,  which  must  have  been  issued 
before  A.D.  305,  the  year  of  his  resignation.  After  A.D. 
295  Maximian's  coins  generally  exhibit  him  in  the 
character  of  Hercules,  which  was,  as  we  have  noted,  ex- 
ceptional previous  to  that  date.  This  type  and  several 
others  representing  the  labours  of  Hercules  have  no  par- 
ticular historical  importance.  They  appear  only  generally 
to  relate  to  the  bravery  shown  by  the  Emperor  at  all 


times.  The  other  labours  of  Hercules  figured  on  the  coins 
of  Maximian  are  the  slaying  of  the  Nemean  lion  as  above, 
the  fight  against  the  Lernean  hydra,  the  capture  of  the 
Erymanthian  boar,  the  procuring  of  the  golden  apples  of 
the  Hesperides,  and  the  taking  of  Cerberus.  Besides 
these,  there  are  numerous  other  representations  of  Her- 
cules not  immediately  referring  to  his  labours. 

The  other  coin  of  Maximian,  No.  5  in  the  list,  affords 
an  opportunity  for  correcting  an  error  by  Cohen  relating 
to  its  date  of  issue,  which  that  writer,  on  account  of  the 
legend  on  the  reverse,  "  P.  M.  TR.  P.P./'  puts  to  A.D.  286, 
the  first  regnal  year  of  Maximian.  The  style  of  the  head 
of  the  Emperor  on  this  coin  shows  that  it  must  be  ascribed 
to  a  later  date,  at  least  after  A.D.  295.  If  we  take  the 
inscription  on  the  reverse  as  recording  the  first  year  of  the 
Tribunitian  power,  the  figure  standing  surrounded  by 
standards,  to  whom  it  would  apply,  cannot  be  intended  for 
that  of  the  Emperor,  but  one  of  his  associates  in  the 
Empire,  whether  as  Caesar  or  as  Augustus.  Maximian's 
dates  are  :  Caes.  A.D.  285;  Aug.,  A.D.  286  ;  Abd.  A.D.  305; 
Rest.  A.D.  306  ;  Abd.  (second  time)  A.D.  308  ;  Rest,  (second 
time)  A.D.  309;  D.  A.D.  310. 

Setting  aside  Diocletian,  who  was  declared  Augustus  in 
A.D.  284,  the  dates  of  Maximian's  colleagues  were : — 

Constantius  I 







1st  Trib.  "! 











Maximinus  II 




Maxentius    . 



Licinius  I     . 




Constantine  I 




As  the  coin  was  not  struck  before  A.D.  295,  we  may  at 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS    AND    RINGS    NEAR    CARDIFF.          63 

once  omit  Constant!  as  I  and  Galerius,  and  as  the  first 
tribunitian  years  of  Severus  and  Maximinus  II  both  fell 
in  the  year  A.D.  305,  when  Maximian' s  first  abdication 
occurred,  they  may  be  passed  over  also.  We  have  thus 
remaining  Maxentius,  Licinius  I,  and  Constantine  I.  Of 
these  Licinius  I  was  the  nominee  of  Galerius,  and  Con- 
stantine I  was  appointed  by  his  father,  Constantius  I, 
his  successor.  Maxentius,  on  the  other  hand,  was  a  son  of 
Maximian  Herculius,  but  had  been  set  aside  in  A.D.  305, 
some  doubts  having  been  expressed  respecting  his  legiti- 
macy. However,  in  the  following  year,  A.D.  306,  these 
scruples  appear  to  have  been  overlooked  and  he  was 
created  Augustus.  As  it  was  in  this  year,  too,  that 
Maximian  resumed  the  Imperial  power,  it  may  be  con- 
cluded that  the  figure  on  the  reverse  of  this  coin  of 
Maximian,  No.  5,  is  that  of  Maxentius,  and  that  it  was 
issued  in  A.D.  306.  As  this  would  make  this  coin  the 
latest  one  in  the  hoard,  and  as  it  is  in  an  excellent 
state  of  preservation,  it  gives  us  the  approximate  date  of 
its  burial,  which  was  probably  between  A.D.  306  and 
A.D.  310. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  the  rings  which  were 
found  in  the  hoard : — 

1.  Gold  ring  with  angular-shaped  hoop  of  foliate  design, 

narrowest  at  the  back  and  expanding  at  the 
shoulders  ;  the  bezel  octagonal  and  set  with  an 
unengraved  nieolo.  Diam.,  1*04  in.  L.  of  bez., 
•58  in. 

2.  Gold  ring  of  similar  shape,  the  hoop  plain  at  the  back  ; 

the  bezel,  an  oval  raised  setting  with  scalloped 
border,  containing  an  onyx  cameo  representing  a 
female  head,  Medusa,  (?)  facing,  of  somewhat 
coarse  workmanship.  Diam.,  -92  in.  L.  of  bez., 
•52  in.  [PI.  III.  9.] 


3.  Gold  ring  of  similar  form,  the  back  of  the  hoop  plain 

and  engraved  with  two  parallel  lines,  the  shoulders 
pierced.  The  bezel  is  a  raised  setting,  now  of 
irregular  outline,  from  which  the  stone  is  lost. 
Diam.,  I'O  in.  L.  ofbez.,  '58  in.  [PL  III.  10.] 

4.  Gold  ring  with  angular  hoop  and  shoulders  moulded  in 

bold  relief.  The  bezel  is  rectangular  and  en- 
graved in  intaglio  with  a  cock  to  1.  Diam., 
1-0  in.  L.  of  bez.,  '34  in.  [PL  III.  11.] 

All  these  rings  are  of  the  usual  forms  of  Roman  rings, 
which  have  been  hitherto  ascribed  to  the  second  half  of 
the  third  century  A.D.,  and  the  discovery  of  the  Sully 
hoard  shows  that  their  date  had  been  correctly  fixed. 
Nos.  1-3  are  practically  of  the  same  design  and  form. 
They  are  all  angular  in  shape,  and  only  differ  in  the  bezels 
and  in  the  ornamentation  of  the  shoulders  which  support 
the  bezels.  No.  3  varies  in  having  the  shoulders  pierced. 
Of  No.  1  the  shoulders  are  almost  plain,  while  No.  2  is  an 
intermediate  type.  On  No.  1  the  stone  in  the  bezel  is 
plain  without  any  design,  but  on  No.  2  there  is  a  good 
example  of  the  cameo-cutter's  art  of  the  third  century ; 
but  it  is  not  of  very  high  merit  for  its  style  or  workman- 
ship, a  characteristic  of  most  of  the  gems  of  that  period. 
No.  4  differs  considerably  from  the  others  in  having  the 
shoulders  narrow,  and  in  being  moulded  in  high  relief. 
The  bezel,  too,  is  of  the  same  material  as  the  rest  of  the 
ring,  and  the  representation  of  the  cock  is  of  somewhat 
rude  design.  It  is  scarcely  probable  that  these  rings  were 
of  local  fabrication.  The  illustrations  in  the  plate  give  a 
fair  idea  of  their  style  and  form.  By  the  discovery  of 
these  rings  in  this  hoard  their  date  of  manufacture  can  be 
fixed  within  the  limit  of  a  few  years.  As  already  stated, 
the  date  of  issue  of  the  latest  coin  was  about  A.D.  306 ;  and 
if  we  take  into  consideration  the  condition  of  the  rings, 

FIND    OF    ROMAN    COINS   AND    RINGS    NEAR    CARDIFF.          65 

which,  show  a  certain  amount  of  wear,  we  shall  not  be  far 
out  in  ascribing  their  manufacture  to  about  twenty  years 
before  their  concealment  with  the  rest  of  the  treasure. 

It  is  needless  to  speculate  on  the  circumstances  which 
led  to  the  burial  of  this  hoard.  The  presence  of  a  skull 
near  the  spot  affords  no  clue,  as  it  was  probably  in  no  way 
connected  with  the  treasure.  The  hoard,  which  was  of 
considerable  value  at  the  time,  was  evidently  buried  by  a 
private  individual,  who  from  unforeseen  circumstances 
failed  to  unearth  his  property,  and  so  it  remained  concealed 
for  close  upon  sixteen  centuries.  Its  discovery  has  not 
been  without  some  benefit  to  archaeology,  both  numis- 
matically  and  otherwise. 





THE  mutual  dependence  of  numismatics  and  history  is 
illustrated  by  many  famous  papers  in  the  Numismatic 
Chronicle,  in  which  historical  problems  have  been  illu- 
minated by  the  use  of  coins.  Having  paid  some  attention 
to  the  very  obscure  period  of  our  history  covered  by  the 
time  between  the  reign  of  Offa  and  that  of  Alfred,  on 
which  the  numismatic  discoveries  of  recent  years  have 
thrown  some  light,  I  have  ventured  to  put  together  a 
memoir  on  the  reign  of  Ecgberht,  in  the  hope  that  it  may 
be  acceptable,  especially  as  it  contains  some  new,  or  at  all 
events  some  unconventional,  views  about  him. 

One  great  difficulty  in  writing  upon  Ecgberht  is  the 
unsatisfactory  character  of  the  chief  authority  for  his 
reign,  namely,  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  which  during 
this  period,  as  at  an  earlier  stage,  is  full  of  doubtful 
statements,  and  pervaded  by  an  impossible  chronology, 
proving  it  to  have  been  compiled  long  after  the  events. 

The  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  in  my  view,  is  a  transla- 
tion and  not  an  original  composition.  Like  the  similar 
annals  composed  on  the  Continent  at  the  same  period, 
it  was,  I  believe,  composed  in  Latin,  and  was  afterwards 
translated  into  the  vernacular. 

The  Latin  original  of  the  earlier  part  of  the  Chronicle 
was,  I  imagine,  composed  during  the  reign  of  Alfred, 


and  it  seems  to  me  there  are  cogent  reasons  for  attri- 
buting its  composition  to  Asser,  the  biographer  of 
Alfred,  a  view  I  have  not  seen  mentioned  elsewhere, 
but  which  seems  to  me,  for  several  reasons,  very  probable. 

Asser's  master  was  a  king  of  the  West  Saxons,  and  the 
West  Saxons  had  had  a  very  discontinuous  history,  in 
which  the  ruling  house  belonged  first  to  one  and  then  to 
another  foreign  stock,  while  its  annals  were  anything  but 
heroic.  Asser  had  to  construct  a  story  which  should  do  due 
honour  to  the  predecessors  of  his  patron,  and  had  further 
to  give  him  an  ancestry  connecting  him,  if  possible, 
with  the  traditional  kings  of  early  Wessex  history,  and 
he  did  so  by  giving  him  a  pedigree  which  seems  to  me 
to  be  quite  artificial  and  manufactured.  He  says : 
"  Aelfred  rex  films  Aethelwulfi  regis ;  qui  fuit  Ecg- 
berthi ;  qui  fuit  Ealhmundi ;  qui  fuit  Eafa ;  qui  fuit 
Eowwa ;  qui  fuit  In  gild  :  Ingild  et  Ine,  ille  famosus 
Occidentalium  rex  Saxonum,  germani  duo  fuerunt." 
The  same  story,  as  I  believe,  by  the  same  hand,  is  told 
in  regard  to  the  ancestry  of  Aethelwulf  in  the  A.-S.C. 
under  the  year  855. 

This  genealogy  is,  it  seems  to  me,  a  clumsy  attempt  to 
connect  the  stock  of  Alfred  with  that  of  Ine,  the  old 
King  of  Wessex.  Ine's  brother  Ingild  was,  I  believe, 
entirely  an  invention  of  Asser.  He  is  only  once 
mentioned  in  history,  namely,  in  that  most  unsatis- 
factory document,  the  A.-S.C.,  which  I  believe,  as  I 
said,  came  from  the  same  hand — and  which,  under 
the  year  718,  says,  "  This  year  Ingild,  the  brother 
of  Ine,  died."  Now  the  A.-S.C.,  down  to  the  time 
when  Bede  stops,  is  a  mere  compilation  from  Bede,  and 
the  few  additions  which  it  contains  seem  all,  or  nearly 
all,  to  be  doubtful  and  valueless.  Bede,  who  was  the 


very  man  to  have  told  us  of  Ine's  brother  if  he  had  ever 
existed,  knows  nothing  whatever  of  him ;  but  what  is 
more  striking,  and  in  fact  conclusive,  is  that  his  name 
nowhere  occurs  as  a  witness  to  the  charters  of  Ine.  It 
seems  to  me  quite  plain  that  he  was  an  invention  of 
Asser,  meant  to  bridge  over  a  gap  in  the  genealogy. 
The  son  and  grandson  of  Ingild,  Eowa  and  Eafa,  ap- 
parently bear  names  which  are  forms  of  the  same  name. 
They  are  absolutely  unknown  to  history,  and,  so  far  as  I 
know,  occur  nowhere  as  witnesses  to  Anglo-Saxon  charters, 
and  their  names  are  Anglian  in  form.  Similar  names  occur 
as  moneyers  on  Anglo-Saxon  coins,  and  it  was  possibly 
from  such  a  source  that  they  were  derived  by  Asser.  I 
cannot  attach  any  value  to  them  whatever,  and  look  upon 
them  as  inventions  of  the  fabricator  of  the  pedigree. 

The  next  name  in  the  list,  namely,  Ealhmund,  is  en- 
tirely different.  I  have  no  doubt  it  represents  a  real 
person,  and  that  real  person  was  the  father  of  Ecgberht ; 
but  it  is  plain  he  was  not  a  Wessex  man,  and  had  nothing 
to  do  with  "Wessex.  No  such  name  occurs  in  the  Wessex 
charters,  and  it  is  quite  foreign  to  the  old  names  in  that 
district.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  quite  plainly  a  Kentish 
name,  and  he  was  looked  upon  as  a  Kent  man  by  the 
writers  who  refer  to  him,  and  both  Ecgberht  and  Ealh- 
mund, which  are  names  foreign  to  the  name- lists  of 
Wessex,  occur  among  the  royal  names  of  Kent. 

Not  only  so.  If  we  turn  to  the  late  Latin  edition  of  the 
A.-S.C.  known  as  Codex  F,  we  find,  under  the  year  784,  a 
marginal  note  in  a  later  hand,  partly  in  Latin  and  partly 
in  Saxon,  as  follows  :  "  Hie  time  temporisfuit  in  Cantia  rex 
EalJtmundus.  Thes  Ealhmund  ring  was  Eglerhtes  feeder. 
Eyberht  was  A  dhulfes  feeder" 

It  was  apparently  from   Codex  F  that  a  marginator  in 


Codex  A  inserted  in  his  copy  of  the  Chronicle  the  phrase, 
"  To  thy san  titnan  rixode  Ealhmund  cing  innon  Cent." 

These  notices  are  no  doubt  very  late,  and  we  can 
probably  trace  them  to  a  charter  numbered  243  by  Birch1 
and  MX1IL  by  Kemble.2  This  is  a  grant  dated  in  784, 
by  which  Ealhmund,  King  of  Kent,  makes  over  some 
land  at  Seilduuic,  or  Sheldwich,  in  Kent,  to  Hwitred, 
the  abbot,  and  the  monastery  at  Reculver,  and  it  is  con- 
firmed and  assented  to  by  Jaenberht,  Archbishop  of  Can- 

It  is  plain  that  the  marginators  of  the  two  copies  of 
the  Chronicle  above  named  identified  Ealhmund,  the 
father  of  Ecgberht,  with  the  Ealhmund,  King  of  Kent, 
mentioned  in  the  charter  in  784.  This  is  the  only 
charter  in  which  Ealhmund  occurs  as  king,  nor  do  we 
find  him  named  elsewhere  as  king,  nor  did  he  strike  any 
coins,  and  he  was  no  doubt  a  dependant  merely  of  Offa  of 
Mercia.  Three  persons  of  his  name  occur  as  witnesses  to 
the  charters  of  the  Kings  of  Mercia.  One  signs  as  Abbas, 
another  was  Bishop  of  Winchester,  and  a  third  may 
possibly  have  been  the  same  as  the  Ealhmund,  King 
of  Kent,  of  the  above  cited  charter.  In  748,  749,  755-57, 
i.e.,  in  the  reign  of  Aethelbald,  Ealhmund  or  Alhmund 
signs  without  any  descriptive  epithet.  This  was  possibly 
some  other  person.  In  774  we  have  the  signature  Ealh- 
mund dux  (i.e.,  Ealdorman),  in  792  id.,  794  id.,  796  id.y 
all  during  the  reigns  of  Offa  and  Ecgfryth,  and  lastly 
that  of  Ealhmund  princeps  in  the  year  801  in  a  charter  of 
Beorhtric,  King  of  Wessex. 

I  may  add  that  an  Eanmund,  King  of   Kent,  who  is 

1  Cartularium  Saxonicum. 

2  Cod.  Dip. 


otherwise  unnamed,  confirms  a  charter  of  Sigered,  King 
of  Kent,  to  Bishop  Earduulf,  in  the  presence  of  both 
Archbishop  Bregowin  and  Archbishop  Jaenberht  (Birch, 

This  Eanmund  may  possibly  be  the  same  person. 
This  is,  however,  doubtful ;  what  does  not  seem  doubtful 
is  that,  as  Mr.  Plummer  has  urged,  if  Ecgberht  was  the 
son  of  a  Kentish  King  Ealhmund,  it  is  impossible  to 
credit  the  earlier  pedigree  deriving  him  from  Ingild,  for 
the  Kings  of  Kent  had  a  very  clear  and  proud  descent 
of  their  own  from  much  more  famous  people  than  the 
early  rulers  of  Wessex,  and  would  not  have  tolerated  a 
usurpation  by  an  obscure  stock  like  that  of  Ingild.  It 
is  perfectly  plain,  in  fact,  that  the  pedigree  of  Aethelwulf 
as  given  in  the  A.-S.C.  and  by  Asser  is  quite  spurious. 

Let  us,  however,  return  to  Ecgberht.  As  we  have  seen, 
the  marginators  of  the  Chronicle  make  him  the  son  of 
Ealhmund,  King  of  Kent,  and  therefore  a  Kent  man  and 
not  a  Wessex  man  ;  and  if  so,  he  was  really  a  foreigner 
in  the  latter  country,  and  had  no  direct  claim  to  descent 
from  the  Early  Wessex  Kings.  The  view  that  he  did  so 
belong  to  the  Royal  family  of  Kent  is  supported  by  other 

As  we  shall  see  presently,  the  A.-S.C.,  in  describing 
the  conquest  of  Kent  and  its  dependent  districts  from 
Baldred,  speaks  of  them  as  "  having  formerly  been  un- 
justly forced  from  his  kin ''  (i.e.,  from  Ecgberht's).  This 
clearly  points  to  Ecgberht  having,  in  the  eyes  of  the 
chronicler,  belonged  to  the  old  stock  of  the  Kings  of  Kent. 
Henry  of  Huntingdon,  the  rhetorical  embellisher  of  the 
chronicler,  glosses  this  phrase  by  the  explanation  that 
Eadberht  Praen,  who  was  thus  displaced,  was  Ecgberht' s 


This  takes  us  on  to  another  conclusion  of  a  more 
numismatic  nature,  and  to  the  consideration  of  some  coins 
whose  real  meaning  has  been  hitherto  misunderstood. 
These  coins  are  very  scarce,  and  only  two  types  are  known. 
Their  fabric,  etc.,  clearly  points  them  out  as  Kentish 
coins,  and  they  have  always  been  so  treated.  On  the 
obverse  we  read  Ecgberht  with  Re  (Rex)  in  the  centre, 
while  on  the  reverse  is  the  name  of  the  moneyer.  Two 
moneyers  are  known  on  these  coins,  Babba  and  Ydd,  both 
of  whom  occur  on  the  coins  of  Offa,  and  the  former  on 
the  coins  of  his  successor,  Coenwulf,  while  Babba  also 
occurs  on  the  coins  of  Eadberht  Praen,  who  ruled  in 
Kent  in  796-798.  It  seems  to  me  as  plain  as  possible 
that  the  Ecgberht  of  these  coins  was  no  other  than  the 
Ecgberht  son  of  Ealhmund,  King  of  Kent,  already 
named.  The  date  as  fixed  by  the  moneyers  is  absolutely 
consistent  with  this  view.  In  the  catalogue  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  coins  in  the  British  Museum,  vol.  i,  p.  67, 
Mr.  Keary,  in  discussing  these  coins,  adds  a  note  to  the 
effect  that  "  the  Ecgberht  of  the  coins  just  named  was 
formerly  supposed  to  be  the  son  of  Offa,  who  reigned  for 
about  six  months  in  796."  But  this  statement  is  founded 
on  a  mistake.  The  son  of  Offa  in  question  was  not 
called  Ecgberht  at  all,  but  Ecgfryth. 

The  moneyers'  names  point  to  the  coins  just  named  as 
having  been  struck  near  the  end  of  Offa's  reign  and  the 
beginning  of  Coenwulf  s,  while  their  great  scarcity  shows 
that  they  were  only  struck  for  a  short  time.  It  is  not 
improbable  that  it  was  the  fact  of  Ecgberht  striking 
these  coins  which  made  the  Mercian  King  expatriate  him. 
Let  us  now  turn  to  this  expatriation. 

In  the  A.-S.C.,  under  the  year  836,  we  have  the  well- 
known  statement  about  Ecgberht  in  these  words  :  "  Before 


he  was  king,  Offa  King  of  the  Mercians,  and  Beorhtric 
King  of  the  West  Saxons  drove  him  out  of  England  into 
France  for  three  years."  There  is  not  a  word  here  about 
his  having  been  driven  out  of  Wessex,  and  if  he  had  been 
in  Wessex  at  the  time  it  is  not  easy  to  see  why  Offa  or 
any  other  Mercian  king  should  have  intervened,  or  rather 
been  the  chief  person  in  driving  him  out,  while  Beorhtric 
merely  assisted  him,  for  Beorhtric  was  King  of  Wessex. 
On  the  other  hand,  Offa  and  his  family  had  great  pre- 
tensions to  rule  Kent,  and  he  did  in  fact  conquer  it,  and 
put  his  own  proteges  on  the  throne.  When  Ecgberht, 
therefore,  was  driven  out  of  England  and  had  to  seek 
refuge  in  France,  it  was  not  as  a  regulus  or  prince  of 
Wessex,  but  as  a  prince  of  Kent.  Inasmuch  as  both  the 
Kings  of  Mercia  and  of  Wessex  united  to  drive  him  out, 
he  must  have  exercised  considerable  power  there,  and  it 
seems  exceedingly  probable  that  he  was,  in  fact,  King  of 
Kent  after  his  father. 

Let  us  now  turn  to  the  date  of  this  expatriation.  Here  I 
believe  the  Chronicle  to  be,  as  in  so  many  other  cases,  very 
untrustworthy,  and  it  is  certainly  inconsistent  with  itself. 
It  makes  Ecgberht  to  be  expatriated  some  time  between 
the  marriage  of  Beorhtric,  which  it  dates  in  787  (or  when 
corrected,  789),  and  the  death  of  Offa  in  796,  but  in  a  later 
passage  it  makes  Ecgberht  return  home  again  after  the 
death  of  Beorhtric  in  802,  and  yet  only  after  an  absence 
of  three  years.  To  cure  the  mistake  Lappenberg  suggested 
that  we  ought  to  read  thirteen  years  instead  of  three  in  the 
passage,  but  this  is  quite  arbitrary.  It  seems  to  me  much 
more  probable  that  the  chronicler  has  mistaken  the  name 
of  the  Mercian  King.  It  is  not  probable  that  Ecgberht 
would  have  revolted  and  set  up  authority  in  Kent  during 
the  reign  of  the  famous  and  all-powerful  Offa,  but  it  is 


more  probable  that,  like  Eadberht  Praen,  he  would  do  so 
on  the  death  of  that  ruler,  and  during  the  time  of  difficulty 
which  followed  the  premature  death  of  Ecgfryth,  Offa's 
son.  In  that  case  the  Mercian  King,  who  was  in  alliance 
with  Beorhtric,  was  not  Offa  but  Coenwulf.  Eadberht 
Praen's  usurpation  took  place  in  796-798,  and  it  seems  not 
unlikely  that  Ecgberht's  took  place  in  798  or  799,  and  this 
would  make  it  possible  for  him  to  return  in  802  and  yet 
be  away  only  three  years  as  the  Chronicle  says,  and  if  so 
we  must  put  the  coins  we  have  described  at  the  very  close 
of  the  eighth  century. 

When  Ecgberht  fled  from  England  he  went  to  the  court 
of  Charlemagne,  the  friend  and  correspondent  of  Offa, 
who  would  not  be  very  likely  to  receive  an  open  enemy  of 
his,  but  who  doubtless  looked  upon  Coenwulf  or  Kenulf  as 
a  usurper,  and  Charlemagne  was  certainly  pleased  enough 
to  have  such  an  important  personage  at  his  court  to  use  if 
occasion  required  against  the  English.  Of  his  doings  at 
the  Frankish  Court  we  read  nothing  in  our  English 
histories,  but  I  believe  myself  that  he  became  one  of 
Charlemagne's  principal  Paladins,  and  that  his  role  on  the 
Continent  has  been  entirely  overlooked  and  mistaken. 
The  name  of  Ecgberht  is  quite  peculiar  to  these  islands  ; 
was,  so  far  as  I  know,  quite  unknown  on  the  Continent,  and 
was  quite  unused  in  Continental  Saxony,  Old  Saxony  as  it 
was  called.  Now  it  is  a  very  remarkable  fact  that  during 
the  very  time  when  it  would  seem  our  Ecgberht  was  a 
fugitive  beyond  the  Channel  at  Charlemagne's  court,  that 
Emperor  selected  an  Egbert  as  his  locum  tenens  beyond 
the  Rhine  among  the  Saxons,  who  had  been  his  ruthless 
enemies.  It  is  most  improbable  that  he  would  have 
trusted  him  as  he  did  if  he  had  been  a  Continental  Saxon. 
He  is  especially  mentioned  in  the  year  809,  when  we  are 



told  in  Eginhardt's  Annals,  &c.,  that  after  the  Emperor  had 
selected  a  site  for  a  new  city  on  the  Danish  March,  at  a 
place  called  Esesfelth,  on  the  River  Stur,  it  was  taken 
possession  of  by  Egbert  and  the  Saxon  Counts,  and  was 
fortified.  (See  Eginhardt's  Ann.,  Enhard's  Ann.  Fuld., 
and  Ann.  Max.  sttb  ann.} 

In  the  year  811  Egbert  is  specially  named  among  the 
twelve  counts  who  were  nominated  by  Charlemagne  to 
negotiate  about  the  Danish  frontier  with  an  equal  number 
of  Danes.  According  to  the  later  writers,  he  married  St. 
Ida,  and  became  the  father  of  a  certain  Warinus.  Thus  in 
the  Translatio  S.  Pminnce,  2  Ser.  ii.,  681-682,  Wilmans' 
Kaizerurkuwden,  etc.,  I.,  542,  we  read,  Warinus,  nobilissimo 
genere  propagatus ;  Juit  enim  genitus  Echberto,  clarissimo 
comite  et  duce,  matre  splendidissima  nomine  Ida.  Again,  in  the 
life  of  St.  Ida,  written  in  980-983,  we  read  (Ib.  p.  471/.), 
uubi  tune  inter  alios  orientis  proceres,  prsefectus  quidam 
Eccebertus  nomine  advenisse  dicitur — Erat  enim  praedicto 
augusto,  pro  invictse  constantiae  et  prudentise  praeconiis, 
non  mediocriter  acceptus  .  .  .  praccellentissimi  sui  comitis 
.  .  illustris  vir  Ecbertus  ....  deditque  illi  in  eisdem 
partibus  multas  possessiones  de  puplico,  quatenus  viciniori 
potentia  soceris  acceptior  factus,  non  minori  apud  illos 
quam  in  genitali  solo  prsecelleret  dignitate.  Insuper  etiam 
cunctis  Saxonibus,  qui  inter  Hrenum  et  Wisaram  maxima 
flumina  inhabitant,  ducem  praefecit  .  .  .  ad  locum  quendam 
sccns  Lippiam  faimen,  qui  Saxonica  lingua  Hirutfeld  nun- 
cupatur,  amoenis  nemoribus  consitum  .  .  .  Ad  ilium  namque 
dicatum  locum,  qui  est  in  pago  Drehni  in  Lippiee  ripa  flu- 
minis,  nonnulla  illustris  viri  Ecberti  prsedia  respiciebant.J> 
Whatever  the  value  of  these  later  stories,  which  are  doubt- 
less exaggerated,  it  seems  to  me  that  the  probabilities  are 
very  great  indeed  that  the  Count  Egbert  of  Charlemagne's 


historians  was  the  same  person  as  the  expatriated  Kentish 
prince  of  whom  we  are  writing. 

Let  us  now  return  again  to  England.  No  period  of 
English  history  seems  so  obscure  as  that  generally 
assigned  to  the  reign  of  Ecgberht,  King  of  Wessex,  and 
nowhere  is  that  most  unsatisfactory  document,  the  A.-S.C., 
more  unsatisfactory. 

According  to  that  document,  he  returned  to  England 
in  800  (to  be  corrected  to  802),  on  the  death  of  Beorhtric, 
and  it  is  possible  he  did  come  temporarily,  but  only,  as  I 
think,  temporarily,  and  there  were  reasons  of  a  private 
kind  which  would  induce  him  to  visit  the  country,  for  he 
had  estates  in  Hampshire  and  the  Isle  of  Wight.  The 
former  he  speaks  of  as  terra  quam  precessores  mei  atque 
propinqui  jure  michi  hereditario  possidendam  reliquerunt 
(Birch,  389),  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  he  derived 
them  from  some  of  his  female  ancestors.  His  son  Aethel- 
wulf,  as  we  all  know,  married  a  daughter  of  a  grandee 
of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  who  is  described  by  Asser  as  of 
Jutish  descent,  pointing  to  some  family  ties  with  the 
district.  Whether  he  returned  in  802  or  not,  it  would 
seem  that  he  did  not  then  return  here  as  King,  nor  remain 
here,  for  we  neither  find  him  granting  any  charters,  nor 
find  any  mention  of  his  name  again  until  the  year  813, 
which  ought  to  be  corrected  to  815,  when  we  read  that 
King  Ecgberht  laid  waste  West  Wales  from  eastwards 
to  westwards. 

This  description  has  been  generally  accepted  as  refer- 
ring to  Cornwall.  It  is  supported  by  an  entry  in  a 
charter  of  Dunstan's,  first  published  in  the  Anecdota 
Oxoniensia,  in  which  we  are  told  that  "  it  happened  that 
the  West  Welsh  rose  against  King  Ecgberht.  The  King 
went  thither,  and  gave  a  tenth  part  of  the  land  (to  God), 


and  disposed  of  it  as  it  seemed  fit."  We  again  have  to 
wait  some  years  without  a  reference  to  Ecgberht  or  to  the 
name  of  Wessex  in  the  Chronicle. 

In  the  year  821,  we  read  in  the  Chronicle  that  Ceolwulf 
was  deprived  of  his  kingdom,  i.e.,  of  Mercia,  and  the  next 
year  we  read  that  two  ealdormen,  Burghelm  and  Muca, 
were  slain,  possibly  in  the  civil  strife  which  followed.  Up 
to  this  time  we  do  not  find  any  evidences  of  Ecgberht 
exercising  royal  authority  in  Wessex,  and  I  am  disposed 
to  believe  that,  for  the  greater  part  of  the  time,  he  was 
abroad,  and  living  at  the  Carlovingian  Court,  as  I  have 
already  suggested,  and  that,  during  the  reigns  of  Coenwulf, 
who  was  a  masterful  and  warlike  ruler,  and  of  Ceolwulf,  he 
did  not  raise  pretensions  to  the  crown.  We  now  find 
him  very  active  everywhere,  and  exercising  royal  authority. 
The  year  in  which  this  activity  begins  is  823,  which 
ought  to  be  corrected  to  825. 

It  is  surely  very  remarkable  that,  with  the  exception  of 
the  ravaging  of  Cornwall  just  mentioned,  there  is  not  a 
single  fact  mentioned  about  Wessex  and  its  ruler  from 
his  supposed  accession  in  802  till  the  year  825.  It  is 
equally  remarkable  that  after  this  date  Ecgberht  and 
Wessex  occur  continuously  in  the  Chronicle  until  that 
king's  death. 

A  more  important  fact,  however,  than  any  contained  in 
the  A.-S.C.  at  this  date,  when  its  chronology,  etc.,  are  so 
unsatisfactory,  is  that  not  a  single  charter  or  document 
granted  or  conferred  by  Ecgberht  is  known  until  the  year 
824  or  825,  after  which  several  occur.  This  fact  is  in  itself 
almost  conclusive  that  Ecgberht's  reign  over  Wessex  has 
been  entirely  misunderstood.  It  would  appear,  indeed, 
that  until  the  Battle  of  Ellandune,  Wessex  was  subject  to 
Mercia,  and  we  actually  have  grants  of  land  in  Berkshire 


to  the  abbey  of  Abingdon  by  the  King  of  Mercia  during 
the  first  quarter  of  the  9th  century,  in  which  no  mention 
of  Ecgberht  or  any  other  independent  ruler  of  Wessex 
occurs,  and  Berkshire  was  a  focus  of  the  "Wessex  Kingdom 
and  the  birthplace  of  Alfred.  It  is  exceedingly  probable 
that  during  the  first  quarter  of  that  century  Ecgberht 
was,  as  I  have  said,  largely  abroad  at  the  Court  of  the 
Carlovingian  ruler,  and  that  when  he  was  in  England  he 
was  not  there  as  King  of  Wessex,  but  as  a  dependant  of 
the  Mercian  king.  This  seems  to  me  to  explain  what  has 
been  a  puzzle  to  some  enquirers.  In  several  of  Ecg- 
berht's  charters  we  have  an  enigmatical  phrase.  In 
the  dating  of  these  charters  we  read:  Anno  dom.  in. 
DCCCXXVI,  Indictione  IIII.  anno  Ecgbergti  regis 
XXIIII.  ducatus  autem  sui  XIIIL  (Birch,  390,  391, 
and  393).  This  method  of  dating  seems  to  point  to 
something  important  which  happened  in  Ecgberht' s  career 
in  the  year  812  or  813,  and  I  take  it  that  this  date 
coincides  perhaps  with  his  return  from  the  Continent, 
when  he  perhaps  acquired  and  adopted  the  title  of  Dux  (a 
date  roughly  answering  to  that  of  the  death  of  his  patron, 
Charlemagne),  while  he  dated  his  regnal  years  arbitrarily 
from  the  death  of  the  last  King  of  "Wessex.  Now  it  is 
very  curious  that  an  Ecgberht,  who  styles  himself  Dux, 
signs  the  Acts  of  the  Council  of  Clofesho,  held  on  the 
30th  of  October,  824,  which  is  also  signed  by  Beornwulf, 
king  of  the  Mercians,  and  the  Southern  bishops. 

He  also  signs  as  Dux  the  record  of  the  quarrel  of  Arch- 
bishop Wulfred  and  King  Beornwulf,  of  Mercia,  and  of  their 
final  settlement  (Birch,  378,  379,  and  384). 

I  would  suggest  that  until  the  year  825  Ecgberht,  when 
he  happened  to  be  in  England,  was  not  there  as  King  of 
Wessex  at  all,  but  as  a  dux,  i.e.,  doubtless  an  ealdorman, 


or  perhaps  a  reeve,  one  of  several  under  the  Mercian  King, 
and  that  the  "  ducatus  "  to  which  he  refers  was  in  fact  the 
dignity  held  by  him  as  dux.  This  would  account  for  a  great 
many  puzzles  in  the  story,  and  is  surely  a  better  explanation 
than  Mr.  Plummer's,  who  would  translate  Ducatus  by  Bret- 
waldadom.  The  Bretwalda  was  a  personage  of  pan-Anglian 
importance,  and  in  813  Ecgberht  was  almost  an  unknown 
man  in  these  realms ;  besides,  he  is  only  one  of  several 
duces  mentioned  in  charters  at  this  time. 

Let  us  proceed.  It  would  seem  from  several  hints  that 
Ecgberht' s  command  or  dominium,  whatever  its  exact 
nature,  was  at  first  chiefly  exercised  in  the  western  part  of 

Under  the  year  823  (which  ought  to  be  corrected  to 
825)  in  the  Chronicle  we  read  that  there  was  a  battle 
between  the  Welsh  and  the  men  of  Devon  at  Gafulford. 

In  this  battle  Ecgberht  apparently  commanded  the 
English,  for  although  the  fact  is  not  so  stated  in  the 
A.-S.C.,  two  charters,  as  Mr.  Plummer  has  pointed  out, 
were  drawn  up,  "  quando  Ecgbergtus  rex  exercitum 
Gewissorum  movit  contra  Brettones "  (Birch,  390). 
These  charters  are  otherwise  dated  August  19th,  825. 
Gafulford  is  no  doubt  Galford,  in  South  Devon.  This 
victory  of  Ecgberht's  has  been  considered  as  the  final 
subjugation  of  the  West  Welsh  of  Devon  and  Cornwall, 
who  thenceforward  became  incorporated  in  Wessex,  and 
the  way  in  which  it  is  described  perhaps  points  to  Devon 
having  been  the  special  ducatus  of  Ecgberht. 

According  to  the  Chronicle,  the  victory  over  the  West 
Welsh  was  followed  in  the  same  year  by  another  gained 
by  Ecgberht  over  the  Mercian  King  Beornwulf  at 
Ellandune,  in  which  there  was  a  great  slaughter.  The 
situation  of  Ellandune  is  doubtful.  There  is  an  "Ellandune 


with  Allington  "  near  Amesbury.  On  the  other  hand, 
Wroughton,  situated  where  the  Ridgeway  crosses  the 
Ermin  Street,  is  also  called  Ellingdon,  and  was  known  as 
Elendune  in  Domesday.  Each  of  these  sites  has  been 
advocated  (Plummer  ii.,  70  and  71),  but  the  former  seems 
the  more  probable.  Ethelwerd  tells  us  that  in  this  fight 
Hun,  "dux*'  of  the  province  of  the  Sumersaetas,  was 
killed.  As  Hun  signs  charters  in  82ti  (Birch,  377, 
390-392,  398),  either  the  date  in  the  Chronicle  is  wrong, 
or  Ethelwerd  was  mistaken.  It  would  seem  probable 
that  the  date  in  the  Chronicle  is  in  fact  wrong  and  should 
probably  be  826,  in  which  year  William  of  Malmesbury 
puts  the  fight.  This  is  more  likely  than  that,  after 
defeating  the  West  Welsh  in  the  autumn  of  825,  Ecgberht 
should  have  been  able  to  defeat  the  Mercians  the  same 
year,  and  I  would  suggest  that  Ecgberht  in  fact  usurped 
absolute  authority  in  825,  when  his  first  charters  occur,  and 
defeated  the  Mercians  at  Ellandune  the  year  following. 

After  mentioning  the  victory  of  Ecgberht  over 
Beornwulf,  the  Chronicle  goes  on  to  say  that  "he  sent 
from  the  army  his  son,  Aethelwulf,  and  Ealhstan,  his 
bishop,  and  Wulf heard,  his  Ealdorman,  into  Kent  with  a 
large  force,  and  they  drove  Baldred  the  King  northwards 
over  the  Thames,  and  the  men  of  Kent  and  the  men  of 
Surrey  and  the  South  Saxons  and  the  East  Saxons 
submitted  to  him,  for  formerly  they  had  been  unjustly 
forced  from  his  kin." 

Baldred  was  then  King  of  Kent  and  of  the  dependent 
provinces  just  named.  It  is  generally  said  that  Baldred 
reigned  in  Kent  as  a  dependant  of  the  King  of  Mercia, 
and  he  doubtless  did  so,  but  as  he  struck  coins  there  in  his 
own  name  as  Cuthred  his  predecessor  also  did,  it  is  probable 
that  this  dependence  was  not  so  great  as  might  be 


supposed.  The  date  of  this  conquest  of  Kent  by  Ecgberht 
as  given  in  the  Chronicle  seems  to  me  doubtful,  and  that 
document  is  so  untrustworthy  at  this  period,  especially  in 
the  matter  of  dates,  that  one  has  the  less  hesitation  in 
discarding  its  authority.  It  would  seem  more  probable 
that  the  conquest  of  Kent  took  place  in  827,  when  that 
late  compiler,  Roger  of  Wendover,  dates  it.  Ecgberht 
calls  Ealhstan  "  my  bishop/'  As  Ealhstan  was  bishop  of 
Sherborne,  it  perhaps  adds  another  reason  for  placing  his 
ducatm  in  the  west  of  Wessex. 

"Wulf  heard  must  have  been  a  very  prominent  personage 
in  South  Britain  at  this  time.  Not  only  does  he  witness 
several  charters  as  other  magnates  do,  down  to  the  year 
8-28,  but  Ecgberht  made  over  to  him  a  part  of  his  own 
private  domain  in  Hampshire,  which  he  says  had  come  to 
him  by  inheritance  and  probably  through  some  female 
ancestor.  We  learn  this  from  a  charter  (Birch,  377). 
The  land  in  question  consisted  of  22  hides  on  both  sides 
of  the  River  Meone ;  that  is  to  say,  among  the  Meonwaras, 
who,  according  to  Bede,  were  of  Jutish  descent  as  the 
men  of  Kent  were.  In  the  charter,  Ecgberht  calls  himself 
King  of  the  West  Saxons,  and  he  styles  Wulfheard,  in  the 
Latin  part  of  the  charter,  his  prcefect,  while  in  the  Saxon 
part  of  it  he  calls  him  his  reeve.  Four  others  are  styled 
prefects  or  reeves  beside  himself,  one  of  them  being  the 
Hun  already  mentioned.  According  to  the  A.-S.C., 
Wulfheard,  in  the  year  837  (to  be  corrected  to  839), 
fought  at  Hampton,  i.e.  Southampton,  against  thirty-five 
ships  of  the  Norsemen  and  got  a  victory  over  them,  and 
the  same  year  he  died  (op.  cit.  sub  an.  837).  On  the 
conquest  of  Kent  with  its  dependencies,  Ecgberht,  who 
was  no  doubt  an  old  man,  nominated  Aethelwulf  as  its 
King.  "  Filii  nostri  Aetheluulfi  quern  regem  constituimus 


in  Cantia/'  are  his  words  in  a  charter  (see  Birch,  395). 
Aethelwulf  signs  several  charters  as  King  of  Kent,  in  some 
cases  alone,  and  in  others  conjointly  with  Ecgberht,  as 
King  of  Wessex. 

As  has  long  been  known,  and  was  specially  emphasised  by 
Messrs.  Keary  and  Grueber  in  their  catalogue  of  the  A.-S. 
coins  in  the  British  Museum,  the  people  of  Wessex  did 
not  use  any  coins  during  Anglo-Saxon  times  until  the  end 
of  Ecgberht' s  reign,  perhaps  not  till  that  of  Aethelwulf. 
Not  only  do  we  find  no  coins  struck  then  by  any  of  the 
earlier  kings  of  Wessex,  but  according  to  Mr.  Grueber  no 
hoards  of  coins  of  the  earlier  period  occur  there,  and  it 
would  seem  very  clear  that  it  was  only  as  ruler  of  Kent 
that  Ecgberht  struck  coins,  and  that  consequently  all  'his 
coins  are  later  than  the  year  826-7.  With  one  exception 
the  only  place  which  appears  as  a  mint  on  his  coins  is 
Dorobernia  or  Canterbury,  where  a  large  number  of  them 
were  no  doubt  coined.  A  certain  number  of  them  have 
the  name  of  St.  Andrew  upon  the  reverse,  and  they  have 
been  with  great  plausibility  attributed  to  the  Rochester 
mint,  St.  Andrew  being  the  special  saint  of  Rochester. 
Ecgberht  seems  to  have  taken  over  the  whole  of  the 
moneyers  employed  by  Baldred,  his  predecessor,  in  Kent, 
for  their  names,  viz.,  Diormod,  Dunun,  Edhelmod,  Oba, 
Sigestef,  Swefheard,  Tidbearht  and  Werheard  occur  on 
his  coins,  and  we  may  take  it  as  certain  that  whatever  may 
be  the  case  with  his  other  coins,  all  the  money  of  Ecgberht 
with  the  names  of  these  moneyers  was  Kent  money,  and 
was  struck  after  Baldred  was  driven  out. 

Under  the  year  826  (which  ought  to  be  read  828  or 
829)  we  have  in  the  A.-S.C.  the  statement,  "and  the  same 
year  the  king  of  the  East  Angles  and  the  people  sought 
the  alliance  and  protection  of  King  Ecgberht  for  dread  of 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  M 


the  Mercians ;  and  the  same  year  the  East  Angles  slew 
Beornwulf,  King  of  Mercia."  This  subjection  or  submis- 
sion of  East  Anglia  to  Ecgberht  is  important  and  I  pro- 
pose to  discuss  it  on  another  occasion.  The  death  of 
Beornwulf  was  followed  two  years  later  by  that  of  his 
successor  Ludecan  and  his  five  ealdormen,  when  we  are 
told  that  Wiglaf  conquered  the  country  of  the  Mercians. 
This  was  in  825,  to  be  corrected  to  827.  Two  years  later, 
i.e.,  in  829  or  possibly  in  828,  we  are  told  in  the  A.-S.C. 
that  Ecgberht  "  conquered  the  kingdom  of  Mercia  and  all 
that  was  south  of  the  Humber,"  that  is  to  say  he  drove 
Wiglaf  out  and  seized  the  throne  of  Mercia,  and  we  are 
further  told  by  the  same  authority  that  he  led  an  army  to 
Dore  against  the  Northumbrians  and  that  they  there 
offered  him  obedience  and  allegiance  and  with  that  they 
separated  (vide  sub  ami.  827).  Dore  is  no  doubt,  as  Mr. 
Plummer  has  pointed  out,  Dore,  near  Sheffield,  which  was 
on  the  Mercian  frontier.  How  far  we  are  to  credit  the 
statement  of  the  submission  of  Northumbria  at  this  time 
is  doubtful.  The  submission  of  Mercia  is  attested  by 
more  distinct  and  positive  evidence,  namely  that  of  coins. 
Among  the  coins  found  in  London  in  the  famous  hoard  pre- 
sented by  Sir  Wollaston  Franks  to  the  British  Museum,  and 
described  by  Mr.  Grueber  with  all  his  usual  learning  and 
insight,  is  one  of  great  importance  and  interest,  struck  in  the 
famous  Mercian  mint  of  London  and  bearing  the  inscrip- 


tion  on  its  reverse   DONIA,   being  the  first  occurrence 

of  the  name  of  the  metropolitan  city  on  an  Anglo-Saxon 
coin.  On  the  obverse  of  this  coin  and  of  a  second  one  from 
the  same  hoard,  Ecgberht  styles  himself  Ecgberht  Rex  M., 
i.e.,  Ecgberht  King  of  the  Mercians,  being  the  only  occasion 


on  which  he  does  so.  This  second  coin  has  the  moneyer's 
name  Hedmund  on  it,  who  was  also  a  moneyer  employed 
by  Wiglaf,  King  of  the  Mercians.  We,  therefore,  have 
very  strong  evidence  that  Ecgberht  coined  money  at 
Canterbury,  Rochester,  and  London.  The  evidence  is 
also  very  strong  that  all  his  coins  were  minted  in  Kent» 
and  ought  to  be  treated  as  Kentish  coins  and  not  as  coins 
of  Wessex.  At  all  events,  among  his  moneyers  Beornmod, 
Bosel,  Dealla,  Debis,  Diormod,  Dudinc,  Oba,  Osmund, 
Swef  heard,  Tidbearht,  and  Til  wine  all  coined  money  with 
the  Canterbury  mint -mark,  and  some  of  them  for  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  I  know  of  no  evidence 
whatever  of  any  Wessex  coinage  of  Ecgberht. 

According  to  the  A.-S.C.,  Wiglaf  returned  to  rule  over 
Mercia  after  an  absence  of  a  year.  It  dates  his  return 
in  828,  i.e.,  in  830  or  831,  and  a  document  of  his,  dated 
September  1st,  831,  speaks  of  that  year  as  "anno 
primo  secundi  regni  mei."  Birch,  400  ;  see  Plummer, 
ii.,  78. 

The  great  scarcity  of  Wiglaf's  coins  makes  it  probable 
that  when  he  returned  he  did  so  not  as  absolute  ruler  of 
Mercia,  but  as  a  subordinate  of  Ecgberht,  and  that  such 
coins  as  we  have  of  his  are  of  his  first  reign  only.  This 
seems  confirmed  by  the  fact  that  in  the  very  year  of 
Wiglaf's  return  we  are  told  in  the  Chronicle  that  Ecg- 
berht led  an  army  against  the  North  Welsh  and  forced 
them  to  obey  him  (op.  cit.  sub  ann.  828).  He  would 
hardly  have  ventured  thither  if  he  had  not  been  the  real 
master  and  over-lord  of  Mercia.  This  view  has  been  in 
part  generally  held  from  the  time  of  Lappenberg. 

For  a  year  or  two  the  Chronicle  is  silent  about  Ecgberht. 
When  we  next  read  of  him  it  is  in  connection  with  the 
Norsemen.  I  have  a  strong  opinion  that  the  invasions  of 


the  Norsemen,  at  this  period,  have  been  a  good  deal 
misunderstood.  They  came  both  to  France  and  England 
as  the  close  allies  of  the  Celts,  who  had  an  old  and  a  still 
living  hatred  of  the  Teutons.  Their  headquarters  were 
very  largely  Brittany,  the  Channel  Islands,  Ireland,  and 
probably  also  Cornwall,  and  it  was  thence  that  many  of 
their  raids  came,  and  thither  they  retired  with  their 
booty.  The  famous  Delgany  hoard  of  Anglo-Saxon  coins, 
the  account  of  which  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle 2  is  one  of 
the  many  memoirs  it  contains  proving  the  learning  and 
research  of  our  President,  has  one  very  remarkable 
feature  about  it,  beside  the  fact  of  its  having  been  found 
in  Ireland.  This  is  a  negative  fact,  namely,  the  absence 
from  it  of  any  coins  of  Ecgberht,  and  the  presence  in  it 
of  coins  of  the  Kentish  Kings,  Cuthred  and  Baldred,  but 
of  no  coins  later  than  824  A.D.  This  seems  explainable 
only  on  the  theory  that  it  was  the  product  of  some 
Northern  raid,  made  about  or  soon  after  the  accession  of 
Ecgberht,  say  about  824-825,  which  has  escaped  the  very 
careless  and  ignorant  chronicler. 

I  am  disposed  to  think  that  it  was  these  very  Norse- 
men who,  probably,  were  allied  with  the  West  Welsh 
when  they  fought  against  Ecgberht  at  Gafulford, 
and  that,  when  they  withdrew  to  their  headquarters  in 
Ireland,  they  took  the  Delgany  hoard  with  them.  As 
Mr.  Green  remarks,  no  coins  earlier  than  830  have 
occurred  in  the  Swedish  plunder  hoards.  We  next  read 
that  the  heathen  men  made  a  descent  in  the  year  832, 
i.e.,  834  or  835,  upon  Sheppey,  and  the  next  year  Ecg- 
berht fought  against  a  fleet  of  thirty-five  ships  of  them 
at  Carrum  (i.e.,  Charm outh  in  Dorsetshire),  and  the 

2  Ser.  iii.,  1882,  p.  61  sq$. 


heathen  men  maintained  possession  of  the  field,  i.e.,  they 
had  the  best  of  it. 

There  is  very  considerable  doubt  about  this  statement. 
It  is  repeated  in  the  very  same  words,  except  the  sub- 
stitution- of  Aethelwulf  for  Ecgberht,  under  the  year  843, 
which  ought  to  be  corrected  to  845.  It  is  quite  incredible 
that  a  battle  should  have  been  repeated  in  all  its  details 
in  this  way,  and  the  event  no  doubt  took  place  under 
Aethelwulf.  The  year  834  is,  it  will  be  noted,  843 

In  the  year  835,  i.e.,  837,  we  have  a  much  more  prob- 
able entry.  We  are  told  that  a  great  hostile  fleet  came 
to  the  West  Welsh  (i.e.,  to  Cornwall)  and  they  united 
together,  that  is  the  Norsemen  and  the  Cornishmen,  and 
fought  against  Ecgberht,  King  of  the  West  Saxons.  When 
he  heard  of  it  he  went  there  with  an  army  and  fought 
against  them  at  Hengestedun,  i.e.,  at  Hengstone,  and 
put  both  the  Welsh  and  Danish  men  to  flight  (op.  cit* 
sub  ann.  835). 

Next  year,  i.e.,  in  836  (to  be  corrected  to  838-9),  Ecg- 
berht, according  to  the  A.-S.C.,  died  after  a  reign  of 
thirty-seven  years  and  seven  months  (id.).  It  was  once 
the  fashion  to  very  much  exaggerate  the  status  and  posi- 
tion of  Ecgberht,  and  to  treat  him  as  possessing  an  almost 
Imperial  authority  over  all  England.  The  A.-S.C., 
whose  author  had  special  reasons  for  exalting  the  grand- 
father of  Alfred,  describes  him  as  a  Bretwalda,  a  term 
implying  a  great  anachronism ;  and  it  was  gravely  argued 
in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  has  been  accepted  by  more 
modern  historians,  that  he  first  constituted  a  true  king- 
dom of  England.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  as  we  have  seen, 
he  was  originally  a  King  of  Kent,  who,  by  good  luck, 
and  perhaps  by  the  prestige  he  acquired  in  the  Carlo- 


vingiau  court,  and  perhaps,  also,  by  the  aid  of  more 
material  resources  derived  thence,  made  himself  master  of 
Wessex,  and  exercised  a  dominant  influence  over  Mercia 
and  East  Anglia.  In  his  charters  he  styles  himself 
"  King  of  the  West  Saxons,"  Occidentalium  Saxonum  Rex ; 
"  King  of  the  Gewissi,"  rex  Geuuissorum ;  "  King  of 
Kent/'  rex  Cantice  \  "  King  of  the  West  Saxons,  as  well  as 
of  the  Kent  men,"  rex  occidentalium  Saxonum  necnon  et 
Cantuariorum,  and  once  only,  I  believe,  and  this  in  a  very 
doubtful  and  corrupt  charter,  "King  of  the  Anglians," 
rex  Anylorum.  Nowhere  does  he  lay  claim,  either  in  his 
charters  or  on  his  coins,  to  that  position  of  a  "  King  of  all 
England "  that  some  have  made  out  for  him.  Nor  was 
his  power,  so  far  as  we  can  see,  ever  either  so  widespread 
or  so  real  as  that  of  the  great  Mercian  ruler,  Ofia. 

Ecgberht's  charters  were  generally  signed  at  one  or 
other  of  his  royal  vills.  His  principal  residences  were 
apparently  Kingston,  in  Surrey,  and  "  Hompton,"  as  it  is 
called,  in  Hampshire,  by  which  Southampton  is  doubtless 
meant.  The  charter  granting  lands  in  Hampshire  to 
Wulfheard  (Birch,  377)  professes  to  have  been  written  in 
loco  celebri  ubi  dicitur  ac  leak  (i.e.,  Ockley,  in  Surrey),  while 
two  others  were  signed  at  Criodantreop  (?  Crediton),  when 
he  was  on  the  march  against  the  Britons  (Birch,  389,  390). 
There  is  a  notice  in  a  charter  of  Ecgberht  whose  phrase- 
ology has  a  certain  primitive  ring  for  the  Numismatist, 
which  I  may  here  quote.  The  purchase  money  of  certain 
land  at  Scirdun,  or  Sholden,  in  Kent,  is  stated  to  be 
C  mancuses  in  duabus  armillis,  which  was  duly  paid  to 
Ecgberht  in  836  by  the  Clerk  of  St.  Peter's  Abbey,  after- 
wards St.  Augustine's  (Birch,  852). 

A  charter  of  Ecgberht's  dated  in  833  (Birch,  410) 
was  signed  at  the  Royal  villa  of  Dornwerccestre,  and 


one  dated  in  838  (id.  418)  was  signed  at  the  royal  vica 
of  Fraericburna.  This  is  mentioned  in  the  year  777  in 
the  A.-S.C.  as  a  royal  vill  of  OfFa's,  and  was  perhaps  in 

In  the  preceding  paper  the  points  which  I  have  wished 
especially  to  emphasize  are  first,  that  Ecgberht  was  not  a 
West  Saxon  by  origin  or  descent  at  all,  but  a  Kentish 
prince  belonging  to  the  royal  house  of  Kent,  and  that  his 
accession  to  the  kingdom  of  the  South  of  England  meant 
the  appropriation  of  Wessex  by  the  royal  house  of  Kent. 
Secondly,  that  he  was  the  same  Ecgberht  who  struck 
coins  as  King  of  Kent  at  the  end  of  the  eighth  century. 
Thirdly,  that  he  was  very  probably  the  Count  Egbert 
who  lived  at  Charlemagne's  court.  And  lastly,  that  the 
later  coinage  of  Ecgberht  did  not  begin  until  about  the 
year  825,  when  he  first  conquered  Kent,  and  that  it 
continued  to  be  a  purely  Kent  coinage,  with  Kentish 
moneyers,  Kentish  mints,  and  probably,  also,  with  a 
circulation  limited  to  Kent,  and  that  we  ought  not  to 
begin  the  series  of  Anglo-Saxon  coins  of  Wessex,  at  all 
events,  until  after  his  reign.  I  propose  in  another  paper 
to  say  something  of  his  sons  Aethelwulf  and  Aethelstan. 



the  beginning  of  his  reign  until  1630  Charles  I.  issued  half- 
groats  at  the  Tower  more  or  less  resembling  his  father's  last 
coinage,  having  on  both  sides  a  rose  crowned.  These  coins  are 
known  with  the  following  mint-marks :  lis  (1625),  cross  on 
steps  (1625-6),  castle  (1627),  negro's  head  (1627),  anchor 
(1628),  heart  (1629-30),  and  plume  (1630).  In  this  last  year  a 
change  took  place,  and  the  King's  bust  replaced  the  rose  on  the 
obverse,  while  the  royal  arms  in  a  shield  were  substituted  for 
the  second  rose  on  the  reverse.  The  mint-marks  on  the  pieces 
of  this  issue  are,  plume  (1630),  and  rose  (1631),  when  a  further 
alteration  took  place  in  the  bust. 

It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that,  in  1630,  the  double  rose  half- 
groat  and  the  bust  and  shield  half-groat  were  both  issued  and 
both  bore  the  plume  mint-mark.  I  can  add  to  these  a  coin  of 
the  following  description : 

Olv. — Crowned  bust  to  left  with  ruff  within  inner  circle,  but 
dividing  it  below.  Legend  :  CAEOLYS  .  D  :  G  : 
MAG  .  .  B  :  F  :  ET :  H  :  EEX.  M.M.  plume. 

Rev.— Eose  crowned.  Legend  :  IYS  THEONVM  FIEMAT. 
M.M.  plume  ;  no  inner  circle. 

This  piece,  therefore,  is  of  a  type  between  those  of  the  first 
and  second  coinages.  That  it  was  intentional,  rather  than  a 
mistake,  is  likely  because  the  plume  mint-mark  figures  on  both 
sides.  Whether  it  is  to  be  looked  on  as  a  trial-piece  or  not 
must  be  left  to  individual  judgment.  At  all  events,  it  appears  to 
be  so  far  unique. 


Mm.  CAs-oa.  ferM7ol.JX.Pl:  /. 







THE  attention  of  Members  of  the  Numismatic  Society 
is  specially  drawn  to  the  following  Resolution  of  the 
Council,  passed  on  the  2Oth  April,  1899  : — 

"  It  was  Resolved  that  henceforth  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Society  should  be  published  with 
Part  II.  of  the  *  Chronicle '  in  each  year ;  but 
that  the  List  of  Members  should  be  issued  with 
Part  IV.  as  heretofore." 



No.  3. 

No.  4. 

THE  coins  1-3  described  in  the  present  paper  were  ac- 
quired by  the  British  Museum  some  years  after  the  publi- 
cation of  Professor  Percy  Gardner's  well-known  work  on 
Parthian  coinage,  and  are,  I  believe,  unpublished. 

1.  Obv. — Bust  of  Parthian  king  1.,  wearing  helmet  orna- 
mented with  [stag's  horn]  and  foreparts  of  stags  ; 
border  of  dots.  Countermark,  oTANNHC 
around  bearded  male  head  1.,  with  head-dress. 

AHNoZ.  Parthian  king  seated  r.  on  throne, 
holding  bow  ;  in  field  r.,  2r^ 

JR.  Drachm.  Size  -75.  Wt.  59'1  grs. 
British  Museum  (purchased  of  Mr.  C. 
J.  Rodgers  in  1893).  [Fig.  1  obv.} 

VOT.    XX*   THIRD    SERIES.  N 


2.   Obv. — Similar  to  No.  1,  but  countermark,  NH[C]  beside 
male  head  1.  in  helmet  or  cap  with  flaps  ? 

Rev. — Similar  to  No.  1,  but  monogram  in  field  r.,  g 

JR.  Drachm.  Size  '15.  Wt.  52-8  grs. 
British  Museum  (India  Office  Coll.). 
[Fig.  2  061;.] 

These  drachms  are  of  the  not  uncommon  class  ascribed 
by  Gardner  to  Mithradates  II  (circ.  B.C.  123 — circ.  B.C. 
88).  It  is  possible  that  they  may  belong  to  a  somewhat 
later  date  (Phraates  III  P),1  but  in  any  case  they  can 
hardly  be  later  than  the  middle  of  the  first  century  B.C. 
Their  interest  lies,  of  course,  in  their  countermarks.  The 
clearest  stamping  is  on  No.  1,  on  which  we  see  a  head 
wearing  apparently  a  kind  of  polos  such  as  was  some- 
times assumed  by  the  Achaemenid  monarchs.  This  head 
is  identified  by  the  name  OTANNHC.  The  same  name 
is  to  be  conjectured  on  No.  2,  where  the  countermark  is 
partly  off  the  flan,  but  the  small  head  appears  to  differ 
from  that  of  No.  1,  and  the  head-dress  recalls  that  of  a 
satrap,  and  is  not  unlike  the  "  Scythian  "  helmet  found 
on  the  earliest  Arsacid  drachms.  The  details,  however, 
are  not  very  distinct. 

Otannes,  or  rather  Otanes  fOrai/?/?),  was  a  name 
borne  by  various  Persians  of  noble  rank,  and  occurs 
several  times  in  the  writings  of  Herodotus.  Otanes,  son 
of  Pharnaspes,2  was  the  first  to  detect  the  imposture  of 
the  false  Smerdis,  but  when  Darius  Hystaspes  claimed 

1  The   remarkable   coins  published   by  Markoff  and  Rapson 
(see  Num.  Chron.,  1893,  p.  203  f.)  seem   to  me   to  necessitate 
several   changes  in  the   arrangement   of  the    earlier   Parthian 
series,  and  I  hope  before  long  to   set  forth  my  suggestions  in 

2  Hdtus.t  in.,  68-84.     On  his  family  and  royal  connections, 
see  Rawlinson's  Herodotus,  iv.,  257  f. 

OTANES,    AND    PHRAATES    IV.  91 

the  throne  (B.C.  521),  he  stood  aside  on  condition  that  he 
and  his  descendants  should  be  exempted  from  the  royal 
authority,  and  that  a  Median  dress  and  other  honourable 
gifts  should  be  annually  presented.  These  conditions 
were  faithfully  observed,  and  "  still  to  this  day,"  says 
Herodotus  (iii.,  83),  "  the  family  of  Otanes  continues  to 
be  the  only  free  family  in  Persia,  and  those  who  belong 
to  it  submit  to  the  rule  of  the  king  only  so  far  as  they 
themselves  choose,  though  they  are  bound  at  the  same 
time  to  observe  the  laws  of  the  land." 

Another  Otanes,  who  lived  in  the  sixth  century,  was  a 
Persian  general  and  judge.  He  was  the  son  of  Sisamnes, 
the  royal  judge  who  was  put  to  death  and  then  flayed  by 
Cambyses  for  delivering  a  wrongful  judgment  procured 
by  a  bribe.  Cambyses,  according  to  the  griiri  story  of 
Herodotus  (v.,  25),  stretched  the  skin  of  Sisamnes  on  the 
judicial  bench,  and  then  promoted  Otanes  to  his  father's 
post,  bidding  him  to  bear  in  mind  "  on  what  seat  he  sat 
to  administer  justice."  In  the  time  of  Alexander  another 
Otanes  is  mentioned  (Arrian,  Anab^  3,  8,  5)  as  a  Persian 
commander,  but  there  seems  to  be  no  record  of  any 
Otanes  of  the  period  of  our  coins.  The  name,  however, 
was  doubtless  long  existent,  for  inscriptions  of  Termessus 
in  Pisidia  relate  to  a  Marcus  Aurelius  Platonianos  Otanes, 
a  priest  of  Termessus.3 

The  Otanes  of  the  coins  may,  conceivably,  be  a  satrap 
who  rebelled  against  the  Parthian  king,  and  who  stamped 
the  current  Arsacid  money  with  his  own  head  ;  but  I  am 
inclined  rather  to  think  that  he  was  a  governor  or  other 

3  (7.  /.  G.,  No.  4366r ;  Lanckoronski,  Villes  tie  la  Pan- 
phiflie,  ii.,  inscriptions  Nos.  6,  49,  123  ;  G.  Cousin  in  Bull. 
con-.  Ml.,  1899,  pp.  175,  190. 


high  official  of  Persis,  and  not  necessarily  antagonistic  to 
Arsaces.  Persis,  though  of  course  subordinate  to  Parthia, 
seems  to  have  retained  the  privilege  of  coinage  through- 
out the  period  of  Arsacid  rule.4  It  is  even  possible  that 
we  have  here  to  do  with  some  descendant  of  Otanes,  the 
independent  son  of  Pharnaspes. 

8.  Ol>v.  —  Bust  of  Parthian  king  L,  bearded,  wearing  diadem, 
jointed  necklace  with  clasp,  and  cuirass  ;  behind 
head,  crescent  and  star  ;  border  of  dots. 

[AP]E    AKoYAIo[C  ?] 
BAEIAE11N          EY     EPfEToY 


Parthian  king  seated  r.  on  throne,  holding  bow  ; 
in  field  r.,  2-p 

M.  Drachm.  Size  -85.  Wt.  63  grs. 
British  Museum  (purchased  in  1883 
from  A.  Coroyantz).  [Fig.  3.] 

4.   Obv.  —  Similar  to   No.    3,   but  without  crescent  and  star  ; 
before  neck,  pellet. 

Rev.—  BACIAEYoNToL    APE   AKoY 


AlKAloY  >1AI<PIA3A 

ET)l<t>ANoYE     AHNoE       Similar  to  No.  3. 

M.  Drachm.  Size  '75.  Wt.  6C'3  grs. 
British  Museum  (purchased  in  1877 
from  llolliii)  —  Gardner,  Parthian 
Coinaye,  p.  37,  "  Mithradates  III." 


4  The  coinage  of  Persis  (usually  with  Fire  Altar  and  Pehlvi 
inscriptions)  and  the  kindred  coinage  now  sometimes  assigned 
to  Elymais  still  need  further  investigation.  M.  Drouin's 
papers  on  these  coins  are  well  known,  and  it  is  much  to  be 
wished  that  he  may  have  leisure  to  give  us  a  complete  corpus  of 
all  the  known  varieties. 



No.  3  is  remarkable  in  several  respects.  It  furnishes  an 
almost  unique  instance  of  a  date  appearing  on  a  Parthian 
drachm,  for  FoZ  can  hardly  be  interpreted  except  as  a 
date — namely,  year  "  273  "  of  the  Seleucid  era,  equivalent 
to  B.C.  40-39. 

It  gives  the  personal  name  (Phraates)  of  the  issuer,  in 
addition  to  the  dynastic  name  "  Arsaces,"  which,  as  a 
rule,  is  alone  present  on  the  coins.  Whenever  the  per- 
sonal name  occurs  (except,  perhaps,  in  the  case  of  the 
latest  Parthian  kings)  it  seems  to  indicate  either  that  two 
rival  sovereigns  were  in  the  field,  or  that  two  sovereigns 
were  reigning  jointly.  Thus,  Vonones  I  commemo- 
rates his  victory  over  Artabanus  by  the  inscription, 
Goterzes,  Pacorus  II,  and  Artabanus  "  IV ):>  protest 
against  rival  claims  by  placing  their  individual  names 
upon  their  money.  The  names  of  Orodes  I  and  his  son 
Pacorus  I  also  appear  upon  the  coins,  though  in  this  case 
it  is  a  question  not  of  a  disputed  succession,  but  of  a 
joint  rule.  The  "  Phraates  "•  mentioned  on  our  No.  3 
must,  therefore,  have  been  either  the  rival  or  the  associate 
of  another  "  Arsaces." 

The  expression  ETTIKAAOYMENOY  is  remarkable, 
and  seems  to  mean  "Arsaces  whose  personal  name  is 
Phraates."  It  nearly  finds  a  parallel  in  the  coin-in- 
scription of  Goterzes:  TOTEPZHZ  BAZIAEYZ 
APTABANOY  (Gardner,  p.  49,  No.  25;  p.  64).5 

5  The  incomplete  letter  of  AIO-  in  the  inscription  of  No.  3 
would  seem  to  be  E,  but  the  application  of  the  name  of  Zeus 
(AIQL)  to  a  Parthian  king  is  without  example  on  the  coins. 
Perhaps  the  true  reading  is  AIOY,  in  which  case  the  word 
would  be  equivalent  to  the  0EOY  which  appears  on  the  coins 
attributed  by  Gardner  (p.  37)  to  Mifchradates  III. 


The  portrait  and  necklace  of  No.  3  are  similar  to  those 
on  No.  4,  a  coin  which,  together  with  other  similar  pieces 
(usually  with  the  inscription  0EOY),  has  been  assigned 
by  Gardner  to  Mithradates  III,  the  brother,  and  for  a 
time  the  rival,  of  the  famous  Orodes.  Yet,  plausible  as 
this  attribution  appears,  it  now  seems  to  be  negatived  by 
the  appearance  of  the  name  "  Phraates."  Now,  this 
Phraates  can  hardly  be  any  other  than  Phraates  IV, 
the  son  and  successor  of  Orodes,  and,  indeed,  if  FOZ 
be  accepted  as  a  date,  the  coin  is  fixed  to  the  year 
40-39  before  our  era.  This  date  falls  within  the  reign 
of  Orodes,,  who  did  not  die  till  B.C.  37,  but  we  know 
from  Dio  (49,  23)  and  Justin  (42,  4)  that  Phraates  was 
actually  appointed  king  in  the  lifetime  of  his  father. 
These  writers  assign  the  appointment  of  Phraates  to  the 
year  38  or  37,  representing  it  as  due  to  the  helpless 
and  despairing  condition  of  Orodes  after  the  loss  of  his 
favourite  son  Pacorus  in  the  summer  (9th  June)  of  B.C. 
38.  Their  account  is  thus,  so  far,  inconsistent  with  the 
date  on  our  coin,  but  it  is  quite  possible  that  Phraates — 
the  most  unscrupulous  of  Parthian  kings — had  already 
assumed  the  royal  title  in  B.C.  40-39,  perhaps  taking 
advantage  of  Pacorus's  absence  in  Syria  and  Asia  Minor. 
He  would  then  have  begun  to  issue  coins  of  a  somewhat 
new  design,  but  still  bearing  the  head  of  Orodes. 

The  coin  No.  4  I  imagine  also  to  have  been  struck  at 
about  the  same  period  as  No.  3,  and  in  the  use  of  the 
participle  BAZIAEYONTOZ  instead  of  the  customary 
BA2LIAEH5:  we  may  perhaps  detect  the  existence  of  a 
joint  rule.  Mr.  Gardner  (p.  37)  was  somewhat  inclined 
to  think  that  the  use  of  the  participle  was  a  meaningless 
variety  of  BAXIAEHZ,  yet,  as  I  have  elsewhere  sug- 
gested (Num.  Chrou.,  1899,  p.  109),  the  participle  some- 

OTANKS,    AND    PHRAATES    IV.  95 

times  seems  to  indicate  that  the  issuer  claims  something 
less  than  complete  authority  over  the  coin.  Thus  we 
find  Antimachus,  King  of  Bactria,  making  use  of 
BAZIAEYONTOZ  ANTIMAXOY  when  he  strikes  a 
coin  commemorating  another  Bactrian  king — his  prede- 
cessor Euthydemus,  EY0YAHMOY  0EOY. 

If,  then,  Nos.  3  and  4  are  assigned  to  the  closing  years 
of  Orodes,  B.C.  40-37,  we  are  almost  compelled  to  place  in 
the  same  period  the  coins  with  similar  portrait  and  neck- 
lace which  Gardner  has  assigned  to  Mithradates  III,  and 
to  suppose  that  they  were  all  issued  in  the  reign  of 
Orodes  but  under  the  influence  of  Phraates.6  Mr. 
Gardner  has,  indeed,  already  pointed  out  that  the  portrait 
of  his  "  Mithradates  III "  closely  resembles  that  of 
Orodes,  though  he  has  supposed  the  resemblance  to  be 
due  to  the  family  likeness  between  the  two  brothers. 


*  This  attribution  is  not  free  from  at  least  one  difficulty — 
namely,  that  some  of  the  specimens  have  the  simple  title 
BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAOY,  while  the  coins  that  are  ad- 
mitted to  be  of  Orodes  have  always  the  title  BAXIAEflZ 
BAZIAEHN.  Gutschmid  (Geschichte  Irans.,  p.  83)  main- 
tains that  the  coins  of  Gardner's  "  Mithradates  III  "  belong  to 
Phraates  III  (B.C.  70-57),  because  they  generally  have  the  title 
0EOY,  a  title  known  from  Phlegon  to  have  been  borne  by 
Phraates  III.  Our  drachm  (No.  3)  with  the  name  "  Phraates  " 
would  support  Gutschmid's  contention,  were  it  not  for  its  date, 
B.C.  40-39,  which  is  several  years  subsequent  to  the  death  of 
Phraates  III. 

It  should  perhaps  be  added  that  the  correctness  of  Gardner's 
reading  of  the  coin-inscription  of  Goterzes  (p.  93  supra)  is  quite 
borne  out  by  a  drachm  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  in  1881. 
Gutschmid  (op.  cit.,  p.  123)  disputed  the  reading,  and  gives  the 
almost  humorous  rendering  : — "Goterzes,  Konig  der  Konige  der 
Areaner,  Sohn  des  Ge,  Kalymenos  [alter  ego?~\  des  Artabanos." 




LES  provinces  romaines  de  POrient  et  particulierement 
1'Asie  Mineure  et  la  Syrie,  epuisees  par  les  depredations 
des  magistrats-gouverneurs  de  la  Hepublique  romaine, 
ruinees  par  les  publicains  et  les  manieurs  d'argent  du 
genre  d'an  Brutus,  affaiblies  par  les  troubles  consecutifs 
a  la  guerre  de  Mithridate  et  aux  guerres  civiles,  com- 
rnencent  a  reprendre  haleine  sous  1'Empire.  L'indus- 
trie,  source  de  toute  fortune  pour  ces  pays,  renait  sous 
Auguste  et  continue  de  prosperer  sous  ses  successeurs 
du  ler  siecle.  Les  fabriques  d'Antioche,  d'Alexandrie, 
d'Egypte,  d'Epnese,  de  Milet  reprennent  activite  et  re- 
pandent  leurs  produits  dans  1'Occident  ;  des  centaines 
des  villes  de  moindre  importance  les  suivent  dans  cette 
voie ;  les  capitaux  s'amassent  de  nouveau  dans  les  mains 
des  citoyens  des  grands  centres  industriels  et  les  dona- 
tions, les  constructions,  les  fetes  dont  des  milliers  d'in- 

AQPEA  error  TAPCQ.  97 

scriptions  ont  garde  le  souvenir,  temoignent  de  la  puis- 
sance economique  du  pays  et  de  la  prodigalite  des  grands 
capitalistes  proprietaires  des  cites  greco-asiatiques.  II  ne 
faut  que  relire  la  grande  inscription  du  rhodiapolitain 
Opramoas,1  ce  millionaire  lycien,  pour  entrevoir  cette 
expansion  vraiment  merveilleuse  des  forces  e"conomiques 
d'un  pays,  cette  resurrection  de  la  vie  hellenistique, 
creee  par  Alexandre,  sous  un  regime  qui  en  matiere  de 
politique  administrative  et  economique  s'appliquait  a 
imiter  ses  predecesseurs. 

Les  empereurs  eux-memes,  dont  1'attention  au  premier 
siecle  apres  J.-Chr.  se  tournait  plutot  vers  ^Occident  qu'ils 
reorganisaient,  en  prenant  le  plus  souvent  modele  sur  le 
monde  hellenistique,  voyant  cette  renaissance  de  F Orient 
qui  etait  leur  ressource  principale  en  matiere  d'impots 
en  argent,  ou  ils  cherchaient  et  trouvaient  toujours  des 
capitaux  pour  leurs  guerres,  1'entretien  de  Tarmee  et  de  leur 
vie  parfois  si  luxueuse,  se  sentent  attires  par  cet  Orient  si 
riche  et  si  productif,  patrie  de  tout  luxe  et  de  tout  raf- 
finement,  patrie  des  superstitions  et  du  culte,  qui  con- 
queraient  le  monde,  patrie  enfin  du  systeme  monarchique 
qu'on  cherchait  de  plus  en  plus  a  substituer  a  ce 
melange  inorganique  de  republique  et  de  monarchie  cree 
par  Auguste.  Neron  se  sentait  en  outre  attire  par 
T Orient  plutot  comme  artiste  et  ami  des  arts  et  de  la 
culture  grecque,  mais  Adrien,  suivant  en  cela  1'exemple 
de  son  predecesseur  Trajan,  qui  avait  reorganise  la 
Bithynie  et  le  Pont,  fait  ses  voyages  dans  1'Orient 
comme  administrateur  et  reorganisateur,  cherche  et 
trouve  en  Asie  et  en  Egypte  les  principes  de  sa  politique 

1  Voy.  la  publication  de  la  suite  des  decrets  en  I'honneur 
d'Opramoas  faite  par  M.  Heberdey.  (Wien,  1896.) 



administrative  et  s'y  sent  raffermi  dans  ses  idees  de 
monarque  absolu.  Ses  successeurs  immediats  sont  trop 
occupes  de  leurs  guerres  sur  le  Danube  et  le  Rhin  pour 
pouvoir  suivre  la  politique  orientale  d'Adrien,  mais  les 
idees  d'Adrien  sont  reprises  par  la  dynastie  des  Severes, 
la  premiere  dynastie  qui  ait  place  une  femme  d'Orient 
sur  le  trone  et  donn£  a  Rome  des  empereurs  semi- 
orientaux  comme  Caracalla,  Elagabale  et  Alexandre 

Ce  n'est  pas  ici  le  lieu  de  developper  les  idees  que 
nous  venons  d'esquisser,  mais  ces  quelques  indications 
etaient  necessaires  a  1'intelligence  de  quelques  faits  qui 
expliquent  et  mettent  en  pleine  lumiere  la  politique 
orientale  des  empereurs  du  IIe  et  III6  siecle  apres  J.-Chr. 

Ce  qui  manquait  aux  pays  industriels  de  1'Orient 
c'etaient  les  denrees  naturelles,  surtout  le  ble ;  on  en 
produisait  beaucoup  dans  les  grands  domaines  de  la  pro- 
vince d'Asie,  de  la  Bithynie,  de  la  Galatie,2  mais  cette 
production  ne  suffisait  pas  a  la  population  du  reste  de 
1'Asie  et  de  la  Syrie.  Les  villes  industrielles  de  la  Lycie, 
de  la  Pisidie,  de  la  Cilicie,  de  la  Syrie  souffraient  beau- 
coup  de  disettes  produites  par  les  mauvaises  recoltes  dans 
]es  provinces  agricoles  de  1'Asie.  Leur  principale  res- 
source  dans  ces  temps  de  disette  etait  toujours  1'Egypte, 
pays  agricole  par  excellence,  et  nous  voyons  souvent  aux 
temps  hellenistiques  1'Egypte  secourir  les  ville  de  TAsie.3 

2  Sur  ces  domaines  voy.  Ramsay,  Geography  of  Asia  Minor, 
p.  173,  et  Cities  and  Bislt oprics,  p.  278-293  ;  Anderson,  Jo urnal 
of  Hellen.   Studies,    1897,   p.   418,   et  1899,  p.  76  ;  Schulten, 
Romische    Mittheilungen,   1898,   p.   221   suiv. ;   et  Rostowzew, 
Histoire  de  la  ferine  d'etat  sous  V empire  romain,  p.  144  et  suiv. 
(Petersbourg,  1899,  en  russe). 

3  V°v-  par  ex.  Athnocl.  Tars.,  apud  Clem.  Alex.,  Protrept., 


II  en  fut  autrement  dans  1'empire  remain ;  le  grain 
d'Egypte  fut  exclu  de  la  circulation  libre  ;  la  ville  de 
Rome  devint  le  depot  unique  du  ble  egyptien  et  la  plebe 
romaine  nourrie  par  les  empereurs  le  consommait  a  elle 
seule.  Pareille  mesure  provoqua  des  famines  dans  TOrient 
qui  implora  la  permission  d'acheter  du  ble  en  Egypte  et 
parfois  Tobtint.  Sous  Auguste  la  Judee  reyoit  la  permis- 
sion du  prefet  d'Egypte  de  nourrir  le  peuple  du  ble 
achete  en  Egypte.4  C'est  un  fait  tres  caracteristique 
qu'il  faille  descendre  jusqu'au  regne  d' Adrien  pour  re- 
trouver  mention  du  ble  egyptien  transporte  en  Asie. 
Sous  Adrien  il  s'agit  de  concessions  du  ble  egyptien  faites 
aux  villes  d'Ephese  et  de  Tralles.5  D'autres  textes  nous 
parlent  de  cadeaux  faits  par  Adrien  aux  villes  grecques, 
de  mesures  prises  pour  nourrir  et  embellir  les  villes 
de  1' Orient,6  ce  qui  montre  assez  1'interet  particulier 
qu' Adrien  portait  a  1' Orient. 

Mais  c'est  surtout  sous  la  dynastie  des  Severes  que  les 
liberalites  imperiales  se  multiplient.  Les  monnaies 
fournissent  a  ce  sujet  des  renseignements  precis  com- 
pletes par  d'autres  donnees.  Septime  Severe,  lors  de  la 
guerre  contre  Pescennius  Niger,  recompense  la  cite  de 

p.  14  ed.  Sylb.  (Fragm.  Hist.  Graec.,  iii.,  p.  487):  ol  pev  yap 
OLVTOV  (2apa7Tiv)  i&TOpovcn  ^aptfrr^ptov  VTTO  ^ivwneaiv  riroAe/xota> 
T(3  $iX«8eA.0a)  TO)  AiyuTTTiwv  7re/x,0^i/ai  /?a.criAeI  o?  Xi^uw  rpv^o- 
fj.€vovs  avrovs  a,7r'  AlyvTrrov  /xeTaTre/x^a^evos  diTov  aveKTrieraro.  .  .  . 
/xovos  Trapa  ^eAeuAce'wv  Tail/  Trpog  'Ai/Ttd^etaf  TO  ayaAyua 
Xcyet  iv  o-tro^em  KOI  avrwv  yevo/xevcoj/  /cat  VTTO 

4  Joseph.,   arch.,  15,  9,  2;  Hirschfeld,  Annona  (Philologus, 
1870),  p.  24  note. 

5  Dittenberger,  Sylloge,   286  ;    Bull,   de  con:  hell.,  i.,  291  ; 
C.  I.  Gr.,  ii.,  2927  et  2930;  Hirschfeld,  Annona,  p.  27  note; 
Liebenam,  Die  Stddtevenvaltung,  p.  118,  2. 

6  Dio,  69,  5,  3  et  16,  2  (Ath'enes). 


Laodicee,  qui  tint  bon  centre  1'usurpateur,  en  lui  assignant 
une  somme  d'argent  pour  acheter  du  ble  7  et  Caracalla 
lors  de  son  voyage  en  Orient  renouvelle  et  augmente  peut- 
etre  cette  donation,  comme  on  peut  1'induire  des  monnaies 
de  Laodice-e  a  la  legende  AETERNVM  BENEFICIVM 
et  au  type  du  modius.8  Une  liberalite  du  meme  genre 
nous  est  connue  pour  le  temps  d'Elagabale  a  Sidon.9  Ce 
n'etait  pas  une  donation  du  ble  proprement  dite  ;  la  ville 
recevait  un  capital  dont  les  revenus  devaient  etre  assignes 
aux  magistrats  charges  de  veiller  a  P  appro  visionnemen-t  de 
la  ville  aux  airwvai  ou  ayopavo/jioi. 

Des  donations  en  ble  nous  sont  connues  par  d'autres 
monnaies  a  Tarse  en  Cilicie:  les  monnaies  de  Caracalla  et 
d'Alexandre  Severe  mentionnent  une  fiwpea  aeirov  ou 
Tapaou  (retro?.  Les  types  principaux  de  ces  monnaies  ont 
ete  decrits  par  M.  Hill  dans  son  catalogue  des  monnaies 
de  la  Cilicie.10  Nous  saisissons  cette  occasion  pour  re- 
mercier  vivement  M.  Hill  de  la  permission  qu'il  nous  a 
donnee  de  citer  les  bonnes  feuilles  de  son  catalogue  qui 
paraitra  prochainement.  II  suffira  de  donner  ici  les  types 
les  plus  caracteristiques  : 

1.  Hill,  No.  198  :  AVT  .  KAI  .  M  .  AVP  .  C6VHPOC  . 
ANTONeiNOC,  and  in  field,  Fl  Fl.  Bust 
of  Caracalla  r.,  laureate,  wearing  paludamentum 
and  cuirass. 

7  Malalas,  xii.,  293  (Bonn)  :   /cat  Trapeaxtv  O.VTOL<S  KOLL 
^pr)/x,ara  TroXXa   errjcna   Beo-Trivas   ^X€Lr  a^TO^?  €^  fTravop 
TToAews  avTwv.     Cf.  Eckhel,  Doctrina  numorutn,  iii.,  321. 

8  Eckhel,  Doctr.  num.,  iii.,  321  ;    W.  Wroth,  Catalogue  of  the 
Greek  Coins  in  the,  British  Museum,  Galatia,  &c.,  p.  260. 

9  Eckhel,  I.e.  •  Babelon,  Les  Perses  Achemenides,  p.  261  suiv., 
Nos.  1795-1802. 

10  Catalogue  of  the  Greek  Coins  in  the  British  Museum,  Cilicia, 
&c.,  introd.  p.  xcv  et  cxv,  et  p.  199,  Nos.  198-201,  comp.  p.  202, 
Mo.  213. 


ANTftNIWANHC     C€VH(pta^s)     AAP- 
(tai^s);  in  ex.,  TAPCOY  C6ITOC;  infield 

above,  f,  B  ;  1.,  A ;  r.,  M,  K.     Galley  sailing  to 
1. ;  below,  fishes  (v.  notre  dessin). 

2.  No.  213:  [A  .  K  .  M  .  A-]  C€OV(i}pos)  AA6IAN- 
APOC  .  C6B-,  and  in  field,  fl  PI.  Bust  of 
Beverus  Alexander  r.,  wearing  crown  of  demi- 
ourgos  and  draped. 

Rev.— AWP6A  .  AAEXAN[3P]OV  TA(p<™)  MH- 
(rpomiAtt) ;  in  field,  1.,  A,  M,  f~;  r.,  [K]  [B]. 
Galley  sailing  r.  (the  sail  appears  to  be  repre- 
sented wrongly) ;  below  it,  two  dolphins  r.  and  1., 
with  their  heads  to  a  circle  between  them. 

Comp.  la  monnaie  de  Caracalla  publiee  par  Babelon  u 
a  la  legende  fiwpea  <rem>u  CLTTO  'EY^TTTOU)  (sic)  Tapaw  et 
le  type  de  Triptoleme  sur  le  char  attele  de  dragons  ailes. 

Cette  serie  monetaire  est  tres  interessante  de  plusieurs 
points  de  vue.  Une  question  chronologique  se  pose  tout 
d'abord.  Quand  et  a  quelle  occasion  eut  lieu  le  cadeau 
de  Caracalla  a  la  ville  de  Tarse  ?  On  peut  penser  soit  a 
1'epoque  ou  Caracalla  allant  en  Asie  pour  la  premiere 
fois  remettait  1'ordre  dans  les  affaires,12  soit  a  la  periode 

11  Ann.  de  numismatigue,  1883,  p.  20. 

12  Herod.,  4,  8,  6. 


qui  suivit  la  revolution  d'Egypte.  Toutefois  il  est  bien 
possible  que  les  troubles  d'Egypte  soient  en  rapport  avec 
les  liberalites  mentionnees  de  Caracalla.  Le  type  des 
monnaies  frappees  a  propos  de  la  soumission  de  PEgypte13 
semble  indiquer  que  la  cause  principale  de  1'insurrection 
et  des  represailles  qui  la  suivirent  fut  les  exactions  en 
nature  et  en  argent  ordonnees  par  Caracalla  lorsqu'il  pre- 
parait  1'expedition  parthique.14  Le  ble  qui  fut  donne  a 
Tarse  provenait,  cornme  nous  1'avons  vu,  des  greniers  de 
1'Egypte.  Tarsos  a  du  rendre  quelques  services  auK  em- 
pereurs,  soit  avant  la  revolte  d'Egypte  dans  la  premiere 
guerre,  soit  pendant  et  apres  la  reyolte  ;  non  content  de 
lui  donner  des  cadeaux  en  ble  Caracalla  lui  assigne  le 
surnom  honorifique  d'  'Ai/Twi/fi/ta^//.  II  est  bien  possible 
que  la  riche  cite  industrielle  de  la  Cilicie  a  aide  1'empe- 
reur  de  son  argent  lors  de  ces  entreprises  guerrieres.  On 
assignerait  volontiers  les  mernes  causes  aux  cadeaux  et 
honneurs  que  Tarsos  re£ut  d'Alexandre  Severe.15 

A  Tune  des  deux  distributions  mentionnees  se  rapporte 
un  monument  curieux  que  j'ai  trouve  dans  la  riche  collec- 
tion des  tesseres  en  plomb  du  British  Museum.  C'est 

13  Cohen,  iv.,  p.  179,  No.  334  :   "  Caracalla  en  habit  militaire 
debout  a  g.  foulant  aux  pieds  un  crocodile,  tenant  une  haste  et 
recevaut   deux  epis  que  lui  presente  1'Afrique  (plutot  1'Egypte) 
qai  tient  un  sistre." 

14  Cf.  (rriechische  Urkuuden  des  JlerUner  Museums,  No.  655. 

15  II  est  a   noter  que  les  surnoms  honorifiques  de  Tarsos  ne 
commencent  qu'avec  Arlrien,  ce  qui  est  la  regie  pour  la  plupart 
de   villes  asiatiques.       Meme  remarque  pour  les   litres  /u,^r/oo- 
TroAts  et  i/ewwJpos.     Comp.  pour  les  temps  posterieurs  la  monnaie 
d'Aurclien  au  tyy  e  de  la  femme  debout  accostee  de  deux  modii 
sur  lesquels   elle   pose    ses  mains  el  a  la  legende  Donatio  col. 
Cmun(ae)  de  Cremiia  en  Pisidie  (Catalogue  of  the  Greek  Coins  in 
the  British  Museum,  p.  ciii  de  Introduction)  et  les  exemples 
cites  par  Hill,  I.e. 


une    tessere  carree   (17-18,5  mill.)   portant  d'un  cote  la 


legende  QQQ  e*  au  revers  une  galere  munie  d'une  voile 

et  de  rames.16  Coincidence  a  noter  :  la  voile  de  la  galere 
comme  aux  Nos.  200,  201,  et  205  de  Hill  est  representee 
enflee  a  gauche  dans  le  sens  oppose  au  mouvement  du 
vaisseau.  II  n'est  pas  douteux  que  nous  ayons  ici  une 
tessere  destinee  a  la  distribution  de  la  liberalite  imperiale 
analogue  aux  tesseres  du  meme  genre  employees  pour  les 
distributions  imperialea  a  Rome.17  L'usage  de  tesseres 
dans  ces  occasions  ne  fat  pas  cependant  importe  de  Rome. 
On  se  servait  de  tesseres  en  plomb  dans  les  distributions 
qui  se  f aisaient  a  Athenes  et  on  doit  surement  assigner 
cet  usage  aux  tesseres  tres  nombreuses  trouvees  a  Athenes 
et  ayant  pour  types  des  epis  reunis  au  caducee,  a  la 
corne  d'abondance,  etc.18  Je  crois  aussi  que  les  marques 
signees  par  les  agoranomes  n'avaient  pas  d'autre  usage  ; 19 
c'est  chose  connue  qu'il  appartenait  aux  agoranomes  de 
veiller  a  Fapprovisionnement  de  la  ville.20  II  est  plus 
que  probable  que  1'usage  de  tesseres  fut  importe  d' Athenes 

16  Voy.  la  figure  en  tete  de  1'article.  II  y  a  un  autre  exemplaire 
a  Florence. 

17  Yoy.  notre  Etude  sur  les  plombs  antiques  dans  Rev.  num., 
1898,  p.  256  suiv. 

18  Voy.  Benndorf,  Beitrdge  zur  Kenntniss  des  attischen  Theaters 
dans  Zeitschrift  fur  die  osterr.  Gymnasien,  xxvi.  (1875),  p.  594. 

19  Voy.   Benndorf,  1.1.,  p.  595  ;  Duinont,  de  plumbeis  apud 
graecos  tesseris,  p.  77  ;    Arth.   Engel,  Bull,  de  corr,  hell.,  1884, 
pp.  6,  7,  Nos.  23-26. 

20  Comp.  aussi  un  plomb  d'Athenes  public  par  Margaritis, 
Rev.  num.,  1886,  p.  24,  No.  44  :   TPAM  .  BOY  .  A— YP  . 
BACCOY    —   ypa/x(/jtaT£ws)     /3ov(A?)s)     Avp(r)\iov}  '  Bao-trov. 
Mercure  debout  de  face  regardant  a  gauche,  tenant  de  la  main 
droite  une  bourse  et  de  la  gauche  un  caducee.    Rev. — Flan  lisse. 
PI.  IV,  12.     Ce  plomb  du  IP  siecle  apres  J.-Chr.  est  a  comparer 
aux  tesseres  que  nous  citons  plus  loin. 


a  Rome  et  qu'il  etait  repandu  non  seulement  a  Atbenes, 
mais  aussi  dans  tout  1'Orient  avant  1'epoque  romaine.  Ce 
qui  confirme  notre  bypotbese  c'est  le  fait  que  les  tesseres 
les  plus  anciennes  signees  du  nom  d'un  empereur  romain 
proviennent  d'Atbenes.21  Les  tesseres  egyptiennes  de 
1'epoque  ptolemaique  prouvent  d'autre  part  qu'on  con- 
naissait  1' usage  des  tesseres  ailleurs  qu'a  Atbenes.22  Mais 
la  plupart  des  monuments  qui  attestent  1'usage  des  tesseres 
en  Asie  Mineure  et  en  Egypte  appartiennent  a  une 
epoque  bien  posterieure  a  1'bellenisme,  a  1'epoque  de 
1'epanouissement  economique  des  provinces  asiatiques, 
c'est  a  dire  au  IP  et  III6  siecle  de  notre  ere.  Les  series 
des  plombs  de  1'Asie  Mineure  etant  trop  peu  connues, 
nous  ne  pouvons  citer  qu'un  nombre  tres  restreint  do 
monuments  qui  se  rapportent  probablement  a  des  distri- 
butions municipales.  Ce  sont  les  suivants  : 

1.  Ricbe  serie  de  tesseres  en  terre  cuite  et  en  plomb  trouvee 
a  Palmyre  et  publiee  en  partie  par  M.  de  Vogue, 
Inscriptions  semitiques  (Paris,  1868),  p.  76  et  suiv. 
et  Appendice,  p.  159  et  suiv. 

Deux  categories  de  ces  tesseres  se  rapportent  surement 
a  des  distributions  municipales.  Oelle  des  tesseres  dites 
funeraires  (Nos.  125-131,  148  et  150-152)  que  nous 
croyons  emises  par  les  beritiers  des  grands  personnages 
mentionnes  sur  ces  tesseres  a  Toccasion  de  leur  mort  pour 
servir  a  des  distributions  qui  suivaient  les  funerailles. 
La  grande  quantite  des  tesseres  du  me  me  type  et  les 
types  eux-memes  confirment  notre  bypotbese.  A  cette 
serie  se  rattacbe  etroitement  une  autre  qui,  outre  un 

21  Voy.  notre  Etude  sur  les  plombs  antiques  dans  Rev.  num., 
1898,  p.  7  et  suiv.,  Nos.  I,  II,  et  Bull,  d*  corr.  hell.,  1884,  p.  6  : 
C€B.    Tete  d'homme  a  dr.     Rev. — AN"  grenetis.    D.  11  mill. 

22  Voy.  mon  Etude,  Rev.  num.,  1899,  p.  58. 



nom,  mentionne  encore  les  denrees  distributes :  le  ble  et 
1'huile  (Nos.  146-147,  of.  132;  143  et  157  (Appendice,  p. 
159)  ;  le  coiffre  sur  la  derniere  des  tesseres  citees  peut 
indiquer  la  quantite  ou  la  valeur  du  cadeau.  Cette  serie 
ne  doit ,  pas  etre  considered  comme  emise  a  la  suite  de  la 
mort  d'un  personnage ;  elle  peut  se  rapporter  a  des  dist- 
tributions  faites  par  des  donateurs  vivants.23  Les  autres 
tesseres  publiees  par  de  Vogue  qui  ne  different  que  peu 
des  series  citees  peuvent  se  rapporter  a  des  cas  semblables. 

2.  Un  plomb  provenant  de  Nicee  et  publie  incompletement 
par  Payne-Knight,  Nummi  veteres  in  museo  Ricardi 
Payne-Knight  asservati,  Londres,  1830,  p.  137. 

Athena  a  gauche  s'appuyant  sur  son  bouclier  et  presentant 
une  patere  ;  au  pourtour  A— 6INIAOC 
CTPA  =  'A^etVtSos 

Rev. — Monogramme  des  lettres  NOY  =  vo 
D.  20  mill.     British  Museum. 

3.  Corne     d'abondance ;      au     pourtour     APXIGP6YC 


Rev.— B. 

D.  16  mill.  Provenance  inconnue.  Ros- 
tovtsew  et  Prou,  Catalogue  des  plombs 
antiques,  No.  431. 

23  Comp.  Waddington,  Inscriptions  de  la  Syrie,  2585  = 
Vogue,  16;  Waddington,  2598  =  C.  I.  Gr.,  4483  =  Vogue, 
15  ;  Waddington,  2588  =  Vogiie,  3  ;  et  Waddington,  2606a  = 
C.  I.  Gr.,  4485. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  P 


4.  Cybele  de  face  assise  sur  un  trone  entre  deux  lions,  tenant 
de  la  main  droite  une  patere  ;  au  pourtour 
AIOCI6P6CAK6PA  =  Aids  fcp£(te)  2aK«fp- 

Rev.  —  Lisse. 

D.  18  mill.  Arth.  Engel,  Bull,  de  corr. 
hell,  1884,  No.  49  (PI.  II),  et  Rostov- 
tsew  et  Prou,  Catalogue,  No..  411. 

5.  ANTWNIAC  TPY4>AINHC  au  pourtour,  au  milieu 
un  sceptre. 

Rev.  —  A  en  contremarque  au  milieu  du  champ.  Mar- 
garitis,  Rev.  num.,  1886,  p.  26,  No.  62,  et  PL  V, 

Tous  ces  plombs  mentionnant  des  dynastes,  des  ma- 
gistrats  et  des  pretres,  ont  ete  emis  probablement  a 
Foccasion  d'une  distribution  faite  par  ces  personnages. 
Nous  avons  sur  le  mode  de  ces  distributions  un  texte  cu- 
rieux  et  peu  utilise  de  Malalas,  xii,  p.  289  ed.  Bonn. 
(comp.  Beurlier,  Rev.  num.,  1894,  p.  297  suiv.)  :  un 
syriarche  nomme  Artabanes  /mera  TO  TrXypwaeu  TO  are- 
<j)aviov  TWV  'OXv/jLTTLwv  iv  Aa0j^?7  e0f\oTt/ir}(TaTo  ptyas 
iv  TTJ  lepa  Aacfivij  TW  8r/juw  KaXaptwv  crvvrofjiia  TroAAa 

(IpTWV    'tLGLLMVL^OVTWV^5  KoXeffClS  TOVS    CLVTOVS  ttjOTOU?  7TO\f- 

24  M.  Hill  propose  de  lire  Atoo-tepe(iTtoi/)  ^aKre'pSfco^),  ce  qui  me 
paraft  tres  probable,  quoique  en  ce  cas  ^a/<ep8((os)  pris  comme 
nom  serait  incomprehensible,  pris  comme  titre  insolite. 

25  On  distribuait  dans  les  villes  grecques  aussi  bien  le  ble 
que  le  pain.      Pour  ne  citer  qu'un   exemple   tout  recent  voy. 
Jahreshefte   des    dsterr.    archaeolog.    Institute  t    B.  iii.,  Beiblatt, 
p.   87  (Heberdey),  une  inscription  d'Ephese  :  CTT!  'ArraXov  TOV 
'ArraAov   Mr)vo<f>i\ov  ayopavo^ov  KOL  Travr)yvptdp^ov  TWI/  /x-tyaAwv 
ITacrt^ecoj/    Kopos    dyi/eta  *   aprov  Xcirpa    fiia    ovv.    ft'    ofioXwv    y8'. 
Ce   qui  veut  dire  que   sous  un  tel  le  pain   abondait   et   etait 
bon,  qu'il  en  vendait  une  piece  d'une  litra  et  deux  onces  pour 
deux  oboles,  comp.  C.  I.  Gr.,  2374a  (Paros),  on  loue  un  agora- 
nome  d'avoir  fait  des  efforts  :    OTTOOS  6  Sj/^os  [«/]  ever^pta 

[)^p]c6jU£i/os    aprots    Kat    dA^)trots   a)? 


TIKOVS  8*ct  TO  rrj   ISla  avrou   TroXet   TOVTOVS   j(apLffao6ai 
a(f)opi(Ta?  e/r  TIOV  Ifiiwv  yjdpnav  irpoaobov  ai/oAoyoujuei't/i' 

€19  \6<ytt)V  TWV  aVTWV  CtpT(tiV. 

Godefroy  dans  son  commentaire  au  Code  Theodosien 
(xiv,  2,  p.  240,  241)  a  bien  vu  que  ces  KaXajMtav  OWTO/KCI 
^talent  des  tesseres  en  bois  tout  a  fait  analogues  aux 
tesserae  frumentariae  de  E-ome,  qui  elles  aussi  etaient 
probablement  en  bois  et  servaient  comme  billets  autori- 
sant  une  fois  pour  toutes  un  citoyen  a  recevoir  son  ble 
dans  les  distributions  mensuelles.26  C'est  ainsi  que  nous 
devons  reconstituer  le  mode  des  distributions  des  dons 
perpetuels  comme  celui  d'Artabane  et  de  Septime  Severe. 

On  procedait  autrement  quand  il  s'agissait  d'un  don 
non  periodique  d'une  fiwped.  De  grandes  tesseres  en  bois 
au  nom  du  participant,  ou  anonymes,  non  renouvelables 
et  qui  representaient  une  valeur  qu'on  pouvait  leguer, 
vendre,  etc.  e*taient  inutiles ;  on  se  contentait  de  couler  un 
certain  nombre  de  tesserae  numariae  comme  celle  de  Tarsos, 
de  Mcee,  et  celles  de  Palmyre.  En  les  presentant  on 
recevait  sa  portion  du  don  en  ble  ou  autres  denrees, 
parfois  en  argent.  Une  fois  la  distribution  faite  les 
tesseres  perdaient  toute  valeur,  ce  qui  explique  la  grande 
quantite  de  tesseres  palmyreneennes  en  terre  cuite,  qu'on 
ne  pouvait  pas  refondre  comme  celles  qui  etaient  en 


PAEIS,  le  1  Juillet,  1900. 

26  Voy.  a  ce  sujet  mon  Etude  sur  les  iilombs  antiques,  dans 
Rev.  num.,  1898,  p.  256  suiv. 




(Voir  Planches  IV— Y.) 


FRAFPEE  depuis  le  25  Juillet  306,  date  de  la  mort  de  Con- 
stance-Chlore,  jmqu'au  mois  de  Mai  309,  epoque  de  la 
reconnaissance  de  Constantin  et  Maximin  Daja  comme 
Augustes  par  Galere. 

Les  monnaies  de  Maximin  Auguste  ne  paraissent  pas 
dans  cette  emission.  Elle  peut  se  diviser  elle-meme  en 
deux  parties :  avant  et  apres  le  mariage  de  Constantin  et 
de  Fausta  fille  de  Maximien  Hercule,  le  31  Mars  307. 
C'est  en  effet  a  1'occasion  de  ce  mariage  que  Constantin 
fat  p  reclame  Auguste  a  Treves  par  Maximien  Hercule. 

En  consequence,  la  premiere  partie  de  1'emission  com- 
prend  :  l°des  pieces  commemoratives  de  Constance- Chlore 
frappees  apres  sa  mort  en  306  ;  2°  des  monnaies  de  Severe 
Auguste,  qui  recut  ce  titre  de  Galere  apres  la  mort  de  Con- 
stance-Chlore,  et  qui  perit  lui-meme  en  Italic  au  printemps 

1  Le  Comte  de  Salis  a  publie  dans  la  Numismatic  Chronicle 
de  1867,  New  Series,  vii.,  p.  57  et  seq.,  un  important  travail 
sur  1'atelier  de  Londres :  Roman  Coins  struck  in  Britain.  Je 
renverrai  aux  planches  de  ce  travail  pour  certaines  monnaies 
qui  y  soiit  representees. 


de  307  ; 2  3°  celles  de  Maximin  Daja ;  Cesar  depuis  305  ; 
et  enfin,de  Constantin  Cesar,  qui  fut  eleve  a  ce  dernier  rang 
au  meme  temps  que  Severe  a  celui  d'Auguste.  La  seconde 
partie  comprend  tine  serie  de  pieces  de  Constantin  Auguste, 
qui  porta  ce  titre  sur  les  monnaies  frappees  dans  ses  etats 
et  dans  ceux  de  Maxence — c'est  a  dire,  en  Gaule,  Bretagne, 
Espagne,  Italie,  des  qu'il  eut  ete  reconnu  comme  tel  par 
Maximien  Hercule  le  31  Mars  307.  C'est  a  cette  seconde 
partie  qu'il  faut  egalement  attribuer,  pour  des  raisons  qui 
seront  exposees  plus  loin,  les  monnaies  de  Maximien 
Hercule  frappees  dans  cette  periode. 

Les  monnaies  de  bronze  (folles)  de  cette  emission  ont 
le  plus  souvent  des  poids  oscillant  entre  8  grammes  50 
centigrammes  et  6  grammes  30  centigrammes,  et  des 
diametres  de  25  a  28  millimetres.  Quelques-unes  font 
neanmoins  exception ;  ce  sont  les  pieces  frappees  dans 
le  courant  de  1'annee  306,  qui  ont  encore  les  poids  plus 
lourds  de  10  et  11  grammes  et  les  diametres  de  29  a  30 
millimetres  des  grands  folles  frappes  sous  Diocletien  et 
encore  en  Tannee  305.  II  semble  que  ce  fut  seulement 
apres  s'etre  rapproche  de  Maxence,  proclame  empereur 
a  Home  par  un  mouvement  populaire  et  pretorien  en 
Octobre  306,  que  Constantin  fit  frapper  surtout  des 
folles  de  poids  reduit  pour  avoir  une  monnaie  de  meme 
poids  que  celle  de  Maxence.  Certaines  de  ces  pieces 
meme  ne  pesent  plus  que  5  gr.  50  et  5  gr.  30. 

2  Severe  perit  pendant  1' invasion  de  G-alere  en  Italie 
( Anonymus  Valesii,  4,  10,  edition  Teubner),  or  le  panegyrique 
d'Eumene  YI,  1  (Maximiano  et  Constantino)  prononce  a  Treves 
le  31  Mars  307,  en  1'honneur  du  manage  de  Constantin,  parle 
de  1'invasion  de  Galere  en  Italie  comme  prochaine. 



Anterieure  au  31  Mars  307. 

I      3 
Avec  1' exergue  unique      I  ^. 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers. — La  legende  MEMOEIA  FELIX ;  et  comme 
type  :  un  autel  allume  et  orne  de  guirlandes  ; 
de  chaque  cote  de  la  base  un  aigle. 

Au  droit.— DIYO  CONSTANTIO  PIO.  Avec  sonbuste 
laure,  voile  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  179;4 
BE.  MVS.  ; 5  25  m.m. 

II.  Au  revers.— GENIO  POPYLI  EOMANI.  Avec  le 
genie  coifie  du  modius,  a  demi-nu,  debout  a 
gauche,  tenant  une  patere  et  une  corne  d'abon- 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  SEVEEYS  P.F.  AYG.  Sonbuste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Piece  inedite ;  BE. 
MYS.  ;  99  m.m.  [PL  IV.,  No.  1.] 

2.  IMP.  C.  SEYEEYS  PIYS  FEL.  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  35 ; 
BE,  MYS. ;  28  m.m. 

III.  Au  revers.— GENIO  POP.  EOM.    Meme  type  du  revers 
que  pour  les  pieces  precedentes. 

Au  droit.  1.— GAL.   YAL.    MAXIMINYS    NOB.    C. 

Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.    Cohen,  56  ; 
BE.  MYS. ;  28  m.m. 

3  L' atelier  de  Londinium  fonctionne  avec  une  seule  omcine 
indiquee   dans  la  plupart  des  emissions  par   la  lettre  P  =: 
prima,  de  306-326. 

4  Les  numeros  indiques  de  Cohen  sont  ceux  de  la  deuxieme 
edition,  tome  vii.,  1888. 

5  Les  abbreviations  suivantes  seront  usitees  dans  ce  travail : 
BE.    MYS.  =  British  Museum ;  FE.  =  Cabinet  de  France  ; 
H.  MYS.  Y.  =  Hof  Museum,  Vienne ;  les  autres  collections 
sont  designees  en  toutes  lettres. 


2.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite. 

Cohen,  57;  FE.  8-851. 

3.  FL.  VAL.    CONSTANTINVS   NOB.  C.     Son  buste 

laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Variete  inedite 
differant  par  le  buste  de  Cohen,  202  ;  BE.  MVS.; 
26  m.m.  [PL  IV.,  No.  2.] 

IV.  Au  revers. — Meme  legende.  Genie  tourele,  a  demi-nu, 
debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  pater e  et  une  corne 

Au  droit.—¥L.  YAL.  CONSTANTINYS  NOB.  C. 
Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen, 
196  ;  BE.  MYS. ;  FE.  9091;  8  gr.  50  ;  27  m.m. 

Y.  Au  revers.—  MAES  YICTOE.  Mars  nu,  marchant  a 
droite,  avec  le  manteau  flottant,  portant  une 
haste  et  un  trophee. 

Au  droit.—¥L.  YAL.  CONSTANTINYS  NOB.  C.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No. 
322 ;  BE.  MYS. ;  26  m.m. 

VI.  Au  revers.— MAETI  PACIF.     Mars  marchant  a  gauche, 

tenant  une  branche  d'olivier  de  la  main  droite, 
et  de  la  gauche  une  haste  et  un  bouclier. 

Au  droit.—YL.  YAL.  CONSTANTINYS  NOB.  C.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No. 
356  ;  BE.  MYS. ;  FE.  9121 ;  6  gr.  20  ;  26  m.m. 

VII.  Au  revers.— EOMAE  AETEE.     Eome  assise  &  gauche 

dans  un  temple  a  six  colonnes,  tenant  un  sceptre 
4        et  un  globe. 

Au  droit.—'FL.  YAL.  CONSTANTINYS  NOB.  C.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite ;  piece  inedite. 
BE.  MYS. ;  26  m.m.  [PI.  IV.,  No.  3.]  6 

6  L' atelier  de  Londinium,  sous  le  regne  de  Constantin  Cesar 
et  Auguste,  emit  les  pieces  de  cet  empereur  en  beaucoup  plus 
grand  nombre  que  celles  de  ses  contemporains.  Dans  d'autres 
ateliers,  comme  a  Tarragone  pour  Maxence,  Constantin  fit 
f rapper  en  plus  grand  nombre  les  monnaies  d'un  empereur 


Avec  1' exergue  unique 


Cette  partie  de  remission  est  caracterisee  par  les 
monnaies  de  Constantin  Auguste  et  par  les  poids  reduits 
de  ses  folles  oscillant  entre  7  et  5  grammes  30  centi- 
grammes. Elle  fut  frappee  dans  le  courant  de  307,  en 
effet  une  emission  correspondante  de  Rome,  ou  apparaissent 
egalement  pour  la  premiere  f  ois  les  monnaies  de  Oonstantin 
Auguste,  est  anterieure  a  la  prise  du  consulat  en  commun 
par  Maxence  et  Romulus,  en  Avril  3087  Or  si  Maxence 
faisait  f  rapper  en  307  les  monnaies  de  Constantin  avec  le 
titre  d' Auguste  a  Rome,  c'est  que  ce  dernier  avait  pris 
ce  titre  dans  les  propres  etats,  et  des  lors  le  temoignage 
du  panegyrique  d'Eumene  VI  (Maximiano  et  Constan- 
tino), prononce  a  Treves  le  31  Mars  307,  a  1'occasion 
du  mariage  de  Constantin  et  de  Fausta,  se  trouve  con- 
firme.  Ce  panegyrique  officiel  dit  que  Constantin 
ajouta  alors  a  son  titre  de  Cesar  ceux  d'Empereur  et 
d' Auguste.8  C'est  done  au  31  Mars  307  que  nous 
placerons  le  debut  de  cette  emission. 

D'autre  part  elle  cessa  d'etre  frappee  en  Mai  309.  En 
effet,  elle  lie  contient  pas  de  pieces  de  Maximin  Daja — 
Auguste.  Et  c'est  au  debut  de  309  que  Maximin  Daja 
prit  de  lui-meme  ce  titre;  c'est  en  Mai  309  que  Gralere, 
chef  de  la  tetrarchie  imperiale,  le  lui  reconnut,9  ainsi  qu'a 

f  Jules  Maurice,  Eatelier  monetaire  de  Rome  pendant  la 
periode  Constantinienne.  Revue  Numismatique,  1899,  pp.  343-344. 

8  Eumene,  Panegyrique  vi.,    c.     1  ;    Constantin   est  appele 
( Oriens  imperator).  11  est  dit  (f.i'bi  Ccesari  additwn  nomen  imperil). 
Maximin    Hercule    et    Constantin    sont    appeles    tous   deux 
(Imperatores  Augusti). 

9  Jules  Maurice,  Emissions  monetaires  de  V atelier  d'Antioche. 
Num.  Chron.,  1899,  p.  218. 


Constantin.  A  partir  de  cette  epoque,  comme  on  le  verra 
plus  loin,  Constantin  fit  f  rapper  les  monnaies  de  Licinius 
et  de  Maximin  Augustes.10 

L'on  trouve  — 

I.  Au  revers.—  GENIO  POP.  EOM.  Avec  le  genie  tourele, 
a  demi-nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  patere 
et  une  corne  d'abondance. 

Audrott.  1.—  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No. 
199  ;  BE.  MYS.  ;  26  m.m.  Musee  de  Turin. 

2.  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.      Meme  buste  ; 

variete  inedite;  BE.  MYS. 

3.  IMP.    MAX1MIANYS    P.P.    AYG.      Son    buste 

laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  138  de 
Maximien  Hercule.     FE.  8099. 

II.  Meme   legende   du   revers   et  meme    type,   mais    avec 
le  genie  coiffe  du  modius. 

Audroit.  1.—  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No. 
204  ;  FE.  9-095  ;  6  gr.  92  ;  26  m.m. 

2.  IMP.  MAXIMIANYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  143  de 
Maximien  Hercule  ;  u  BE.  MYS.  ;  7  gr.  38  ; 
25  a  28  m.m. 

10  II  est  a  remarquer  que  1'  atelier  de  Londres  ne  frappa  pen- 
dant la  periode  Constantinienne  aucune  piece  de  Maxence, 
dont  Constantin  faisait  pourtant  emettre  de  tres  nombreuses 
monnaies  SL  Tarragone.  Cela  prouve  que  les  divers  ateliers  d'un 
meme  empereur  etaient  charges  parfois  de  frappes  speciales, 
et  avaient  des  attributions  particulieres. 

11  Les  deux  pieces  qui  portent  la  legende  Imp.  Maximianm 
P.F.  Aug.  doivent  etre  placees  dans  cette  partie  de  remission 
a  cause  de  leurs  poids  et  par  suite  sont  attribuables  a  Max- 
imien Hercule.    Hercule  avait  en  eff  et  repris  le  titre  d  Auguste 
en  venant    secourir   son    fils   Maxence    contre   Severe,    qui 
avait  envahi  1'Italie  par  ordre  de  Galere  en  Fevrier  307.     Cf. 
Lactantius,  de  Mort.  Pers.,  c.  xxvi.     Constantin  de  son  cote 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  Q 


III.  Au  revers.—  MAETI  PATEI  PEOPVG.  Mars  nu,  le 
manteau  flottant,  marcliant  a  droite  en  posture 
de  combattant,  tenant  une  haste  traasversale  et 
un  bouclier. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINYS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  363;  BE. 
MVS. ;  FE.  9129  ;  6  gr.  29  ;  25  m.m. 
2.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AYG.  Meme  buste 
(ces  bustes  different  de  ceux  de  Cohen,  en  ce 
qu'ils  ne  sont  pas  drapes).  Cohen,  364  ;  BE. 
MVS. ;  FE.  9130 ;  5  gr.  31 ;  26  m.m.12 

IV.  Au  revers.—  PEINCIPI  IVVENTVTIS.  Constantin 
en  habit  militaire  debout  de  face,  regardant  d 
gauche,  et  tenant  deux  enseignes  militaires 
surmontees  de  drapeaux. 

Au  droit.— IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  444  ; 
BR.  MVS.  ;  26  m.m. 


Frappee  depuis  la  reconnaissance  de  Maximin  Daja  et 
de  Constantin  comme  Augustes  par  Galere  en  Mai  309 
jusqu'a  la  mort  de  Maximin  Daja  en  Juin  313.13 

Les  noms  de  Licinius  et  de  Maxirnin  Augustes  apparais- 
sent  dans  cette  emission  sur  des  pieces  identiques  quant 
au  reste,  qui  ne  se  distinguent  que  par  les  noms  et  les 
effigies  des  empereurs  et  qu'il  y  a  tout  lieu  de  considerer 

frappa  dans  1' atelier  de  Tarragone  des  monnaies  a  1'emgie 
de  Maxence  Auguste  et  en  307  conclut  une  sorte  d' alliance 
avec  cet  empereur  revolte  centre  Galere  dont  il  ne  dut  plus 
emettre  les  monnaies.  Les  monnaies  de  Galere  avaient  ete 
frappees  SL  Londres  en  305. 

12  De  Salis,  loc.  cit.t  Num.  Chron.,  1867,  pi.  iii.,  No.  9. 

13  C'est  au  30  Avril  313  que  Maximin  est  battu  par  Licinius  d 
Tzirallum  en  Thrace.     II  se  rend  ensuite  a  Tarse  au  sud  du 
Taurus  et  fait  de  nouveaux  preparatifs  de  guerre   jusqu'd 
sa  mort   en   Juin.     Cf.  Lactantius,  c.  45.;    Zosime,  ii.,    17. 
Ckronicon  Paschale. 


comme  ayant  e*te  frappees  en  meme  temps.  Cependant 
Licinius  fut  reconnu  Auguste  par  Galere  le  11  Novembre 
308  a  la  conference  de  Carnuntum,14  ou  se  reunirent  lea 
empereurs  Diocletien,  Maximien^Hercule,  et  Galere ;  tandis 
que  Maximin  Daja  ne  le  fut  qu'en  Mai  309,  apres  avoir 
usurpe  ce  titre  d 'Auguste. . 

Constantin  pourtant  ne  semble  avoir  frappe  leurs  pieces 
a  Londres  qu'en  meme  temps  ;  et  une  Emission  de  Tar* 
ragone  ou  les  monnaies  semblables  de  Licinius  et  de 
Maximin  sont  plus  nombreuses  que  celles  frappees  a 
Londres  confirme  cette  maniere  de  voir. 

II  en  resulte  que  Constantin  ne  fit  frapper  les  pieces 
de  Licinius  Auguste  qu'apres  avoir  etc*  reconnu  lui- 
meme  comme  tel  ainsi  que  Maximin  Daja  au  prin- 
temps  de  309,  que  par  suite  il  ne  reconnut  ni  les  decisions 
des  empereurs  reunis  a  Carnuntum,  ni  I'autorite'  de 
Galere  jusqu'a  cette  epoque.  Les  folles  de  cette  emission 
ont  des  poids  oscillant  entre  4  grammes  90  centigrammes 
et  3  grammes  70  c. ;  des  dia metres  de  22  a  23  milli- 
metres. L' Emission  comprend  deux  series  contemporaines. 


i  * 
Signe  et  lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue        ' 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revert.— GENIO  POP.  EOM.  Genie  tourele,  a  demi- 
nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  patere  et  une 
corne  d'abondance. 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.  LICINIYS  P.F.  AVG.  SOD  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  53 ;  BE,. 
MVS. ;  FE.  14124  ;  4  gr.  70  ;  22  m.m.  [PI.  IV., 
No,  4.] 

14  Idat.  Fast.  :   Decies   et   Maximiano    Hercule  et  Galerio 
vii.,  Conss. 


2.  Meme  legende.    Son    buste   laure    et    cuirasse    a 

gauche.    BE.  MYS.     Piece  inedite. 

3.  IMP.  MAXIMINYS  P.F.  AYG.     Son  buste  laure 

et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  69 ;  BE.  MYS.  ; 
FE.  14037-38  ;  22  m.m.  [PI.  IV.,  No.  5.] 

4.  IMP.    MAXIMINYS    P.    AYG.      Meme    buste. 

Cohen,  72  ;  BE.  MYS. ;  FE.  14034  ;  4  gr.  0*60  ; 
22  m.m. 

5.  Des    monnaies   analogues  de   Constantin  Auguste 

doivent  avoir  ete  frappees. 

II.  Au  revers. — La  meme  legende  et  le  meme  type,  mais  avec 

le  genie  coiffe  du  modius. 

Au  droit.—TMP.  LICINIYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste  laure 
et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  44.  Musee  de  Turin. 

III.  Au  revers.—  PEINCIPI     IYYENTYTIS.      Constantin 

laure,  en  habit  militaire  et  le  manteau  tombant, 
debout  a  gauche,  tenant  un  globe  et  une  haste 

Audroit.  I.—  CONST ANTINYS  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  427  ; 
H.  MYS,  Y. 

2.  Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse  a  gauche,  tenant  une 

haste  et  un  bouclier.     Cohen,  428  ;  H.  MYS.  Y. 

3.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  429 ;  BE.  MYS ;  24 
m.m.;  4  gr.  47;  FE.  14776;  4  gr.  40;  22 

4.  Meme   legende.     Son    buste    laure    et    cuirasse   a 

gauche.     Piece  inedite.     BE.  MYS. 

5.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.      Son  buste  laure    et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  431  ;  FE.  14775  ; 
4  gr.  70;  22  m.m. 

6.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.     Son  buste  casque  et 

cuirasse  a  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  dirigee  en 
avant  et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  436 :  BE.  MYS : 
4  gr.  35  ;  23  m.m. 


7.  CONSTANTINVS  AYG-.  Son  buste  casque  et 
cuirasse  a  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  sur  1'epaule 
et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  433  ;  FE.  14777. 

IV.  Au  revers. — Meme  legende,  avec  Constantin  en  habit 
militaire  et  le  manteau  tombant,  debout  a 
gauche,  tenant  deux  enseignes  militaires,  sur- 
montes  de  drapeaux. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
cuirasse  a  gauche,  avec  le  casque  laure,  tenant 
une  haste  sur  1'epaule  et  un  bouclier.  Piece 
inedite.  BE.  MVS. ;  22  m.m. 

2.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  449 ;  BE.  MVS. ; 
FE.  14782  ;  4  gr.  15 ;  22  m.m. 

3.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  cuirasse   a  gauche  avec 

le  casque  laure,  tenant  une  haste  dirigee  en 
avant  et  un  bouclier.  Piece  inedite.  BE.  MVS. ; 
23  m.m. 

V.  Au  Tews.— COMITI  AVGG.  NN.  Le  soleil  radie\  a 
demi-nu  et  le  manteau  flottant,  debout  de  face, 
regardant  a  gauche,  tenant  un  globe  dans  la 
main  droite  et  un  f  ouet  de  la  gauche. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  drape  a  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  dirigee 
en  avant  et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  40 ;  FE. 
14494;  4gr.  67;  23  m.m. 

2.  Meme  legende.  Son  buste  cuirasse  a  gauche  avec  le 
casque  laure,  tenant  une  haste  sur  1'epaule  et 
un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  41;  FE.  14495  a 
14497  ;  4  gr.  20  ;  23  m.m. 

3.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  cuirasse  a  gauche  avec  le 

casque  laure,  tenant  une  victoire  sur  un  globe. 
Piece  inedite.  BE.  MVS.  [PI.  IV.,  No,  6.] 

4.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  casque,  drape  et  cuirasse 

a  gauche,  tenant  un  globe,  surmonte  d'une 
victoire,  qui  le  couronne.  Cohen,  No.  42  ;  BE. 

5.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Cohen,  No.  43  ;  H.  MVS.  V.  ;  25-920. 


6.  CONSTANTINVS  P.  AG.  (sic}.     Son  buste  diademe 

et  cuirasse  a  gauche,  ayant  la  tete  de  Meduse 
sur  la  poitrine  et  tenant  un  sceptre  surmonte 
d'un  aigle.  Cohen,  No.  44 ;  FE.  14499  ;  3  gr. 
85 ;  23  m.m. 

7.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.      Son  buste  casque  et 

cuirasse  a  gauche,  avec  le  casque  laure,  tenant 
une  haste  et  un  bouclier.  Coheji,  Nos.  45  et  46 ; 
BE.  MVS. ;  23  m.m. ;  FE.  14498—14502 ;  Musee 
Brer  a,  Milan. 

8.  Meme  legende.    Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Cohen,  No.  48  ;  BE.  MVS. ;  23  m.m. 

9.  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse 

a  gauche,  tenant  un  sceptre  surmonte  d'un 
aigle.  Piece  inedite.  BE.  MVS. ;  23  m.m.  [PI. 
IV.,  No.  7,] 

10.  CONSTANTINVS  AG.  (sic).      Son   buste  laur<5  et 

cuirasse  &  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  et  un  bou- 
clier. Cohen,  No.  50  ;  BE.  MVS. 

VI.  Au  revert.— COMITI AAVVGG.    Meme  type.    Le  soleil 

radie,  a  demi-nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  un 
globe  et  un  fouet. 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  3 ;  FE. 

2.  IMP.  MAXIMINVS  P.F.  AVG.      Buste  analogue. 

Cohen,  No.  5  ;  BE.  MVS. 

3.  CONSTANTINVS    P.F.     AVG.      Buste    analogue. 

Cohen,  No.  55  ;  BE.  MVS. 

VII.  Au  revers.— CONCOED.  MILIT.     La  Concorde  drapee, 

debout  a  gauche,  tenant  deux  enseignes  mili- 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  56  ;  BE. 
MVS. ;  22  m.m. ;  FE.  14504,  14505. 

2.  Meme  legende.  Son  buste  cuirasse  a  gauche,  avec  le 
casque  laure,  tenant  une  haste  et  un  bouclier. 
Piece  inedite.  H.  MVS.  V.,  25-927. 


3.  CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Son  buste  cuirasse  a  gauche, 

avecle  casque  laure,  tenant  une  haste  sur  1'epaule 
et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  57  ;  FE.  14503. 

4.  CONSTANTINYS   P.   AYG.      Son   buste    laure    et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  60  ;  FE.  14506  ; 
4  gr.  90. 

5.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  cuirasse  d  gauche  avec  un 

casque  a  cimier  laure  et  tres  orne,  tenant  une 
haste  sur  1'epaule  et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No. 
61  ;  BE.  MYS. ;  H.  MVS.  Y.  [PI.  IV.,  No.  8.] 

6.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AG.  (sic}.     Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  gauche,  tenant  un  sceptre  surmonte 
d'un  aigle.  Piece  inedite.  BE.  MYS. 

Y1II.  Au  revers.— CONCOEDIA  MILITYM.  La  Concorde 
drapee  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  deux  enseignes 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Son  buste  casque 
et  cuirasse  a  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  et  un 
bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  69 ;  FE. 

IX.  Au  revers.— SPES  EEIPYBL.     Constantin  a  cheval  a 

gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  une 
haste  ;  devant  lui  un  captif  assis,  que  le  cheval 
foule  au  pied. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  553 ; 
BE.  MYS. ;  23  m.m. 

X.  Au  revers.—  SPES  EEIPYBLICAE.  Constantin  a  cheval 

&  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  et  levant  la  main 
droite  ;  meme  captif  devant  lui. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Son  buste  casque 
et  cuirasse  &  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  sur 
1'epaule  et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  555  ;  FE. 
15023;  4  gr.  15;  22  m.m. 

XI.  Au  revers.— SOLI  INYICTO  COMITI.  Le  soleil  radie, 
a  demi-nu,  debout  de.  face,  regardant  a  gauche, 
levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  nn  globe. 


Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  525 ;  FE. 
14893;  4gr.  62;  22  m.m. 

Les  pieces  suivantes  ont  du  etre  f rappees  dans  les 
annees  312  et  313. 

Le  No.  397  de  Constantin  le  Grand  dans  Cohen,  repris 
de  Mionnet,  et  ainsi  decrit : — 

XII.  Au  rwers.—  P.M.  TE.  P.  COS.  II.  P.P.    Femme  assise 

sur  une  double  corne  d'abon dance,  tenant  un 
baton  de  la  main  droite;  dans  le  champ,  un  astre ; 
a  1' exergue,  PLN. 

Au  droit. —  .... 

Ce  petit  bronze  est  date  de  Tannee  312,  par  le  consulat 
de  Constantin  ;  1'etoile  dans  le  champ  et  F  exergue  in- 
diquent  qu'elle  fait  partie  de  1'emission  presente. 

Les  pieces  qui  suivent,  portant  la  legende  Adventus  Aug., 
doivent  se  rapporter  a  la  premiere  entree  ou  Adventus 
Dim  15  de  Constantin  a  Rome  le  28  Octobre  312.  Leur 
presence  dans  cette  emission  confirme  leur  attribution 
a  Pepoque  de  1'entree  de  Constantin  a  Home. 

XIII.  Au  rever*.— ADYENTYS  AYG.      Constantin  a  cheval 

a  gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  une 
haste;  devant  lui  un  captif  assis  a  terre,  que 
le  cheval  foule  au  pied. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
vu  de  dos,  casque  et  cuirasse  a  gauche,  tenant 
une  haste  et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  1  ;  FE. 
14454  ;  4  gr.  38  ;  BE.  MYS. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.  Son  buste  cuirasse  a 
gauche  avec  le  casque  laure,  tenant  une  haste  et 
un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  2  ;  FE.  14453  ;  4  gr. 
20  ;  24  m.m.  BE.  MYS.  Yariete,  meme  buste 
sans  la  couronne  de  laurier  au  casque;  BE.  MYS. 

15  Indique  dansle  Calendrier  de  Philocalus,  C.I.L.,  I.,  p.  397. 


3.  Meme    legende.      Son    buste    laure     et    cuirasse"    si 

gauche,  tenant  une  haste  et  un  bouclier.  Piece 
inedite.  BE.  MYS. ;  22  m.m. ;  4  gr.  60.  [PL 
IV.,  No.  9.] 

4.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.   AYG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  3 ;  FB.  14455, 
14456  ;  22  m.m.  ;  BE.  MYS. 

XIY.  Au  revers. — ADYENTYS  AYGK  N.  Constantin  a  cheval 
a  gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  une 
haste ;  devant  lui  un  captif  assis  a  terre,  que 
le  cheval  foule  au  pied. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
casque  et  cuirasse  a  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  et 
un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  6  ;  FE.;  H.  MYS.  Y., 

2.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Cohen,  No.  7  ;  BE.  MYS. 

3.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYGK     Meme  buste.     Cohen, 

No.  8  ;  BE.  MYS. 

XY.  Au  revers.—  ADYENTYS  AYGG.  NN.    Meme  type. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYGK  Son  buste 
casque,  avec  le  casque  radie  et  cuirasse,  a  gauche, 
tenant  une  haste  sur  Tepaule  et  un  bouclier. 
Piece  inedite.  BE.  MYS.  ;  22  m.m.16 

Cette  piece  de  Londres  est  inedite  dans  la  serie 
des  monnaies  de  Constantin  le  Grand.  Une  piece  d'or 
de  Siscia  attribuable  a  une  emission  contemporaine  et 
f rappee  a  Teffigie  de  Licinius  I  (Cohen,  143)  porte  comme 
legende  du  revers  :  Profectio  Augg.  Ces  deux  legendes 
peuvent  avoir  ete  frappees  a  Foccasion  de  la  rencontre 
des  deux  empereurs  a  Milan  en  fevrier  313  (conference  de 
Milan  et  mariage  de  Licinius  et  de  Constantia). 

16  De  Salis,  loc.  cit.,  p.  59,  a  egalement  indique  la  legende 
du  revers  ADYENTYS  AVG.  NN.  (sic)  qui  est  une  variante 
de  celle-ci. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  R 


Signe  et  lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue  :         * 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  r ever 8.—  GENIO  POP.  EOM.  Genie  tourele,  a 
demi-nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  patere  et 
une  corne  d'abondance. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  LICINIYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  53  ;  BE. 
MYS. ;  22  m.m. 

2  et  3. — Des  pieces  analogues  de  Maximin  et  de  Con- 
stantin  Augustes  peuvent  se  placer  ici,  comme 
dans  la  premiere  serie.  Ces  deux  series  sont 
en  effet  contemporaines,  ainsi  que  le  prouvent 
les  poids  semblables  de  leurs  folles  et  1'analogie 
de  leurs  legendes  et  de  leurs  types  de  revers. 

II.  Au  revers.— PEINCIPI  IYYENTYTIS.  Constantin 
laure,  debout  a  droite,  en  habit  militaire  et  le 
manteau  tombant,  tenant  une  haste  transversale 
et  un  globe. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite-  Piece  inedite  ; 
voisine  de  Cohen,  No.  416  ;  BE.  MYS.;  23  m.m. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYGK  Son  buste  laure  et 
cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  418  ;  BE.  MYS. ; 
FE.  14778. 

III.  Au  revers.— SECYEITAS  AYGG.  La  Securite,  debout 
de  face,  les  jambes  croisees,  regardant  a  gauche, 
posant  la  main  droite  sur  sa  tete  et  appuyee 
sur  une  colonne. 

Au  droit.  1. -CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  491  ; 
H.  MYS.  Y. ;  21  m.m. 


2.  OONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.      Son  buste  casque  et 

cuirasse  a  gauche  avec  le  casque  laure,  tenant 
une  haste  dirigee  en  avant  et  un  bouclier. 
Cohen,  No.  492  ;  BE.  MVS.  [PL  IV.,  No.  10.] 

3.  IMP.   LICINIVS  P.  AYG.     Son    buste    laure   et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  154,  rectifie ; 
au  revers  la  Securite  regarde  a  gauche.  FB. 
14265  ;  3  gr.  80  ;  22  m.m. 

IY.  Au  revers.—  FELICITAS  AVGG.  NN.  La  Felicite  ou 
Borne,  casquee,  assise  a  gauche,  tenant  un 
rameau  et  un  globe. 

Au  drott.  I—  OONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  143  ; 
FE.  14577. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.     Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  144  ;  H.  MVS.  V. 

3.  Meme    legende.      Son   buste    casque   et   cuirasse  a 

gauche,  tenant  une  haste  et  un  bouclier.     Piece 
inedite.    BE.  MYS. ;  23  m.m. 

V.  Au  revers.— MAETI  CONSEEYATOEI.  Mars  en  habit 
militaire  et  le  manteau  tombant,  debout  a 
droite,  tenant  une  haste  renversee  et  appuye  sur 
un  bouclier. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Son  buste 
casque  et  cuirasse  a  gauche  avec  le  casque  tres 
orne,  tenant  une  haste  sur  1'epaule  et  un  bouclier. 
Piece  inedite.  BE.  MYS. ;  22  m.m.  [PI.  IV., 
No.  11.] 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.    Cohen,  No.  338  ;  H.  MYS.  Y. ; 
4  gr.  25. 

3.  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.     Son  buste  laure, 

drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,   No.   341  ; 
H.  MVS.  V. 


VI.  AU  revers.—  SOLI  INVIOTO  COMITI.  Le  soleil  radie, 
a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a  gauche, 
levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe.17 

Audroit.  1.—  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son 
buste  laure,  drape  et  cuirass6  a  droite.  Cohen, 
No.  534;  BE.  MVS.  ;  21  m.m. 

2.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure"  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  536  ;  BE. 
MVS.  ;  ou  son  buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite. 

VII.  An  revere.—  EOMAE  EESTITVTAE.      Eome   casquee, 
assise  a  gauche,  tenant  un  rameau  et  un  globe. 

Audroit.  }.—  CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
a  gauche  avec  le  casque  laure,  arme  d'une  haste 
et  d'un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  474  ;  H.  MVS.  V. 
26-255  ;  BE.  MVS.  [PL  IV.,  No.  12.] 

2.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Piece  inedite.     BE.  MVS.  ;  23  m.m. 

3.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  475  ;  BE.  MVS.  ; 
FE.  14858  ;  3  gr.  97  ;  22  m.m. 

La  legende  du  revers  Romae  Restitutae,  commune  a  ces 
trois  pieces,  doit  faire  allusion  a  la  prise  de  Eome  par 
Con  stan  tin  apres  la  bataille  du  Pont  Milvius  le  28 
Octobre  312. 

Cette  emission  dut  se  terminer  apres  la  mort  de 
Maximin  Daja  en  Juin  313,  lorsque  les  monnaies  de  cet 
empereur  cesserent  d'etre  frappees.  A  partir  de  ce  moment, 
il  dut  y  avoir  une  premiere  frappe  de  monnaies  (de 
bronze)  presentant  la  legende  Soli  Invicto  Comiti  et  les 

m    I    Tji  o    I    -pi 

lettres   du  revers   et  exergue  e^      Tvj  aux  effigies 

17  Des  inonnaies  portant  les  memes  legendes  Marti  Con- 
servatori  et  Soli  Invicto  Comiti^  et  otfrant  les  memes  types  du 
revers  que  ceux  des  pieces  ci-dessus,  furent  frappees  a  Tarra- 
gone  dans  une  emission  contemporaine  de  celle-ci. 


de  Constantin  I  et  de  Licinius  I;  monnaies  que  j'ai 
placees  dans  les  emissions  de  314,  315  et  316.  Mais 
il  est  impossible  de  Taffirmer  tant  que  Ton  n'aura 
pas  constate  qu'il  existe  un  assez  grand  nombre  de 
pieces  de  Licinius  I  d'un  poids  sensiblement  superieur 
a  celui  du  denier  de  bronze  dont  la  frappe  commence 
en  315.18  L'emission  de  ces  pieces  devrait  en  effet 
dans  ce  cas  avoir  eu  lieu  pendant  la  periode  de  paix 
oft  Constantin  et  Licinius  furent  seuls  empereurs  avant 
leur  premiere  guerre,  qui  eut  lieu  en  314. 

Les  monnaies  de  Constantin  que  je  vais  decrire  sont 
certainement  d'un  poids  superieur  aux  deniers  de  bronze 
frappes  en  315.  Ce  sont  de  petits  folles  d'un  poids 
analogue  a  ceux  de  la  fin  de  remission  precedente  et  qui 
ont  du  etre  frappes  eu  314  a  1'effigie  de  Constantin 
se ul  pendant  sa  guerre  avec  Licinius. 

(Frappee  en  314.) 

Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue       '  . 

Jr  L^l 

Les  petits  folles  de  cette  emission  pesent  de  4  gr.  10 
a  5  gr.  30. 
On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— SOLI  INYICTO  COMITI.  Le  soleil  radie, 
a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  d  gauche, 
levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  534 ; 
FE.  9163 ;  5  gr.  20 ;  22  m.m.  ;  14922-947- 
948  ;  4  gr.  30 ;  22  m.m. 

18  A  Tarragone  une  emission  de  monnaies  de  cette  sorte 
parut  en  effet  en  313-314. 


2.  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AVG.  Sonbuste  laure 
et  cuirasse,  ou  laure,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 
Cohen,  No.  536 ;  BE.  MVS. ;  23  m.m. ;  FK. 
15013  ;  4  gr.  12  ;  23  m.m.  [PL  IV.,  No.  13]. 

Constant  in  et  Licinius  sont  consuls  eponymes  de  Fannee 
315.19  A  partir  du  ler  Janvier  315,  date  de  leur  prise  en 
commun  du  consulat  par  Constantin  I  et  Licinius  I  et 
de  leur  rapprochement  officiel  apres  la  guerre  de  314 ; 
les  pieces  de  ces  deux  Augustes  sont  frappees  simultane'- 
ment  dans  les  ateliers  d'Occident  et  a  Rome.  L'emission  de 
monnaies  de  bronze  qui  eut  lieu  en  315  et  en  316  presente 
dans  laplupart  des  ateliers  plusieurs  series  contemporaines, 
differant  les  unes  des  autres  soit  par  des  exergues  soit  par 
des  lettres  ou  des  chiffres  dans  le  champ  du  revers  des 

La  frappe  des  monnaies  de  Licinius  ne  s'interrompt 
plus,  dans  les  ateliers  de  Constantin,  a  partir  de  1'annee 
315  jusqu'a  la  seconde  guerre  entre  ces  empereurs  en 
324,  guerre  suivie  de  la  mort  de  Licinius  en  325. 


Frappee  depuis  le  ler  Janvier  315,  date  de  la  prise  en 
commun  du  consulat  par  Constantin  et  Licinius,  jusqu'au 
ler  Mars  317,  date  de  1'elevation  des  Cesars. 

Les  monnaies  de  bronze  de  cette  emission  ont  le  poids 
moyen  du  denier  de  bronze  de  Constantin,  3  grammes 
•50  centigrammes,20  dont  le  signe  X  se  trouve  sur  les 
monnaies  de  bronze  de  remission  contemporaine  de 

19  Cf .  Idat.  Fast. ;   Chronicon  Paschale  ;   Chronographe  de  354  ; 
Monumenta    Gernianiae  historica,   ix,  67 ;  A.nonymus   Valesii  5, 

20  0.    Seeck,    die    Ifiinzpolitik    Diocletians    u.s.    NacJifolger 
(Zeitschrift  f.  Numismatik,  xvii.,  p.  129). 


Patelier  de  Eome  ;21  leur  diametre  est  de  20  £  21  milli- 
metres. C'est  done  en  315  que  Pespece  du  denier  de 
bronze  commenca  a  etre  frappee  dans  Patelier  de  Londres 
comme  a  celui  de  Rome. 


T  I  F 


Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue 

On  trouve  — 

Au  rtvers.—SOLL  INVICTO  COMITI.  Avec  le  soleil 
radie,  a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a 
gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Au  droit.  I  .—CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Son  buste  laure, 
drape  et  euirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  521  ; 
BE.  MVS.  ;  2  gr.  98  ;  20  m.m. 

2.  CONSTANTINVS  P.  AYG.      Meme  buste.     Cohen, 

No.  524  ;  FE.  14888  ;  denier,  BE.  MYS. 

3.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.     Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.    Cohen,  No.  525  ;  FE.  14895. 

4.  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.  AYG.      Son  buste  laure 

et   cuirasse  a  droite.      Cohen,  No.  534  ;    BE. 
MYS.  ;  3  gr.  0-5  ;  20  m.m. 

5.  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.      Meme  buste. 

Cohen,     No.     536;    BE.    MYS.;    3    gr.     30.; 
20  m.m. 

6.  IMP.  LICINIYS  P.F.  AYG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  163;  BE.  MYS.  ; 
20  m.m. 

81  Jules  Maurice,  Z' atelier  monetaire  de  Rome  (Revue 
Numismatique,  1899,  p.  468). 

22  J'ai  donne  (dans  les  Memoires  de  la  Societe  Nationale  des 
Antiquaires  de  France,  pour  1900)  les  raisons  pour  lesquelles 
il  n'etait  pas  impossible  que  la  lettre  F  fut  la  premiere  lettre 
de  1'adjectif  Flavianus,  et  indiqua  la  dynastie  des  Flaviens, 
ou  les  princes  qui  ont  porte  le  gentilice  Flavius. 


o    -pi 

Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue    — J 

On  trouve — 

I.  Avec    la    meme  legende,    SOLI    INVIOTO    COMITI, 

et  le  ineme  type  du  revers. 

1.  Le  No.  521  de  Constantin  le  Grand  dans  Cohen,  deja 

decrit.  FE.  14887  ;  3  gr.  90 ;  BE.  MYS. ; 
2  gr.  98  ;  20  m.m. 

2.  Au  rfm'*.— CONSTANTINYS  AVG.   Son  buste  casque 

et  cuirasse  a  gauche  avec  le  casque  tres  orne, 
tenant  une  haste  sur  l'6paule  et  un  bouclier. 
Cohen,  No.  523;  FE.  14884;  3  gr.  70; 
BE.  MYS.  denier.  [PL  V.,  No.  1.] 

3.  Le  No.  525  de  Constantin  dans  Cohen,  deja  decrit. 

FE.  14895. 

4.  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  AYG.    Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  530;  FE.  14915. 

5.  Le  No.  534  de  Constantin  dans  Cohen,  deja  decrit. 

FE.  14921  ;  2  gr.  55;  21  m.m. 

6.  Le  No.  536   de  Constantin  dans  Cohen,  deja  decrit. 

BE.  MYS.;  21  m.m.;  FE.  14920;  3  gr.  50; 
20  m.m. 

II.  Au  revers.—  GENIO  POP.  EOM.  Genie  tourele,  a  demi- 
nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  patere  et  une 
corne  d'abondance. 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.  LICINIYS  P.F.  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  53; 
BE.  MYS.;  3  gr.  49;  20  m.m.;  FE.  14123, 

2.  Une  piece  analogue  de  Constantin  doit  se  placer 
probablement  ici  comme  dans  les  autres  series 


III.  Aurever*.—  ADVENTVS  AVG.  N.23  Constantin  a  cheval 
a  gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  une 
haste  transversale. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Piece  inedite.  BE. 
MVS.;  3  gr.  30;  21  m.m.  H.  MVS.  V. 
25-894.  [PI.  V.,  No.  2.] 

2.  Meme  legende.  Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse  a  gauche, 
tenant  une  haste  et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  No.  9  ; 
BE.  MYS.  ;  3  gr.  10  ;  20  m.m. 


o  I  -ri 

Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue    if-r!r  t 

M.  LL 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— PEINCIPI IVYENTVTIS.     Constantin  en 

habit  militaire   et   avec  le  manteau   tombant, 
tenant  une  haste  transversale  et  un  globe. 

Au  droit.—  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Piece  inedite.  BE. 
MYS. ;  21  m.m.  H.  MYS.  Y.  [PI.  V.,  No.  3.]25 

II.  Au  revers.— ADYENTYS  AYG.  N.  Constantin  a  cheval  a 

gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  une  haste. 

23  Le  second  Adventus  Dim  du  Calendrier  de  Philocalus, 
ainsi   que   1'a   demontre  Mommsen,   C.I.L.,   1,  p.   397,  doit 
se  rapporter  au  18  Juillet,  315.     La  presence  de  la  legende 
Adventus  Aug.  N.  montre  que  cette  emission  a  du  etre  frappee 
a  1'occasion  de  cette  entree  de  Constantin  a  Eome. 

24  Je  ne  distingue  les  series  de  cette  emission  que  par  les 
exergues.      Avec   chaque  exergue    particulier,  PLN,  MLL, 
MSL,   et  MLN,  se  presentent  des   lettres  diverses  dans  le 
champ,  T.F  et  S.F.,  ou  S.F.  et  S.P.     Si  Ton  admet,  comme  je 
1'ai  suppose,  que  les  lettres  F  et  P  sont  les  premieres  des 
adjectiis  Flaviana,  Perpetua,  il  en  resulte  que  les  premieres 
lettres   representent   des   substantifs  tels  que   Tranquillitas, 
Securitas ;  et  il  n'est  pas  etonnant  que  deux  de  ces  formules 
aient  ete  frappees  dans  une  meme  serie. 

25  De  Salis,  loe.  cit.,  PL  III.,  No.  12. 



Au  droit.— IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Piece  inedite.  BE. 
MVS. ;  3  gr.  63  ;  20  m.m.26 ;  deja  decrite. 

III.  Au  revers.— GENIO  POP.   EOM.      Genie    tourele,    d 

demi-nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  patere  et 
une  corne  d'abondance. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  53 ;  FR. 
14122  ;  3  gr.  80  ;  21  m.m. 

2.  Une  piece  de  Constantin  Auguste  doit  sans  doute  se 
placer  ici. 

IV.  Au  revers.— MAETI  CONSEEVATOEL    Mars  en  habit 

militaire  et  avec  un  manteau,  debout  de  face, 
regardant  d  gauche,  tenant  une  haste  renversee 
et  appuye  sur  un  bouclier. 

Au  droit.—  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  352  ; 
BE.  MYS. ;  3  gr.  63. 

Y.  Au  revers.— SOLI  INVICTO  COMITI.     Avec  le  type 
du  revers  deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.—  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Meme  buste. 
Cohen,  No.  530 ;  BE.  MYS. ;  FE.  14907  ; 
20  m.m. 


O    I 

Lettres  dans  le  champ  Q\  exergue        * 

M  o  Ju 

On  trouve  — 

I.  Au  revers.—  SOLI  INYICIO  COMITI.  Le  soleil  radie, 
a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a  gauche, 
levant  la  main  \iroite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Au  droit.  1.—  CONSTANTINYS  AYG.   Cohen,  No.  521  ; 
deja  decrity    FE.  14886  ;  3  gr.  32  ;  21  m.m. 

26  Cette   piece,  coming  ^   precedente,  doit  se   rapporter  a 
1'entree  de  Constantin  £  mtjae  le  18  Juillet  315. 


2.  IMP.   CONSTANTINVS   AVG.      Cohen,  No.  530 ; 

deja  decrit.     BR.  MVS. ;  20  m.m. ;  FR.  14908  ; 
3  gr.  60  ;  20  m.m. 

3.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AG.  («w).    Son  buste  laure 

et  cuirasse  a  droite.    Piece  inedite.    BR.  MVS. ; 
3  gr.  50 ;  21  m.m. 

4.  IMP.  LICINIVS  P.F.   AVG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  &  droite.     Cohen,  No.  163  ;  BR.  MVS. ; 
21  m.m. 

II.  Au  rev&rs.— GENIO  POP.  ROM.  Le  genie  tourele,  a 
demi-nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  patere  et 
une  corne  d'abondance. 

Au  droit.—mP.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  53 ;  BR. 
MVS.;  21  m.m. 

S  I  T* 
Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue         '       * 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— SOLI  INVICTO  COMITI.     Avec  le  type 
qui  vient  d'etre  decrit. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  524 ; 
BR.  MVS.  ;  20  m.m. 

27  Le  sens  de  la  lettre  P  n'a  pas  ete  fixe  definitivement,  mais 
1'on  peut  supposer  qu'elle  est  la  premiere  lettre  de  1'adjectif 
Perpetuus,  qui  se  trouve  dans  plusieurs  legendes  des  monnaies 
et  medaillons  de  cette  epoque. 

En  groupant  les  deniers  de  bronze  frappes  un  peu  plus  tard 
(317-324)  avec  la  legende  Victoriae  Laetae  Princ.  Perp.,  j'ai 
observe  que  la  lettre  P,  qui  se  trouve  seule  sur  le  devant  de 
Fautel  place  au  milieu  du  champ  de  certaines  de  ces  monnaies, 
est  remplacee  sur  d'autres  pieces  par  la  lettre  R,  les  deux 
formant  le  cycle  PR,  qui  se  lit  partout  Perpetua  ( Vota].  A  la 
meme  place  sur  d'autres  pieces  encore  se  trouve  la  lettre  C, 
que  je  ne  puis  expliquer  a  moins  que  ce  ne  soit  le  nom  lui- 
meme  de  1'empereur  Constantin. 



2.  Meme   legende.       Meme    buste    &    gauche.       Piece 

inedite.     BE.  MVS.  ;  21  m.m.     [PI.  V.,  No.  4.] 

3.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.     Son  buste  laure  a 

gauche,    avec   le   manteau    imperial.      Cohen, 
No.  533  ;  FK.  14919  ;  3  gr.  50  ;  20  m.m. 

4.  IMP.  LICINIVS   P.F.  AVG.      Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  163  ;  BE.  MVS., 
le  buste  laure,  drape  et  cuirasse.     FE.  14271. 

II.  Meme  legende  du  revers,  avec  le  soleil  radie  dans 
une  quadrige  de  face,  se  tournant  a  gauche, 
levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe,  avec 
un  fouet. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  547  ; 
FE.  15021  ;  2  gr.  60;  21  m.m. 

2.  IMP.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son  buste  laure  et 
cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  164  ;  BE.  MVS. ; 
20  m.m. 


S  I  F 

Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue 


On  trouve — 

Au  revers.— SOLI  INVICTO  COMITI.  Le  soleil  radie, 
a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a  gauche, 
levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  524 ; 
FE.  14885  ;  3  gr.  50.  [PL  V.,  No.  5.] 

2.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Meme  buste.  Cohen, 

No.    530;    FE.    14908;    3    gr.    60;    21    m.m. 
BE.  MVS. 

3.  IMP.   LICINIVS    P.   AVG.      Son   buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.    Cohen,  No.  161 ;  FE.  14266  ; 
3  gr.  35  ;  21  m.m. 


a  I  ~P 
Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue  ^j^ 

On  trouve — • 

I.  Au  revers.—SOIA  INVICTO  COMITI.,    avec   le  type 

qui  vient  d'etre  decrit. 

Au  droit.  I. — Le  No.  524  de  Constantin  dans  Cohen. 
BE.  MVS. 

2.  Le  No.  530  de  Constantin  dans  Cohen.     BE.  MVS. ; 

20  m.m. 

3.  IMP.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.    Son  buste  laure,  drape 

et  cuirasse   a   droite.      Cohen,  No.   163 ;    FE. 
14269,  14270  ;  3  gr.  20  ;  20  m.m. 

II.  Au  revers.— GENIO  POP.  EOM.    Avec  le  genie  tourele, 

a  demi-nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  patere 
et  une  corne  d'abondance. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  CONSTANTIN VS  AVG.  ^  Son 
buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Piece  inedite. 
BE.  MVS. ;  21  m.m. 

2.  Une  piece  de  Licinius  Auguste  doit  se  rencontrer  ici 
comme  dans  les  autres  series  contemporaines. 


Frappee  depuis  le  lcr  Mars  317,  date  de  1'election  des 
Cesars,  Crispus,  Constantin  II  et  Licinius  II  ; 28  jusqu'a 
1'annee  320  ou  furent  comptes  leurs  Vota  V. 

Les  monnaies   de  bronze  de  cette  emission    sont  des 

28  On  a  pour  etablir  cette  date  de  1' election  des  Cesars  les 
temoignages  des  textes  les  plus  autorises  sur  la  chronologie 
de  cette  epoque. 

1.  Les  Fastes  d'ldacei  (Gallicano  et  Basso.     His  conss. 

levati  tres  Caesares  :    Crispus,  Licinius  et  Con- 
stantinus,  die  Kal.  Mart). 

2.  Le    Chronicon  Paschale    donne  la  meme  date  et  le 


deniers  du  systeme  de  Constantin,  d'un  poids  moyen  de 
3  grammes  50  centigrammes,  mais  presentant  des  varia- 
tions au  dessus  ou  au  dessous  de  ce  poids.  Les  diametres 
de  ces  pieces  varient  entre  18  et  20  millimetres  et 
sont  legerement  inferieurs  a  ceux  des  deniers  de  1' emission 


S  I  I* 
Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue        ' 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— SOLI  INVICTO  COMITI.  Le  soleil  radie, 
a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a  gauche, 
levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINYS  P.  AVGK  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  524  ; 
FE.  14887 ;  BE.  MVS.  ;  20  m.m. 

meme  jour :    cf.   Mommsen,     Chronica  Minor  a. 

3.  Le   Panegyrique    d'Eumene  x,    c.    2   (Nazarii   Pane- 

gyricus  Constantino  dictus),  qui  fixe  cinq  ans 
plus  tard  en  321  les  quinquennalia  des  Cesars. 

4.  Eusebe,  Vita  Constantini  IV,  40,  place  Felection  de 

Constantin  II  vers  la   1  Ome  annee  du  regne  de 
Constantin  I,  vers  316  ou  317. 

Enfin,  1'abondante  frappe  des  monnaies  qui  viennent 
d'etre  decrites  en  315  et  316  aux  noms  de  Con- 
stantin I  et  de  Licinius  I,  seulement,  confirme  le 
dire  de  ces  auteurs  ;  ainsi  que  la  legende  Ad- 
ventus  Aug.  N.  frappee  a  Londres  en  315  dans 
cette  emission,  ou  ne  paraissent  que  les  deux 
empereurs  cites.  C'est  done  a  tort  que  I'Anony- 
mus  Valesii  5,  19,  cite  Telection  des  Cesars  avant 
la  prise  du  consulat  par  Licinius  I  et  Constantin 
I  en  314  ;  cette  prise  du  consulat  eut  lieu  d'ail- 
leurs  au  ler  Janvier,  et  1' election  des  Cesars 
n'eut  lieu  qu'en  Mars  d'apres  les  meilleures 


2.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse 

a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  136  ;  FE.  15505. 

3.  FL.   IYL.    CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.      Meme  buste. 

Cohen,  No.  137  ;  FE.  15507  ;  3  gr.  95  ;  20  m.m. 

4.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  N.C.     Son  buste  laure   et 

drape  a  droite.     Cohen,   No.  183;  FE.  15812, 
15816  ;  3  gr.  35;   19  m.m. 

5.  FL.  CL.  CONSTANTINVS  IYN.  N.C.      Son  buste 

laure,    drape    et    cuirasse   a    droite.       Cohen, 
No.  186;  BE.  MVS. 

II.  Au  revers.— CLAEITAS  EEIPVBLICAE.29  Le  soleil 
radie,  a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a 
gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Audroit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  P.  AVGK  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  36  ; 
H.  MVS.  V. 

2.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVGK  Meme  buste.     Cohen, 

No.  37  ;  H.  MVS,  V. 

3.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.    Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse 

a  droite.     Cohen,  No,  51  ;  FE.  15429. 

Les  monnaies  de  Licinius  I  et  II  sont  frappees  dans 
remission  contemporaine  de  Tatelier  de  Rome  avec  la 
legende  lovi  Conservatori.  Des  pieces  correspondantes 
doivent  exister  dans  la  frappe  de  Londres  au  moins  pour 
Licinius  I ;  le  jeune  Licinius  n'ayant  peut-etre  pas  eu  de 
monnaies  a  son  effigie  emises  a  Londres. 

29  Cette  legende  Cla/ritas  Reipullicae  apparait  dans  tous  lea 
ateliers  d'Occidentapresl' election  des  Cesars,  Crispus,  Licinius 
et  Constantin  II.  Elle  se  rencontre  generalement  sur  les 
pieces  des  Cesars.  L' atelier  de  Londres,  au  contraire,  frappe 
indifferemment  Soli  Invicto  Comiti  et  Claritas  Reipullicae 
sur  les  monnaies  a  1' effigie  de  Constantin  I,  ou  a  celles  des 


Signe  et  lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue  ^  * 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— SOLI  INVICTO  COMITI.  Le  soleil 
radie,  a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a 
gauche,  levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Au  droit.  1.— CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.  Cohen,  No. 
136 ;  deja  decrit.  BE.  MVS.  [PI.  V.,  No.  6.] 

2.  FL.  IYL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.    Cohen,  No.  137  ; 

deja  decrit.     FK.  15508  ;  3  gr.  20  ;   19  m.m. 

3.  FL.    CL.   CONSTANTINVS   IVN.    N.C.      Cohen, 

No.  186  ;  deja  decrit.     BE.  MVS. ;  20  m.m. 

4.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AVG.     Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.    Cohen,  No.  525  ;  BE.  MVS.30 

Les  pieces  des  deux  Licinius  manquent  pour  cette  serie. 

II.  Au  revers.— PEINCIPIA  1VVENTVTIS.  Crispus  en 
habit  militaire,  debout  a  droite,  tenant  une  haste 
renversee  et  appuyant  sur  un  bouclier. 

Au  droit.— CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.  Son  buste  laure 
et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Variete  de  Cohen,  No. 
105;  BE.  MVS. ;  19  m.m. 


I  * 

Signes  et  lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue 


On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers  —  SOLI  INVICTO  COMITI.     Avec  le  type 
deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.— FL.  CL.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  N.C. 
Cohen,  No.  186;  deja  decrit;  BE.  MVS.; 
20  m.m.  [_*!•  V.,  No.  7.] 

II.  Au  revers—  CLAEITAS  EE1PVBLICAE.    Avec  le  type 
deja  decrit. 

30  De  Salis,  kc.  eit.,  PL  IV.  No.  1. 


Au  droit.—  CONSTANTINYS  P.P.  AYGK  Cohen, 
No.  37;  deja  decrit ;  H.  MYS.  V.;  Milan, 
Musee  Brera. 

Les  monnaies  presentant  la  legende  Victoriae  Laetae 
Princ.  Perp.,  qui  seront  decrites  plus  loin,  ont  etc  f rappees 
egalement  de  317  a  320. 


Frappee  depuis  Pannee  320,  pendant  laquelle  apparais- 
sent  les  "  Vota  V  "  des  Cesars,  contemporains  des  "  Yota 
XY"  de  Constantin  le  Grand,31  jusqu'au  8  Novembre 
324,  date  de  1'election  de  Constantius  II  Cesar,  dont  les 
monnaies  ne  font  pas  encore  partie  de  cette  emission. 

Monnaies  frappees  egalement  de  317  a  320. 

Lettres  dans  1'exergue 


La  legende  du  revers  Victoriae  Laetae  Princ.  Perp.,  qui 
se  presente  dans  cette  serie,32  se  trouve  egalement  dans 
une  emission  contemporaine  de  1'atelier  de  Siscia,  sur 

31  Cf.  J.Maurice,  loc.  cit.,  Revue  Numismatique,  1899,  p.  476. 
Le  Panegyrique  $ Eumene  x,  (Nazarii  Panegyricus  Constantino 
dictus)  explique  cette  contemporaneite  des  Vota. 

32  Cette  legende  fut  f  rappee  a  Siscia  avant  et   en  meme 
temps  que  les  Caesarum  Nostrorum  Tot.  V.,  et  continua  &  1'etre 
en  meme  temps  que  les  D.  N.  Con&tantini  ou  Licini  Vot.  XX  et 
les  Virtus  Exercit.,  qui  portent  les  VOT.  XX  sur  1'etendard 
dans  le  champ  des  monnaies.   Les  series  monetaires  de  Tarra- 
gone  ou  les  Tot,  X  de  Constantin  le  Grand  sont  inscrits  sur 
les  monnaies  avec  la  legende  Victoriae  Laetae  Princ.  Perp.  font 
remonter  en  317  le  debut  de  la  frappe  de  cette  legende.    A 
Treves  elle  parut  en   323,  d'apres  Hettner  (Romische  Munz- 
schatzfunde  in  den  Rheinldndern\  (  fVestdeutsche  Zeitschrift.,  1887, 
p.  147). 

VOL.   XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  T 


des  pieces    qui  portent    le  monogramme  Constantinien. 
Aucun   signe  chretien,  au  contraire,  ne  parait  avoir   ete 
frappe  dans  1'atelier  de  Londres.      Les  monnaies  de  cette 
emission  sont  de  1'espece  du  denier  de  bronze. 
On  trouve — 


et  comme  type :  Deux  victoires  debout,  posant 
sur  un  autel  un  bouclier  sur  lequel  celle  qui 
est  a  gauche  a  inscrit  VOT.  P.E. 

Audroit.  1 .— CONSTANTINVS  AG.  (sic).  Son  buste 
cuirasse  d  droite  avec  le  casque  laure.  Variete  de 
Cohen,  No.  633;  BE.  MVS.33 

2.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.     Son  buste  cuirasse 

a  gauche,  avec  le  casque  orne  d'un  crinier,  et 
tenant  une  haste ;  sans  bouclier.  Cohen,  No. 
638  ;  BE.  MVS.  [PL  V.,  No.  8.] 

3.  IMP.    CONSTANTINVS    AG.    (sic).      Variete    de 

Cohen,  No.  638 ;  BE.  MVS.34 

4.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  MAX.  AVG.      Son  buste 

cuirasse  a  droite,  avec  le  casque  laure.  Cohen, 
No.  640  ;  BE.  MVS.,  denier.35 

Le  revers  de  cette  piece  presente  une  couronne  sur  la 
face  anterieure  de  1' autel. 

5.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAESAE.     Son  buste  laure,  drape 

et    cuirasse  a  droite.      Cohen,  No.   148 ;    BE. 
Meme  revers  avec  une  couronne. 

33  De  Salis,  loc.  cit.,  PL  IV,  No.  5. 

34  Idem.,  PL  IV,  No.  5. 

35  Le  No.  635   de  Constantin  le  Grand    dans  Cohen,  2me 
edition,  est  indique  par  Madden  (Num.   Chron.,   1877,   p.  48) 
comme  presentant  une    croix  equilaterale    sur    la  face  an- 
terieure de  1'autel  et  a  1'exergue  PLN.      Ce  doit  etre  par 
erreur.     La  collection  du  British  Museum  indiquee  par  Mad- 
den contient  bien  une    telle  piece,   mais  avec  1'exergue  de 
Tarragone,  T  T.     Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  des  signes  chretiens  sur 
les  monnaies  frappees  a  Londres  sous  Constantin.     0,  Voetter 
n'en  signale  pas  non  plus  dans  :  JSrste  Christliche  Zeichen  auf 
romischen  Hunzen  (Numismatische  ZeitscJirift,  1892,  p.  41). 


6.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  N.C.    Son  buste  radio,  drape 

et  cuirasse  a  gauche.     Cohen,  No.  219;    BE. 
MVS. ;  18  m.m.     FE.  15821  ;  3  gr.  40. 

Meme  revers. 

7.  FL.  IYL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.     Son  buste  drape 

a  droite,  avecle  casque  laure.     Cohen,  No.  151  ; 
FE.  15512  ;  3  gr.  15  ;  19  m.m. 

8.  FL.  CL.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  N.C.     Son  buste 

radie,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  gauche.     Cohen,  No 
219 ;  FE.  15821  ;  3  gr.  40  ;  18  m.m. 

Monnaies  frappees  seulement  de  320  £  324. 

II.  Au  r^r*.— VIETVS  EXEECIT.  Un  etendard,  au 
pied  duquel  sont  assis  deux  captifs ;  celui  de 
droite  a  les  mains  liees  derriere  le  dos  et  re- 
tourne  la  tete,  celui  de  gauche  est  dans  1' attitude 
de  la  tristesse ;  sur  1' etendard  VOT  XX. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  AVG-.  Son  buste 
casque  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  695 ; 
BE.  MVS. ;  19  m.m. ;  FE.  [PI.  V.,  No.  9.]  36 

2.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.    Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse 

a  droite.     Cohen,  No.   179;    BE.  MVS.;   FE. 
15530;  3  gr.  40;  19  m.m. 

3.  CONSTANTINVS    IVN.    N.C.      Son  buste    radie 

et  cuirasse  a  gauche.     Cohen,  No.   252 ;   BE. 


4.  CEISPVS  NOBIL.  C.     Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse 

a  droite.    Cohen,  No.  173  ;  FE.  15533. 

L'extremite  superieure  de  la  hampe  de  1'etendard  sur  ces 

36  Avec  les  legendes  Victor iae  Laetae,  etc.,  et  Virtus  Exercit. 
aucun  signe  chretien  ne  parait  etre  sorti  de  1'atelier  de  Lon- 
dres,  tandis  que  le  monogramme  apparaissait  sur  les  monnaies 
portant  la  legende  Virtus  Exercit.  a  Siscia,  a  Aquilee,  a 
Tarragone,  et  a  Treves,  et  avec  Victoriae  Laetae  Princ.  Perp.  a 
Siscia ;  cf.  0.  Voetter,  loo.  cti.,  et  notamment  PI.  II.  No.  73 
a  75,  et  Madden,  loc.  tit. 



pieces  parait  se  terminer  par  une  croix  et  a  etc  considered 
comme  telle ;  37  tandis  qu'il  ne  s'agit  que  d'une  apparence 
purement  fortuite.  L'on  pent  s'en  convaincre  par  la  com- 
paraison  d'un  grand  nombre  de  pieces  qui  presentent 
plus  ou  moins  la  croix  apparehte  ;  suivant  le  degre  d'usure 
du  bras  transversal  de  la  croix  forme  par  la  ligne  superieure 
du  drapeau  attache  a  la  hampe. 

III.  Au  revers.— CONSTANTINI  AVG.     Autour  de  YOTIS 
XX  en  trois  lignes  dans  le  champ. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.    Sa  tete  lauree 
a  droite.    Cohen,  No.  84.     Milan,  Musee  Brera, 

No.  7,348. 

F  rappee  egalement  de  317  a  320. 

Lettres  dans  1'exergue  p~y    avec  deux  captifs  assis  dos  a 
dos  entre  les  lettres  P  et  L. 

I.  Au  revers.—  VICTOEIAE    LAETAE    PEINC.    PEEP. 

Deux  victoires  debout,  posant  un  bouclier  sur 
au  autel ;  sur  le  bouclier  sont  inscrits  les 
VOT.  P.E. 

Au  droit.  L— CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Son  buste  cui- 
rasse  a  droite,  avec  le  casque  surmonte  d'une 
crinier.  Cohen,  No.  631  ;  FE.  15072 ;  BE.  MVS. 

2  IMP.  LIC1NIVS  AVG.  Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse 
a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  174  ;  FE.  14318. 

3.  IMP.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Meme  buste.  Cohen,  No. 

177;  FE.  14319. 

4.  D.N.  CEISPO   NOB.    CAES.      Son    buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  155  ;  BE.  MVS. ; 
FE.  15517. 

37  Cf.  Cavedoni,  Tresor  de  Numismatique ;  Garrucci,  Numis- 
matica  Constantino, ;  Madden,  Christian  emblems  on  coins  of  Con- 
stantine  I  (Num.  Chron.,  1877,  pp.  258-260). 


5.  D.N.   CONSTANTINO   IVN.  NOB.   C.     Son   buste 

laure  et  drape  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  227  ;  BE. 


Une  serie  de  pieces   se  presente  avec  le  meme  revere, 
mais  avec  les  captifs  seulement  et  sans  lettres  a  1'exergue. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  LICINIYS  AYGK     Son  buste  laure  et 
cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  176  ;  EE.  14316. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  AYGK  Cohen,  No.  631,  deja  decrit ; 

BE.  MYS.     [PL  V.,  No.  10.] 

3.  CEISPYS  NOB.  CAES.      Son  buste  laure  et  drape  a 

droite.     Cohen,  No.  156  ;  Musee  de  Turin. 

4.  Le    No.   219  de  Constantin  II  dans  Cohen    doit  se 

placer  ici. 

5  D.N.  CEISPO  NOB.  CAES.  Son  buste  laure  et 
drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  155  ;  BE.  MYS.  ; 
20  m.m.39 

6.  D.N.  CONSTANTINO  IYN.  NOB.    C.     Son   buste 

laure  et  drape  a  droite.      Cohen,  No.  227  ;  BE. 
MYS. ;  19  m.m. ;  EE.  15824,  15825  ;  3  gr.  40. 


Frappee  seulement  de  320  a  324. 

Lettres  dans  1'exergue 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— YIETYS  EXEECIT.    Avec  le  type  de  revers 
deja  decrit.40 

Au  droit.  1.— CEISPYS  NOBIL.  C.  Son  buste  casque 
et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  173  ;  EE. 
15534;  BE.  MYS. 

38  De  Salis,  loo.  ciL,  PL  IY,  No.  7. 

39  Idem.,  PI.  IY,  No.  6. 

40  Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  de  pieces  de  Constantin  I  et  de  Lici- 
nius  I  avec  cette  legende  dans  cette  serie,  mais  elles  doivent 
s'y  rencontrer. 


2.  CONSTANTINVS  IYN.  N.C.  Son  buste  radio  et 
cuirasse  a  gauche.  Cohen,  No.  252  ;  BE,.  MVS. 

II.  Au  refers. — Meme  legende.  Trophee,  au  pied  duquel 
sont  assis  deux  captifs,  celui  de  gauche  dans 
1'attitude  de  la  tristesse,  1'autre  les  mains  liees 
derriere  le  dos  retourne  la  tete. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINVS  IYN.  N.C.  Son  buste 
radie,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  gauche.  Cohen,  No. 
262 ;  BE.  MYS.  [PI.  V.,  No.  11.] 

III.  Aurevers.— BEATA     TEANQVILLITAS.      Un    autel 

sur  lequel  repose  un  globe,  au  dessus  duquel 
1'on  voit  deux  ou  trois  etoiles  ;  on  lit  sur  1' autel 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Son  buste  laure 
a  droite,  avec  le  manteau  imperial,  tenant  un 
sceptre  surmonte  d'un  aigle.  Cohen,  No.  17  ; 
BE.  MYS. ;  H.  MVS.  V. 

2.  Meme  legende ;  meme  buste  a  gauche.     Cohen,  No. 

18  ;  FE.  14470  ;  3  gr.  20  ;  19  m.m. 41 

3.  CEISPVS  NOBIL.  C.      Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse 

a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  12  ;  FE.  15359  ;  3  gr.  20  ; 

19  m.m. 

4.  Meme  legende.    Son  buste  casque  et  euirasse  a  gauche. 

Cohen,  No.  13;  FE.  15360,  15361  ;  BE.  MVS. 

5.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  N.C.      Son   buste  radie    et 

drape  a  gauche.  Cohen,  No.  16;  FE.  15579; 
3  gr.  60  ;  20  m.m. 

IV.  Au  revers.— BEAT.   TEANQLITAS.  (sic).     Eevers  deja 

decrit  avec  la  legende  Beata  Tranquillitas.  Cette 
legende  Beat.  Tranqlitas.  est  particuliere  a 
1'atelier  de  Londres. 

41  Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  de  pieces  de  Licinius  I  avec  cette 
legende.  Quant  a  Licinius  II,  je  n'ai  trouve  aucune  de  ses 
nionnaies  f rappees  a  Londres,  et  je  ne  puis  dire  si  c'est  a 
cause  de  la  tres  grande  rarete  de  ces  monnaies,  ou  s'il  a  reelle- 
ment  pas  ete  frappe  de  pieces  a  son  emgie  dans  1'atelier  de 


Audroit.  1.—  CONSTANTINYS  AVGL  Son  buste  casque 
et  cuirasse  a  gauche  ;  avec  le  casque  quelquefois 
tres  orne.  Cohen,  No.  26  ;  BE.  MYS.  ;  FB. 

2.  Meme  legende;  meme  buste  a  droite.     Piece  inedite. 

BE.  MVS.42 

3.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  gauche, 

tenant  un  sceptre  surmonte  d'un  aigle.     Cohen, 
No.  28  ;  BE.  MYS.43 

4.  Meme  legende  ;  meme  buste  a  droite.    Cohen,  No.  29  ; 

BE.  MYS.  ;  FB.  1448;  3  gr.  50;  19  m.m. 

5.  CEISPYS  NOBIL.  0.     Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse 

a   gauche,  tenant    une   haste   et  un    bouclier. 
Cohen,  No.  28  ;  FE.  15377. 

6.  Meme   legende.      Meme   buste  mais   laure.     Cohen, 

No.  27  ;  BE.  MYS.44 

7.  Meme    legende.     Son    buste   casque    et    cuirasse    d 

gauche.    Cohen,  No.  29  ;  FE.  15378. 

8.  Meme  legende.    Meme  buste  a  droite.    BE.  MYS.45 

9.  CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  N.C.     Son  buste  casque  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  9  ;  FE.  15591. 

10.  Meme  legende  ;  meme  buste  a  gauche.     Cohen,  No. 

10;  FE.  15593. 

Y.  Au  revers.—  SABMATIA  DEYICTA.  Yictoire  mar- 
chant  a  droite,  tenant  un  trophee  et  une  palme 
et  mettant  le  pied  sur  un  captif  assis  qui  re- 
tourne  la  tete. 

Au  droit.—  CONSTANTINYS  AYGK    Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.     Cohen,  No.  487,  corrige  ;  BE.  MYS.46 

42  De  Salis,  loo.  cit.,  PL  IY.,  No.  9. 

43,  44,  45 

46  De  Salis,  loc.  cit.,  PI.  IY.,  No.  10.  Cette  monnaie  se 
rapporte  a  la  victoire  de  Constantin  sur  les  Sarmates  en  322  ; 
cf.  Porphyrii  Carmina,  vi.,  22  ;  Zosime  (Hist,  ii.,  21)  la  place 
avant  le  sejour  de  Constantin  a  Thessalonique,  ou  il  prepara 
en  323  sa  guerre  centre  Licinius.  (Cod.  Theodos.,  iii.,  23,  1.) 


TCI     I     T> 

Lettres  dans  le  champ  et  exergue  -pT  L^ 

Les  monnaies  qui  suivent  font  partie  de  la  meme  serie 
que  celles  qui  precedent ;  en  effet,  les  meme  pieces  se 
presentent  avec  et  sans  les  lettres  F  B  dans  le  champ 
de  leurs  revers.47 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— BEATA  TEANQYILLITAS.    Avec  le  revers 
deja  decrit  pour  cette  legende. 

Au  droit.  1.— CEISPVS  NOBIL.  0.  Son  buste  casque 
et  cuirasse  a  gauche  Cohen,  No.  13;  FE. 
15360,  15361  ;  3  gr.  40;  19  m.m. 

2.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  N.C.  Son  buste  radie  et 
drape  a  gauche.  Cohen,  No.  16;  FE.  15580. 

On  trouve — 

II.  Au  revers.— BEAT.  TEANQLITAS  (sic).    Avec  le  revers 
deja  indique  pour  cette  legende. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Cohen,  No.  28  ; 
deja  decrit;  BE.  MVS. 

2.  CONSTANTINVS  AG.  (sic).  Son  buste  laure  et 
cuirasse  a  droite,  tenant  un  sceptre  surmonte 
d'un  aigle.  Cohen,  No.  30;  BE.  MVS. 

47  Les  lettres  P  et  A  ont  ete  indiquees  comme  existant  aussi 
dans  le  champ  du  revers  de  ces  pieces.  (Of.  Hettiier,  Rom. 
Miinzschatzfunde  in  den  Rheinl.,  Westdeutsche  Zeitschrift,  1888, 
p.  122.)  Quant  aux  signes  chretiens  que  les  anciens 
auteurs  ont  vus  (cf.  Garrucci,  loc.  cit,)  sur  les  monnaies,  qui 
portent  cette  legende  du  revers,  ce  sont  les  diagonales  qui 
forment  un  dessin  ressemblant  a  un  croix  sur  le  devant  de 
1'autel,  surlequel  les  victoire-s  deposent  leur  bouclier,  qui  y  ont 
donne  lieu,  ainsi  que  les  meridiens  qui  divisent  le  globe  pose 
sur  1'autel. 


3.  CEISPVS  NOBIL.  0.      Cohen,  No.  28  ;  deia  decrit : 

BE.  MYS.     [PI.  V.,  No.  12.] 

4.  Meme   legende.    Cohen,    No.    29;    deja    decrit;   FE. 


5.  CONSTANTINYS  IVN.  N.C.     Son  buste  radie  et 

cuirasse   a  gauche.    Cohen,  No.   8 ;  BE.  MYS. 
[PL  V.,  No.  13.] 


Je  n'ai  trouve   que   deux  pieces  presentant   1'exergue 

On  trouve — 

Au  mws.T-CAESAEYM  NOSTEOEYM  autour  d'une 
couronne  de laurier,  dans  laquelle  on  lit  YOT.  X. 

Au  droit.  1.— IYL.  CEISPYS  NOB.  C.  Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  Cohen,  No.  44  ;  FE.  15417  ;  2  gr.  80  ; 
19  m.m.  [PL  V.,  No.  14.] 

2.  CONSTANTINYS    IYN.    NOB.    C.      Sa    tete 
lauree  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  33  ;  BE.  MYS.48 


Frappee  depuis  1'election  de  Constance  II  Cesar  le  8 
Novembre  324,49  jusqu'au  sejour  de  Constantin  a  Eome 
de  Juillet  a  Septembre  326.50 

Cette  emission  contient  en  effet  des  monnaies  de  Crispus 
et  de  Fausta  qui  ont  ete  frappees  jusqu'a  cette  epoque, 

48  De  Salis,  loc.   cit.,  PI.  IY.,  No.  11.     Le  YOT.  X.  des 
Cesars  se  trouve  dans  1'emission  de  Eome  frappee  en. 320- 
324.     (Jules  Maurice,  Revue  Niimismatique,  1899,  p.  476.) 

49  Idat.    Fast.  ;     Chron.   Pasch. ;    cf .    J.    Maurice,    L1  atelier 
monttaire  de  Rome  (Revue  Numismatique,  1899,  p.  486). 

60  Troisieme  Adventus  Divide.  21  Juillet,  C.I.L.,  I,  p.  397. 



d'apres  les  indications  fournies  par  les  frappes  de  Tatelier 
d'Antioche.51  Les  pieces  de  bronze  de  cette  emission  sont 
uniquement  du  type  du  denier  de  Constantin. 


Lettres  dans  1' exergue 

On  trouve  — 

I.  Au  revers.—  PEOYIDENTIAE  AYGG.  Porte  de  camp 
ouverte  au  milieu,  surmontee  de  deux  tours  ; 
au  dessus  une  etoile. 

Au  dr^.—  CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Sa  tete  lauree 
a  droite.  Cohen,  No.  454;  BE.  MVS  ;  FE. 

II.  Au  m;m.— PEOYIDENTIAE  OAESS.    Meme  type  du 

Au  droit.  1.— FL.  IYL.  CEISPYS  NOB.  CAES.     Son 

buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  124  ; 
BE.  MYS.  ;  FE.  15483. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  NOB.  C.   Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  164  ;  BE.  MYS.  ; 
FE.  15769;  3  gr.  30;  19  m.m. 

3.  FL.  IYL.  CONSTANTIYS  NOB.  0.    Son  buste  laure, 

drape    et    cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  No.  168  ; 
BE.  MYS. 

4.  FLA.  CONSTANTIYS  NOB.  C.      Son  buste   laure, 

drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.    Piece  inedite.    BE. 


III.  Au  revers.— SECYEITAS  EEIPYBLICE.  La  Securite 
voilee,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  un  rameau 
baisse  et  soutenant  sa  robe. 

51  J.    Maurice,    Emissions  monltaires  de   F atelier  d'Antioche 
(Num.  Chron.,  1899,  p.  237). 

K  De  Salis,  he.  cit.,  PL  IY.,  No.  12. 


Au  droit.—F~L.  HELENA  AYGVSTA.  Son  buste  drape 
a  droite,  avec  un  diademe  orne  de  perles  et 
un  collier  forme  de  deux  rangs  de  perles. 
Cohen,  No.  12;  BE.  MYS.  20  m.m.  F£l.  V., 
No.  15.] 

IV.  Au  revers.— SALVS  EEIPVBLICAE.  Fausta  voilee, 
debout  a  gauche,  tenant  Oonstantin  II  et  Con- 
stance II,  enfants,  dans  ses  bras. 

Audroit.— FLAY.  MAX.  FAYSTA.  AG.  (no).  Son 
buste  coitfe  en  cheveux  a  droite  et  drape. 
Cohen,  Nos.  6  et  7  ;  BE.  MYS. ;  26  m.m.53 

L'atelier  de  Londres  ferme  en  326,  a  Tepoque  de  la 
mort  de  Crispus  et  de  Fausta,  dont  les  pieces  font  partie 
de  sa  derniere  emission.  La  legende  Providentiae  Caess. 
se  pre'sente  sur  les  monnaies  de  Crispus  en  meme  temps 
qae  sur  celles  de  Constance  II.  Cet  atelier  ne  se  rouvre 
plus  sous  le  regne  de  Constantin  le  Grand.54 


63  De  Salis,  loo.  tit.,  PL  IY,  No.  13. 

84  Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  de  monnaies  d'or  frappees  a  Londres 
pendant  la  periode  Constantinienne.  J'ai  demontre  dans 
mon  etude  sur  1'atelier  d'Antioche  (Num.  Chron.,  1899,  p. 
237),  que  les  dernieres  emissions  qui  contiennent  les  pieces 
de  Crispus  et  de  Fausta  ne  cesserent  d'etre  frappees  qu'en 
Aout  ou  Septembre,  326. 



IT  was  for  many  years  a  disputed  point  among  numisma- 
tists whether  the  very  rare  coins  of  Ecgberht  with  the 
B£  reverse  type  should  be  given  to  the  king  of  that  name 
in  Kent  (765 — c.  779),  or  to  the  son  of  Offa  who  reigned 
in  Mercia  for  six  months  after  his  father's  decease.1  It 
was  objected,  however,  and  rightly  so,  that  the  latter  was 
probably  called  Ecgferth  and  not  Ecgberht ;  and  there 
has  been  for  some  time  a  consensus  of  opinion  that  the 
coins  in  question2  were  attributable  correctly  to  Ecg- 
berht of  Kent, 3  Hawkins  and  the  Museum  authorities 
having  concurred  in  this  arrangement.  In  Hawkins  4  we 
read  :"....  but  as  the  two  moneyers  Udd  and  Babba 
both  appear  on  the  coins  of  Offa,  and  this  monogram,  and 
types  very  similar  to  these,  also  appear  on  his  coins  (cf. 
Ruding  V,  25,  31,  32,  &c.),  there  can  be  little  doubt  that 
this  King  Ecgberht  had  some  close  connection  with  Offa. 

1  Hawkins,  Silver  Coins  of  England,  3rd  Edition,  p.  31. 

2  I  only  know  of  four  coins  of  this  king,  one  in  the  British 
Museum  (Udd  moneyer),  one  in  the  Hunter  collection  (Babba), 
and  two  that  were  Mr.  Montagu's  (Udd  and  Babba).     I  believe 
there  is  one  in  the  Paris  collection. 

3  He  should  be  properly  described  as  Ecgberht  II,  to  distin- 
guish him  from  his  predecessor  (664 — 673).    He  is  so  described 
by  Searle,  Anglo-Saxon  Bishops,  Kings,  and  Nobles,  p.  266. 

4  Silver  Coins  of  England,  3rd  Edition,  p.  32. 


Now,  Babba  struck  coins  in  Kent  for  Eadbearht  Praen, 
794  to  798,  and  Duda,  very  likely  the  same  person  as 
Udd,  for  Cuthred  798  to  805  :  and  from  about  the  year 
774  when  Offa  defeated  the  men  of  Kent  at  Ottford,  to 
823  when  Ecgberht  of  Wessex  subdued  them,  Kent  was 
almost  entirely  under  the  control  of  the  kings  of 
Mercia.  These  coins,  therefore,  struck  by  the  Kentish 
moneyers  Udd  and  Babba,  no  doubt  bear  the  name  of  the 
Kentish  King  Ecgberht,  who,  after  the  battle  of  Ottford, 
was  probably,  like  his  successors  Cuthred  and  Baldred, 
king  only  in  name  ;  and  most  likely  the  coins  struck  by 
Udd  and  Babba  for  Offa  were  struck  in  Kent,  as  were 
several  coins  of  Offa's  successors,  Coenwlf  and  Ceolwlf. 
It  may  be  worth  while  to  notice  that  Uda  is  one  of  the 
witnesses  to  the  charter  of  Ecgberht  before  mentioned/' 

There  were  therefore  strong  grounds  for  giving  these 
pennies  to  Ecgberht  of  Kent,  and  I  think  the  present 
coin,  figured  above,  not  only  places  that  attribution 
beyond  cavil,  but  at  the  same  time  it  enables  me  to  fill 
another  numismatic  gap  in  the  series  of  Kent,  as  I  can 
confidently  ascribe  it  to  a  King  Heahberht  who  reigned 
jointly  with  this  King  Ecgberht  in  Kent.  It  also  adds 
another  unique  coin  to  our  national  series.  These  two 
types  therefore  stand  first  at  the  head  of  the  Kentish 
series,  the  wolf  and  twin  type  of  Ethelbert  having  been 
more  correctly  removed  to  the  king  of  that  name  in 
East  Anglia. 


This  coin,  of  which  an  illustration  is  given  above,  may 
be  read — 

Obv. —  ^  HEABEKHT  between  two  dotted  lines ;  in 
centre  Be. 

Eev. — 60BA  between  limbs  of  cross,  each  limb  ending  in 
an  annulet,  containing  a  pellet ;  the  cross  voided 
in  centre  and  containing  a  pellet ;  a  pellet  also 
in  centre  of  the  letter  O.5 

It  has  unfortunately  been  slightly  broken  on  one  side,  and 
for  this  reason  only  weighs  11  grains,  being  therefore, 
in  comparison  with  Ecgberht's  pennies  (B.  M.  Cat.,  vol. 
i,  Kent  1),  light  even  allowing  for  the  break,  without 
which  it  would  probably  have  weighed  about  15  grains. 
The  coin  of  Ecgberht  in  the  National  Collection  weighs 
17*3  grains.  These  coins  seem  heavier  than  most  of  the 
sceattas  which  they  must  have  followed  at  no  great 
interval,  and  in  this  respect  they  may  be  compared  with 
the  half  sceatta,  halfpenny,  or  transition  coins  of  Beonna 
of  East  Anglia,  which  weigh  about  16'3  grains,  whilst  the 
contemporary  novi  denarii  of  Pepiii  on  the  Continent  are 
slightly  heavier  (752 — 768).  I  believe  that  there  was  a 
tendency  on  both  sides  of  the  water  at  this  period  to 
increase  the  weight  of  the  coin  and  its  size ;  and  if  Si- 
gered's  coins  should  ever  turn  up,  we  may  expect  them  to 
be  more  like  sceattas  and  still  lighter  in  weight.  As  to  the 
source  whence  the  gc  on  the  reverse  is  descended,  it  may 
be  noticed  that  this  monogram  denoting  REX  is  fairly 
common  on  the  pennies  of  Pepin,6  and  may  be  the  origin 
of  it.  In  connection  with  these  early  pennies,  the  coins 

5  Eoba  always  placed  a  dot,  characteristic  of  his  work,  in  the 
O  on  Offa's  and  Cynethryth's    pennies.     The  last  coins  with 
this  moneyer's  name  in  Coenwulf  s  time  are  probably  struck  by 
another  moneyer  of  the  same  name,  as  the  dot  is  omitted. 

6  Engel  and  Serrure,  Xwn.  du  Moyen-Age,  vol.  i.,  pp.  199,  200. 


of  Beonna  and  JEthelberht  of  East  Anglia  are  interesting. 
The  coins  of  the  former  have  in  my  opinion  very  rightly 
been  given  to  the  second  king  of  that  name  (circa  760) ; 
the  earlier  attribution  of  Hawkins  (p.  55)  not  being  admis- 
sible, whilst  the  unique  coin  of  the  latter,  which  is  in  the 
British  Museum,  after  being  suspected  for  many  years  has, 
I  think,  rehabilitated  its  character.7  Surely  the  counter- 
feiter or  supposed  fabricator  would  never  have  thought  of 
placing  a  compartment  derived  from  an  ancient  Homan 
type  on  the  coin  at  a  time  when,  numismatically  speaking, 
hardly  any  early  pennies  can  be  attributed  to  East  Anglia, 
whilst  it  is  precisely  for  that  reason  that  it  has  been 
given  to  that  state.  I  believe  this  compartment  type,  of 
which  we  see  the  last  remains  on  Beonna's  and  ^Ethel- 
berht's  coins,  to  have  been  peculiar  to  the  north  of  the 
Thames  or  Anglian  side  of  the  country,  whilst  the  southern 
or  Kentish  types  of  the  penny  may  have  been  derived  from 
the  Continental  novi  denarii,  after  the  older  mute  and  highly 
ornamented  types  of  sceattas  had  become  obsolete.  Perhaps 
this  was  due  to  the  position  of  Kent,  being  adjacent  to 
the  Continent,  with  which  it  was  more  likely  than  the 
northern  states  to  have  had  some  commercial  intercourse. 
Heahberht,  like  Ecgberht,  seems  to  have  been  a  sub- 
regulus  or  tributary  prince  of  Offa,  King  of  the  Mercians, 
who  subdued  the  men  of  Kent  at  Ottford  about  774,  just 
about  the  time  when  Heahberht  succeeded  to  the  throne. 
No  mention  of  the  latter  occurs  in  any  chronicles,  nor  is 
his  parentage  known,  our  knowledge  of  him  being  con- 
fined to  three  charters  in  which  his  name  appears  as  a 
signatory — e.g.,  first,  a  charter  of  Offa  in  764  relating  to 
land  at  .ZEslingaham  or  Frindsbury  on  the  Medway.  This 

7  Bought  by  the  British  Museum  in  1803  for  £1  8s. 


grant  commences  :  "  Ego  Offa,  Rex  Merciorum,  "regali 
prosapia  Merciorum  oriundus  .  .  .  .  Et  hoc  cum  consensu 
et  licentia  archiepiscopi  nostri  Bregouuini  atque  Heaberhti 
regis  Cantiae,  et  principum  nostrorum.  .  .  .  Ego  Hea- 
berhtus  rex  consensi  et  subscripsi."  8 

Secondly,  a  grant  by  Ecgberht  to  Eardulf,  Bishop  of 
Rochester  (A.D.  765),  of  land  within  the  castle  walls  of 
Rochester,  which  is  confirmed  by  Heahberht.  "  Ego 
Heaberhtus  rex  Cant,  testis  consensi  et  subscripsi/*  9  which 
is  also  confirmed  by  Offa  of  Mercia.  In  this  charter  Heah- 
berht appears  to  be  subordinate  to  Ecgberht,  but  there 
seems  to  be  no  evidence  as  to  whether  one  king  had  East 
Kent  and  the  other  West  Kent,  though  doubtless  this  was 
the  case,  as  Sigered  (760)  is  described  in  an  earlier  charter 
as  "rex  dimidiae  partis  provinciae  Cantuariorum  "  (Birch, 
No.  194). 

Lastly,  there  is  a  grant  by  Ecgberht  to  Diora,  Bishop  of 
Rochester,  of  land  at  Hailing  on  the  Medway  (765 — 
791).  Here  Ecgberht  signs  first  and  uses  the  expression 
"  roboravi,"  whilst  Heahberht  has  "subscripsi"  in  a 
similar  fashion  to  the  Archbishop  (Jaenberht)  who  follows 
him. 10 

It  may  be  noted  that  this  penny  offers  a  unique  instance 
of  two  kings  of  a  heptarchic  state  striking  coins  of  the 
same  type  at  the  same  period.  Kent  was  more  conserva- 
tive than  the  other  states,  owing  to  the  retention  there  of 
a  double  kingdom  ;  or  possibly  there  may  have  been  some 
sort  of  dual  control,  an  ancient  system  and  a  survival  of 
one  under  which  many  petty  kings  lived  in  close  juxtaposi- 

8  Text.  Roff.,  folio  123  ;   Cart.  Sax.  (Birch),  vol.  i.,  No.  195. 

9  Text.  Roff.,  folio  126  ;    Cart.  Sax.  (Birch),  vol.  i.,  No.  196. 

10  Text.  Roff.,  folio  127  ;    Cart.  Sax.  (Birch),  vol.  i.,  No.  260. 
Mr.  Birch  has  assured  me  that  these  charters  are  genuine. 


tion,  of  whom  many  have  escaped  being  chronicled. 
Thorpe  speaks  of  the  septs  or  clans  who  from  the 
earliest  time  had  their  leaders,  whose  powers  were  to 
merge  finally  into  the  regal  power,  subject  only  to  the  all- 
powerful  Bretwalda.  On  this  point  Kemble  says  u  :  "  We 
are  tolerably  familiar  with  the  fact  that  at  least  eight 
kingdoms  existed  at  once  in  Saxon  England  ;  but  many 
readers  of  English  history  have  yet  to  learn  that  royalty 
was  much  more  widely  spread,  even  at  the  time  when  we 
hear  of  but  eight,  seven,  or  six  predominant  kings  :  as  this 
is  a  point  of  some  interest,  a  few  examples  may  not  be 
amiss.  It  is  probable  that  from  the  very  earliest  times 
Kent  had  at  least  two  kings,  whose  capitals  were  respec- 
tively Canterbury  and  Rochester,  the  seat  of  two  bishop- 
rics. 12  The  distinction  of  East  and  West  Kentings  is 
preserved  till  the  very  downfall  of  the  Saxon  monarchy  : l3 
not  only  do  we  know  that  Eadric  and  Hlothhere  reigned 
together,  but  also  that  Wihtred  and  his  son  -ZEthelberht 
the  Second  did  so.  ...  The  later  years  of  JEthelberht 
the  Second  must  have  seen  his  power  shared  with  Eadberht, 
Eardhulf,  Sigiraed,  and  Ecgberht,  and  Sigirsed  delibe- 
rately calls  himself  king  of  half  Kent." 

Coins  bearing  a  double  royal  name  in  Anglo-Saxon 
times  have,  I  believe,  not  hitherto  been  met  with,  though 
there  are  well-known  examples  of  the  joint  issue  of  king 
and  archbishop.  The  following  coin,  bearing  the  names 

11  Saxons  in  England,  vol.  i.,  p.  148. 

12  It  has  been  said  by  an  eminent  authority  that  the  physical 
boundaries  of  the  episcopal  sees  in  England  would  often  be  con- 
terminous with  the  more  ancient  and  less  known  petty  king- 
doms of  the  Heptarchy. 

13  Palgrave  says,  "  Probably  one  was  king  of  West  Kent  and 
the  other  of  East  Kent"   (English   Commonwealth,  vol.  ii.,  p. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  X 



of  Berhtwulf  of  Mercia  and  .^Ethelwulf  of  Wessex,  is 
specially  interesting  from  a  numismatic  as  well  as  from 
an  historical  point  of  view.  This  coin,  of  which  an  illus- 
tration is  given,  may  be  read 

Obv.— BERHTl/F  REX.     Bust  to  r.,  diademed. 

Rev.—  ITtEDEJ/^l/F    EE+.     Cross    pattee    over    cross 

The  obverse  of  this  coin  is  almost,  if  not  exactly,  the  type 
of  No.  119,  B.  M.  Catalogue,  in  the  Berhtwulf  series,  whilst 
on  the  reverse  the  above  remarkable  legend  appears,  with 
the  cross  over  a  cross,  a  type  which  had  already  appeared 
on  the  coins  of  Ecgbeorht  of  Wessex,14  and  was  continued 
also  on  .^Ethelwulf's.15  It  may  be  noticed  that  the  style 
of  lettering  here  is  not  of  the  usual  kind,  sharp,  thin  at 
the  surface,  broad  at  the  base,  but  it  is  rounded  and 
of  nearly  the  same  thickness  all  through,  in  which  parti- 
culars it  resembles  the  work  of  Mercia  rather  than  that 
of  Kent  or  Wessex.  A  great  resemblance  may  be  traced 
to  the  style  of  Dun,16  a  moneyer  who  was  also  under  the 
Mercian  Kings,  Ceolwulf  I  and  Coenwulf.  On  the  coins 
of  the  latter  the  cross  preceding  the  king's  name  is  some- 
what peculiar,  the  horizontal  stroke  of  this  emblem  being 

14  Cfr.  B.  M.  Cat.,  vol.  ii.,  Ecgbeorht,  Type  viii. 

15  Cfr.  B.  M.  Cat.,  vol.  ii.,  PI.  III.  3,  9,  and  the  obverse  of  11. 

16  Cfr.  B.  M.  Cat.,  vol.  ii.,  PI.  III.  11.     The  name  of  Dun 
also  occurs  afterwards  as  a  York  moneyer  of  Eadgar,  and  also 
of  Eadweard  II,   and  therefore  it  seems   to  have  belonged  to 
an  Angle  district,  not  to  a  Saxon  one. 


very  thick  and  altogether  disproportionate  to  the  side 
strokes.  This  may  be  taken  as  a  guide  to  the  peculiar 
character  on  the  reverse  of  my  coin,  which  would  appear 
to  be  a  degraded  cross  of  this  class,  the  side  arms  having 
disappeared  by  corruption  of  type.  The  stroke  therefore  at 
the  beginning  of  the  reverse  legend  is  probably  the  usual 
familiar  cross,  and  not  a  part  of  the  name,  or,  as  it  is  not 
unfrequent  in  Saxon  coins,  an  abbreviation  of  some  kind. 
With  regard  to  the  letters  on  the  reverse,  it  may 
be  noticed  that  the  number  of  these  which  are  runes  is 
unusually  great  at  this  period,  pointing  to  an  Anglian 
(i.e.9  Mercian)  origin,  not  Saxon  (i.e.,  Kentish),17  as  there 
are  at  least  four  if  not  five  of  these  instead  of  the  usual 
Roman  letters — namely,  the  th,  an  e,  two  1's,  both  the  latter 
upside  down,  and  a  peculiar- looking  character  between  the 
two  last  letters,  which  may  be  similar  to  that  found  on 
Cynwulf's 18  coins  of  Eanred  and  Eanbald  II,  in  which 
case  it  would  probably  be  the  vowel  sound  A  or  Y.19 
But  I  think  that  this  letter  is  more  likely  to  be  a  Roman 
one,  and  that  it  represents  the  double  V  common  on  Anglo- 
Saxon  pennies,  which  seems  to  have  replaced  the  older 
Wen  or  Runic  form  when  followed  by  V.  Curiously 
enough,  on  Dun's  coins 20  we  get  the  form  Y  (sometimes 
in  the  moneyer's  name  as  well  as  the  king's),  which 
letter  connects  the  characters  somewhat  closely.  This 

17  On   Anglo-Saxon  pennies  we  seldom  get  runes  or  runic 
survivals,  unless  they  were  struck  north  of  the  Thames — i.e.,  in 
an  Anglian  district.     This  rule,  I  believe,  may  be  found  a  safe 
guide  in  appropriating  some  of  the  later  sceattas. 

18  B.  M.  Cat.,  vol.  L,  pp.  146,  147,  190,  191. 

19  See   Stephens,   Runic  Monuments.     This  form  hardly  ap- 
pears on  the  Anglian  monuments.     According  to  this  author,  it 
should  always  represent  a  vowel  sound. 

30  B.  M.  Cat.,  vol.  ii.,   p.   20  ;  and  also  Num.  Cliron.,  Third 
Series,  xiv.,  PL  IV.  6.  ,', 


same  form  on  Dun's  coins  appears  also  on  a  coin21  of  Beag- 
mund,  who  has  been  inferred  to  be  a  Mercian  moneyer 
from  the  double   M   obverse   type,   struck  during   Ecg- 
beorht's  reign.22     It  is  somewhat  unfortunate  that  in  my 
coin  the  title    REX   on  the    obverse  should   not   be  as 
clear  as  it  might  be,  owing  to  bad  condition ;  but  enough 
remains,  I  think,  of  the  R  to  show  the  engraver's  intention  ; 
the  space  also  could  hardly  enclose  other  letters  than  EX. 
It  is  presumable  that  the  concurrence  of  Berhtwulf's  and 
.ZEthelwulf's  names  on  this  coin  is  due  to  the  former  king 
being,  at  least  in  some  degree,  in  a  state  of  some  depend- 
ence on  the  latter ;  but  was  he  in  such  a  position  that  we 
may  infer  the  latter  to  have  been  his  overlord  in  the  same 
degree  that  Ecgbeorht  was  to  Wiglaf,  and  that  he  himself 
was  at  a  later  date  to  his  son-in-law  Burgred  ?     Wiglaf, 
Berhtwulf's  predecessor,  was  subject  to  Wessex,  having 
been  deposed  (828)  and    subsequently  restored  by  Ecg- 
beorht ;   and  it  was  by  the  successful  operations  of  the 
latter  at  Hengestduna,  that  Berhtwulf  afterwards  was  in  a 
position  to  occupy  the  throne  of  Mercia  in  some  condition 
of  security  from  the  ever-increasing  ravages  of  the  Danes. 
Wiglaf  having  in  that  year  (828)  sworn  fealty  and  paid 
tribute    to     Ecgbeorht,    the    latter,    according    to    Mr. 
Grueber,23  probably  struck  coins  as  King  of   Mercia  for 
some  period,  Wiglaf  not  striking  again.     But  of  .ZEthel- 
wulf  he  says  : 24  "  Of  a  gentle  nature,  and  more  disposed  to 
spend  a  quiet  life  than  to  rule  over  wide  dominions,  and 
also  having  to  turn  his  attentions  to  securing  the  safety 

21  13.  M.  Cat.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  4.     Perhaps  all  Dun's  coins  were 
struck  in  Mercia. 

22  Num.  Chron.,  Third  Series,  xiv.,  p.  61. 

23  Num.  Chron.,  Third  Series,  xiv.,  p.  65. 

24  Num.  Chron.,  Third  Series,  xiv.,  p.  72. 


of  his  own  kingdom  against  the  attacks  of  the  Vikings, 
^Ethelwulf  relaxed  his  rule  over  Mercia.  One  of  the 
results  of  which  was  that  we  find  in  a  short  time  Wiglaf's 
successor  Berhtwulf  resuming  the  monetary  rights  of  his 
predecessor."  Thorpe25  has  assumed  the  suzerainty  of 
Wessex  over  Mercia  at  this  period ;  he  says :  "  Imme- 
diately folio  wing  these  events  a  fleet  of  Northmen,  consist- 
ing of  no  less  than  three  hundred  sail,  arrived  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Thames,  whence  they  penetrated  to  Canter- 
bury and  even  to  London  (then  chief  city  of  Mercia), 
both  of  which  they  took  and  plundered,  having  put  to 
flight  the  army  of  Berhtwulf,  the  tributary  king  of  the 
Mercians. "  But  there  appears  to  be  no  mention  of  tri- 
butary king  in  any  of  the  authorities  he  quotes,  or  in 
any  other  place,  including  the  various  charters  ;  and  Pal- 
grave,26  who  made  a  schedule  of  the  various  states  of  the 
Heptarchy,  expressly  omits  any  overlord  of  Mercia  during 
Berhtwulf  s  reign. 

In  the  absence  of  evidence  of  this  dependence  of 
Mercia  on  Wessex,  can  we  regard  the  former  state  as 
having  been  then  subject  to  the  latter  in  any  greater 
degree  than  might  be  supposed  would  have  followed  as 
a  natural  sequence  from  Ecgbeorht's  prestige  in  former 
years  ?  May  not  her  position  have  somewhat  resembled 
that  of  North-Humbria,  during  the  reign  of  Ecgbeorht, 
which  was  mediatised,  if  we  may  use  a  modern  term  of 
diplomacy  in  so  rude  an  age,  by  him  when  that  state  sub- 
mitted to  him  at  Dore  ?  As,  therefore,  it  would  appear 
that  Berhtwulf  was  unhampered  by  ^Ethelwulf  in  his  regal 

25  Lappenberg's  Hist,  of  England  under  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Kings,  vol.  ii.,  p.  21. 

™  Rise  and  Progress  of  the  English  Commonwealth,  Proofs 
and  Illustrations,  p.  cclxxxi. 


prerogative  to  issue  coins  for  Mercia,  we  may  ask  the  ques- 
tion, For  what  place  was  this  penny  with  a  double  legend 
issued  ?,  unless  we  come  to  the  prosaic  conclusion  that  the 
coin  is  a  "  mule  "  with  two  obverses.  This  in  my  opinion 
would  be  an  unsatisfactory  view,  as  it  does  not  account 
for  the  general  appearance  of  the  coin  and  for  the  strange 
legend  on  the  side  bearing  the  name  of  ^Ethelwulf,  which 
is  wholly  dissimilar  to  any  others  of  his.  Whether 
Berhtwulf  struck  coins  in  other  places  than  Mercia  it  is 
difficult  to  say — some  coins  certainly  bear  the  East  Anglian 
A  on  the  reverse  ; 27  but  his  sovereignty  there  must  have 
been  of  an  empty  nature,  and  resembled  ours  in  later 
times  over  France,  when  we  still  kept  up  the  title  of 
king  of  that  country  after  our  possessions  there  had 
long  vanished.  London,  perhaps  including  Middlesex, 
may  have  been  a  bone  of  contention  from  a  mintage  point 
of  view  between  the  two  kings,  and  they  may  have 
agreed  to  share  the  latter  between  them  and  have  struck 
this  coin  jointly  in  that  city.  We  learn  that  London, 
formerly  capital  of  Essex,  was  incorporated  with  the  latter 
into  Mercia  about  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century,  and 
that  when  Essex  submitted  to  Ecgbeorht  (823)  this  town 
continued  to  belong  to  Mercia,  for  which  reason  we  find 
Berhtwulf  defending  it  unsuccessfully  against  the  Danes, 
after  whose  ravages  it  was  not  rebuilt  till  the  reign  of 
Alfred  the  Great.  If  the  kings  of  Wessex  after  Ecg- 
beorht had  continued  to  mint  for  Mercia,  we  might  expect 
some  evidence  of  that  fact  on  coins,  but  such  is  not  the 
case,  as  far  as  we  know,  and  Berhtwulf s  position  of 
responsibility  for  London  might,  on  primd-focie  grounds, 

27   Vide  Hawkins,  p.  62,  where  Burgred  also  has  this   letter 
on  one  of  Dudecil's  coins. 


be  deemed  sufficient  evidence  of  his  minting  at  that  city, 
whilst  it  would  not  be  likely  that  the  King  of  Wessex 
would  give  up  altogether  a  privilege  acquired  by  his  illus- 
trious predecessor.  Hence,  on  these  grounds,  a  joint  issue 
by  the  two  kings  is  not  unlikely. 

The  next  coin  which  I  would  notice  is  a  penny  of  Ecg- 
beorht  of  Wessex,  with  the  title  of  King  of  the  Mercians, 
"  Rex  Merciorum."  Though  unfortunately  a  fragment 
only,  it  is  unique  and  highly  interesting.  It  was  found  at 
Rochester,  and  acquired  by  Mr.  Humphry  Wickham,  of 
Strood,  in  Kent,  and  is  now  in  my  collection.  The 
following  is  an  illustration  and  description  of  it. 

Obv.— *  E  .  .  .  .  EHT  EEX  <P.      Cross  potent    within 

Bev.—*  E  .  .  .  VDF  MONE.     Degraded   monogram  of 
SAX  within  circle. 

An  account  of  this  coin  was  published  in  Num.  Chron. 
N.  S.  iii.,  p.  46,  with  an  incorrect  engraving  of  it,  the  latter 
having  unfortunately  been  copied  in  the  B.  M.  Catalogue 
(vol.  ii.  p.  5),  where  it  is  the  authority  for  type  xix.  In 
these  examples  the  D  is  engraved  as  if  it  were  a  U,  whereas 
it  is  clearly  the  former  letter ;  the  moneyer  is  also  clearly 
Redmund,  though  Mr.  Whitbourn  was  unable  to  read  it. 
Here  then  we  get  Redmund,  Wiglaf's  moneyer,  coining  for 
Ecgbeorht  on  another  type,  and  with  the  Rex  M(erciorum) 
on  the  obverse,  forming  the  fourth  type  minted  by  the 
Wessex  king  in  that  state,  the  contention  which  was 



happily  suggested  by  Mr.  Grrueber  that  he  seized  that 
mint,  being,  I  think,  unassailable.  Why  Redmund 
turned  the  uncial  N  28  upside  down,  and  transposed  that 
letter  and  the  D,  it  is  hard  to  say,  but  these  peculiarities 
enable  one  to  identify  his  workmanship  at  once.  It 
seems  evident  that  the  monogram  in  the  field  of  the  reverse 
is  a  degraded  copy  of  the  SAXO  type ;  which,  from  its 
having  been  ^Ethelwulf 's  as  well  as  Ecgbeorht's,  one  would 
apprehend  to  have  been  last,  or  very  late,  in  the  series  of 
the  latter  king.  If  we  regard  this  coin  as  struck,  ex 
hypothesi^  about  827,  there  is  a  gap  of  eleven  years 
before  ^Ethelwulf  used  this  monogram,  certainly  a  long 
period  for  its  revival  at  this  time,  when  monetary  changes 
of  type  succeeded  each  other  so  rapidly. 

In    the   following   piece   we    have   a   new   variety  of 
JEthelwulf  s  coinage. 

Obv. — E  ....  VLF  EE.     Bust  r.,  diademed. 

Jku. — .j,  .  .  .  TYND  TON.  Straight  line,  the  ends  de- 
graded from  the  moline  form  to  lozenge-shaped 
dots,  between  two  crescents. 

This  is  evidently  the  moneyer  Beagmund,  being  com- 
pletely in  his  style,  and  the  reverse  is  a  degraded  form  of 
N.C.  Ser.  Ill,  xiv,  PL  IV,  13,  which  it  resembles  in 
other  respects,  the  type  of  obverse  being  also  similar. 

28  Cfr.  the  N  of  similar  shape  on  Twicga's  pennies  of  Ead- 
mund  of  East  Anglia  (B.  M.  Cat.,  vol.  i.,  p.  93,  Nos.  82  to  86). 


The  last  piece  that  I  would  bring  to  the  notice  of  the 
Society  is  another  coin  of  Ecgbeorht  of  Wessex.  It  is  a 
new  combination  of  Sir  John  Evans'  coin  (Type  XVI, 
B.  M.  Catalogue  for  reverse,  and  Type  XV  for  obverse). 
The  'moneyer  is  Swef herd. 

Obv.—  4.HECB EX.     Cross  pattee. 

Rev. — .  .  EFHER  .  .    Cross  of  five  limbs  pattes  ;  around, 
inscription  between  two  circles. 

This  coin  is  not  without  interest,  as  it  assists  us  in 
detecting  at  least  the  chronological  sequence  of  two  types 
of  Ecgbeorht's  coins,  and  shows  that  so  far  the  order 
suggested  by  the  compilers  of  the  British  Museum  Cata- 
logue is  correct. 


VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES. 



IN  the  volume  of  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  for  the  year 
1888  will  be  found  a  short  paper  by  our  late  Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mr.  Montagu,  whose  loss  we  still  deplore,  giving  a 
description  and  an  illustration  of  a  half-noble  of 
Edward  III,  which  he  assigned  to  Edward's  third  coin- 
age in  the  year  1346.  Mr.  Montagu  showed  that  pre- 
viously there  had  not  been  known  any  half-noble  earlier 
than  the  fourth  coinage,  and  pointed  out  clearly  the  error 
into  which  Kenyon  had  fallen  when  he  described  as  of 
the  third  coinage  a  half-noble  in  the  National  Collection 
solely  on  account  of  its  weight — 60J  grains.  Mr.  Brice's 
half-noble  from  the  Shepherd  collection  was  also  objected 
to  by  Mr.  Montagu  on  the  grounds  that,  although  it 
weighed  over  62  grains,  the  normal  weight  of  the  fourth 
coinage  half-noble  being  60  grains,  it  showed  by  its 
legend  and  style  that  it  could  not  have  been  struck 
before  the  signing  of  the  treaty  of  Bretigny  in  1360.  The 
coin  belonged  to  the  so-called  "  cursing  type,"  omitting 
H6C  in  the  reverse  legend  and  the  French  title  in  the 
obverse  legend.  Finally  Mr.  Montagu  proposed  his  own 
coin  for  the  honour  of  representing  the  third  coinage, 


and  gave  his  reasons  for  the  attribution.  Briefly  they 
were  these.  His  coin  resembled  in  workmanship  and 
style  the  nobles  of  the  third  coinage,  a»d  the  resemblance 
was  still  further  shown  by  the  presence  of  certain  letters 
showing  marked  peculiarities,  which  letters  occurred  on 
both  nobles  and  quarter-nobles  of  the  third  coinage.  The 
peculiar  letters  were :  A  with  an  ornamented  barring,  and 
I1  (F),  in  which  a  long  line  was  shown  to  descend  from 
the  end  of  the  upper  bar.  The  central  compartment  on 
the  reverse  contained  a  large  ff,  and  had  no  ornaments, 
thereby  differing  from  any  known  half-noble.  As  against 
this  attribution,  Mr.  Montagu  pointed  out  the  weight  as 
being  only  54  grains,  but  he  considered  that  the  weight 
argument  should  not  be  brought  to  bear  too  strongly,  in 
fa.ce  of  the  marked  resemblance  of  style. 

Since  the  publication  of  the  paper,  no  doubt  some  of 
us  have  been  warily  waiting  for  another  of  these  rare 
coins,  which  might,  perhaps,  throw  more  light  on 
this  coinage.  That  a  prize  of  this  sort  should  have 
fallen  to  me,  I  esteem  a  great  piece  of  good  luck.  The 
coin  I  possess  has  all  the  characteristics  of  the  piece 
described  by  Mr.  Montagu,  and  now  in  the  National 
Collection ;  it  also  possesses  the  one  point  missing  in  Mr. 
Montagu's  coin,  viz.,  weight.  My  piece  weighs  over  t>0 
grains,  although  it  shows  signs  of  wear.  The  two  coins 
are  from  quite  different  dies,  and  it  may,  therefore,  be 
worth  while  to  accurately  describe  each. 

1.  The  British  Museum  coin  is: — 

Ob v. — The  king  standing  in  a  ship  of  the  usual  well-known 
type ;  four  rope's  from  stern,  two  from  prow ;  orna- 
ments on  ship,  two  lis,  lion,  two  lis,  lion,  lis, 
lion.  The  lis  in  the  French  arms  are  seine,  instead 
of  only  three.  Legend :  SDWAR  *  D  *  6EA  * 
EGCX  *  AR6L  *  X  *  FEARCC  ?  DRS  x  t}YB. 


Rev.  —  The  usual  cross,  with  lions  and  crowns  ;  in  the  centre 
a  compartment,  without  ornaments  at  the  corners, 
and  containing  a  large  6C.  Mint-mark,  cross  pattee. 
Legend  :  *  *  DOminGC  *  HS  *  IR  *  FVEOE6C  * 

TVO  I  AE6VAS  *  SttG.    . 

Weight,  54  to  55  grs.     Clipped,  cracked,  and 

•2.  The  coin  in  my  possession  is  of  precisely  the  same  type,  but 
differs  as  follows  :  three  ropes  only  from  stern,  one 
from  prow  ;  ornaments  on  ship,  lis,  lion,  two  lis, 
lion,  two  lis,  lion. 

Obv.—  Legend  :    6CDWAE  *  D  *  (3EA  *  E6CX  ARGL  x  S  x 
FEARd  *L>RS*  []YB. 

Eev.—  *  *  DOmmeC  *  R6C  *  IR  *  PVEOEGC  *  TVO  * 
AE6VAS  *  ma  *.  The  same  compartment  and 
large  (T.  are  on  both  coins. 

Weight,  60*75  grs.     Eather  worn,  cracked. 

There  are  several  points  about  these  coins  which  are 
well  worthy  of  notice,  but  which  were  not  remarked  upon 
by  Mr.  Montagu.  The  stops  are  saltires,  not  annulets. 
In  discussing  the  Balcombe  find,  Mr.  Grueber  and  I  had 
occasion  to  point  out  that  saltires  were  used  at  two  or 
three  distinct  periods  of  Edward  Ill's  reign  on  the  silver 
coins  ;  thus,  very  few  are  to  be  found  in  the  first  period, 
beginning  1351,  and  these  were  quite  early  in  that  period. 
They  were  then  used  again  in  conjunction  with  annulets 
from  1360  to  1369,  and  then  alone  till  the  end  of  the 
reign.  The  English  H  is  also  a  characteristic  feature.  It 
occurs  on  the  majority  of  silver  coins  issued  before  1351, 
but  after  that  disappears  till  the  treaty  coins  of  1360. 
One  further  point  is  the  fact  of  the  shield  being  strewn 
with  lis,  rather  than  bearing  three  only  ;  another  evidence 
of  early  issue  in  these  pieces.  If  more  be  wanted,  it 
will  suffice  to  mention  that  the  bust  and  style  generally 


of  these  two  half-nobles  correspond  accurately  to  the 
Florin-type  pennies,  and  the  workmanship  is  quite 
different  from  that  of  the  fourth  coinage.  Looking  to 
all  these  facts,  there  cannot  now  be  any  doubt  that  both 
the  Museum  coin  and  this  one  are  of  the  early  third  coin- 
age of  Edward  III. 




(See  Plate  VI.) 

SOME  time  since  I  obtained  from  Messrs.  Spink  the  small 
hoard  of  groats  here  described.  The  circumstances  of  the 
find  are,  as  usual,  shrouded  in  mystery,  a  mystery  so  deep 
that  the  inquiries  I  set  on  foot  have  entirely  failed  in  dis- 
pelling in  any  degree.  I  was  told  that  the  hoard  was  a  find, 
and  that  the  coins  which  I  obtained  comprised  the  whole 
of  it.  Looking  to  the  character  of  the  component  coins, 
there  is  internal  evidence  of  their  having  been  a  find,  and, 
the  information  which  I  obtained  was  probably  quite 
accurate.  The  period  covered  by  the  find  was  from  rather 
before  1460  till  some  years  after  Henry  YII's  accession, 
a  period  of  some  forty  years. 

The  number  of  coins  of  each  reign  were  : — 

Henry  VI  heavy  coinage  ....  1 
Edward  IV  light  coinage  .  .  .  .34 
Henry  VI  restored  .....  1 

Edward  V 1 

EichardHI 1 

Henry  VII  first  coinage  3 

Henry  VII  second  coinage  .         .         .21 



It  will  thus  be  seen  that  coins  of  all  the  monarchs 
reigning  during  the  last  half  of  the  fifteenth  century  were 
represented  in  the  find.  There  were,  however,  curiously 
enough,  gaps  in  the  sequence  of  the  coins.  Thus,  the 
Henry  YI  heavy  coin  was  not  of  his  last  issue,  but  of  the 
pine-cone  pellet  type,  the  one  before  the  last.  Again,  there 
were  no  heavy  groats  of  Edward  IV.  A  reference  to  the 
list  appended  to  this  account  shows  that  the  mint-marks  on 
the  Edward  IV  coins  were  the  rose,  sun,  crown,  cross 
fitchee,  annulet,  and  cross  pierced.  There  were  absent  the 
trefoil,  a  very  rare  mint-mark,  the  cross  pierced  with  one 
or  more  pellets,  and  the  heraldic  cinquefoil,  both  very 
common  mint-marks.  The  Edward  V  and  Richard  III 
coins  both  bore  the  sun  and  rose,  to  the  exclusion  of  the 
boar's  head,  the  latter  being  a  much  rarer  mark  than  the 
former.  The  coins  of  Henry  VII  presented  examples  of 
the  lis  and  rose,  and  also  the  cross  fitchee  mint-mark  on 
the  open  crown  groats.  The  arched  crown  coins  had  for 
mint^marks,  the  heraldic  cinquefoil,  the  escallop  (one  coin 
had  both  these  marks  on  it),  then  the  regular  cinquefoil, 
the  true  cinquefoil,  and  lastly  the  crowned  leopard's  head, 
a  mark  which  was  blurred  almost  beyond  recognition. 
Finally,  there  was  one  example  which  heads  the  list,  of  an 
arched  crown  groat  without  mint-mark.  The  one  coin  of 
Henry  VI  restored,  in  1472,  and  the  coins  from  the  pro- 
vincial mints  of  Edward  IV,  Bristol,  Norwich,  and  York, 
do  not  call  for  more  mention  than  is  given  them  in  the  list. 

The  hoard  itself  is  of  much  interest,  as  by  an  examina- 
tion of  it  it  may  be  possible  to  confirm  or  dispute  the 
sequence  of  mint-marks  as  heretofore  given.  The  light 
coinage  of  Edward  IV  starts  with  the  earliest  mint-mark, 
and  every  mint-mark  is  present  up  to  and  including  that  of 
Henry  VI's  restoration.  Then  there  is  a  gap,  and  two 


common  marks  are  absent;  these  two  marks  have  previously 
been  placed  together.  All  the  mint-marks  present,  there- 
fore, are  in  sequence,  and  the  two  absent  ones  are  also  in 
sequence.  This  leads  up  to  the  coins  commencing  with 
Edward  Y.  Here,  again,  the  coins  are  in  sequence ;  the 
absence  of  the  boar's  head  indicates  nothing,  as  the  two 
marks  were  each  used  by  both  sovereigns,  Edward  V  and 
Richard  III. 

It  would  seem  natural  to  believe  that  all  the  coins  in 
the  find  were  issued  one  after  the  other,  and  that  they 
followed  on  without  gaps,  but  the  condition  of  the  pieces, 
as  well  as  some  of  the  characters  on  the  absentee  coins,  will 
not  allow  of  this.  All  Edward  lY's  coins,  and  those  of 
Henry  YI,  are  more  or  less  worn ;  a  considerable  number 
do  not  come  up  to  the  average  weight,  and  practically 
none  turn  the  scale  at  48  grains.  The  case  is  different 
with  the  Edward  Y  and  later  pieces.  They  are  all  fine, 
not  worn,  but  sometimes  apparently  clipped.  Thus  there 
are  7  full-weight  groats  and  5  which  weigh  at  least  J  a 
grain  too  much,  3  of  these  5  weighing  49'5  grains  instead 
of  48  grains.  Added  to  this  difference  in  condition  and 
weight  is  a  further  one,  which  I  believe  has  hitherto 
escaped  notice.  With  one  exception  all  the  groats  of 
Edward  IY  in  the  find  bear  the  usual  7Y  found  on  the  coins 
of  the  previous  reign ;  one  piece,  No.  16  of  London 
[PI.  VI.  2],  has  a  barred  A  in  AR6L  and  another  in  TSS; 
all  other  TV's  on  the  coin,  four  in  number,  are  unbarred. 
Now  this  peculiarity  will  be  found  to  exist  on  all  the  groats 
of  Edward  I Y  with  the  cross  pierced  and  pellet  mint-marks, 
and  also  on  nearly  all  those  bearing  the  heraldic  cinquefoil 
and  on  no  others  [PL  VI.  3],  The  barred  &  is  also  used 
on  Edward  Y's  coins,  though  curiously  not  on  the  one  in 
the  find,  and  on  that  of  Richard  III,  and  finally  on  the  early 


issues  of  Henry  VII.  That  the  barring  is  not  an  accident 
is  shown  by  the  fact  that  the  A's  in  &I76L  and  TAS  are  the 
barred  ones,  to  the  exclusion  of  the  others,  in  Edward  IV's 
reign  ;  that  the  A  in  TAS  is  the  barred  one  in  Richard  III 
and  Edward  Vs.  Later,  barring  became  general.  There 
are  thus  good  grounds  for  keeping  together  the  coins 
bearing  the  cross  pierced  and  pellet  and  heraldic  cinquefoil 
of  Edward  IV's  time,  and  also  for  concluding  that  they 
followed  on  the  coins  of  that  king  present  in  the  find. 
The  evidence,  therefore,  from  this  find  is  to  confirm  the 
arrangement  of  mint-marks. 

The  second  portion  of  the  find  is  more  interesting  and 
important  than  the  first.  The  coins  composing  it  are  rarer 
than  those  which  occur  in  the  earlier  part ;  they  are  also 
finer  and  more  varieties  are  represented.  The  coins  of 
Edward  Y  and  Bichard  III  do  not  call  for  further  notice. 
Henry  VIF  s  first  coinage,  that  with  the  open  crown,  is  well 
represented  by  three  specimens.  The  first  has  the  combined 
lis  and  rose  mint-mark  on  both  sides ;  the  second  has  the 
same  mark  on  the  obverse  and  no  mint-mark  on  the  reverse 
[PL  VI.  6],  and  the  third  is  struck  from  the  same  reverse  die 
as  the  second,  but  the  obverse  bears  the  cross  fitchee  mark 
and  reads  I\«RKICVS,  a  very  rare  coin  [PI.  VI.  7].  The 
stops  on  all  these  are  crosses.  There  exist,  but  not  in  this 
find,  open  crown  coins  with  trefoil  stops ;  their  rarity  is 
a  sufficient  reason  to  account  for  their  absence  in  this  case. 
These  connect  the  open  crown  groats  with  the  earliest 
variety  of  arched  crown  coin,  viz.,  that  without  mint- 
mark.  A  very  good  example  of  this  coin  was  in  the  find  ; 
two  plain  arches  to  the  crown  and  trefoils  as  stops  char- 
acterised it  [PI.  VI.  8].  This  in  its  turn  transmitted  these 
features  to  its  neighbour,  and  thus  the  groat  bearing  the 
heraldic  cinquefoil  was  evolved  [PL  VI.  9],  There  were 

VOL.    XX.   THIRD    SERIES.  Z 


two  examples  in  the  find.  These  were  followed  by  the 
coins  bearing  the  escallop  mint-mark.  There  is  no  diffi- 
culty in  pointing  out  the  earliest  of  the  eight  coins  bearing 
this  mark.  It  is  the  piece  with  trefoil  stops.  This  connects 
the  coin  with  the  previous  pieces.  Besides  the  stops  the 
coin  presents  another  peculiarity  which  helps  to  settle  its 
position  in  the  series.  The  M's  are  Roman,  not  old 
English.  This  is  the  last  coin  on  which  all  the  stops  are 
trefoils.  No.  5  in  the  list  presents  on  the  obverse  one 
rosette  between  each  word  as  a  stop,  thereby  replacing  the 
trefoil  [PI.  VI.  10].  This  latter,  however,  still  characterises 
the  reverse  of  the  coin. 

The  next  coin,  No.  6,  a  very  rare  one  again,  gives 
evidence  of  the  close  connection  existing  between  the 
coins  bearing  the  heraldic  cinquefoil  and  the  escallop 
mint-marks.  This  piece  has  both  mint-marks,  one  on 
each  side ;  all  the  stops  are  represented  now  by  rosettes, 
and  the  letter  E  as  well  as  the  M  is  varied  in  form.  It 
now  takes  the  reversed  3  shape.  It  is  curious  that  the 
find  gives  no  example  of  the  groat  with  the  heraldic 
cinquefoil  on  both  sides  and  with  rosette  stops,  nor  of  the 
escallop  groat  with  the  peculiar  E's  and  M's.  Both  coins 
are  known,  and  though  rare  are  not  extremely  so.  The 
other  escallop  groats  are  of  the  normal  varieties.  It 
will  be  noted  that  No.  11  is  of  plainer  work  than  most  of 
them,  and  that  circumstance  was  taken  into  considera- 
tion in  placing  it  last.  The  change  also  from  the  form 
TTDIVTOKGC  to  that  of  fiDIVTOa  will  be  seen  to  have 
occurred  during  the  issue  of  the  escallop  coins. 

The  regular  cinquefoil,  the  next  mint-mark  in  the 
series,  was  represented  by  several  coins.  The  earlier  ones 
had  rosettes  as  stops,  thus  connecting  these  with  the 
escallop  groats.  Then  there  was  a  coin  without  stops  at 


all,  and  then  some  with  small  crosses  as  stops.  The  last 
coin  but  one  described  bore  the  true  cinquefoil  with  crosses 
as  stops  [PI.  VI.  12]. 

The  last  coin  on  the  list  is  the  one  bearing  the  leopard's 
head.  Besides  this  evidence  of  lateness  of  issue,  it  bears 
another  proof,  viz.,  the  abbreviation  of  the  English  title  to 
7T6L.  This  form  occurs  on  many  of  the  later  coins  not 
represented  in  the  find,  but  has  not  been  noticed  on  coins 
bearing  any  of  the  mint-marks  described  in  this  list.  The 
stops  on  this  coin  are  crosses.  This  mint-mark  is  known 
to  be  connected  on  the  same  coin  with  the  true  cinquefoil, 
though  there  was  no  example  of  such  a  coin  in  the  find. 

The  following  is  a  detailed  description  of  the  coins  in 
the  hoard  :  — 


Heavy  Coinage.     Pine-cone,  pellet. 

Obv.—  M.M.  cross  patonce.  tydRRId  DI  6R7V  R6CX 
7TR6LI  S  FRTYRd.  Pine-cone  on  neck,  pellet 
each  side  of  crown,  crosses  as  stops. 

ficv.—No  m.m.     POSVI  x  DGTm   7VDIVTOE6C 

dIVITTtS   LORDOn.     Extra  pellet  in  T71S  and 
DOR  quarters. 

Light  Coinage.     London  Mint. 

1.  oiv.—  M.M.  rose.      SDW7TRD'  x  DI  *  6R7Y  x   R6CX   x 

7TR6L  x  X  x  FRTTRd.     Quatrefoil  on  each  side  of 
neck,  arches  above  crown  and  on  breast  not  fleured. 

*  TVDIVTOReC  x  SttaV5tt. 
LORDOR.       Extra    pellet    between 
pellets  under  CCIVI. 

2.  Another  the  same,  except  that  the  extra  pellet  is  in  the 

DOR  quarter. 

3.  As  No.  1,  but  no  stops  on  reverse. 


4.  As  No.  1,  but  arch  on  breast  flenred;  one  cross  after 
meCVJft,  and  the  extra  pellet  in  the  LOR  quarter. 
[PL  VI.  1.] 

o.  Obv.—  M.M.  rose.  ffDWfiED  x  DI  GE7T  x  EffX  x  7VN6L  x 
S  x  FETTRd.  Quatrefoil  on  each  side  of  neck, 
arches  above  crown  not  fleured. 

JR&v.—  M.M.  sun.     POSVI  DOTStt  x  7VDIVTOE6C  metVStt. 

6.  06?'.—  M.M.  sun.    6CDW7YED  x  DI  x  GEfi  x  E6CX  x  7TR6L  x 

X  x  FETTRd  x.      Quatrefoil  on  each  side  of  neck, 
arches  above  crown  not  fleured. 

Rev.—  M.M.  sun.   POSVI  D6CY5II  *  7VDIVTOE6C  x  jnGCVm. 

7.  As  last,  except  that  none  of  the  arches  are  fleured  ;  one  cross 

after  DOTS!*,  none  after  7VDIVTOEQ:. 

8.  Olv.—  M.M.    crown.      6CDW7TED  x  DI   x   6EA    EffX  x 

7VRGL  x  S  x  FET^Rtt.  Quatrefoils  at  sides  of 
neck  ;  arches  fleured  with  small  trefoil,  except  that 
on  the  breast,  which  has  a  quatrefoil  below  it. 

Rev.-—  M.M.  sun.  POSVI  DOTS!*  x  TVDIVTOEff  Jfte[V$ft. 
aiVITTTS  LORDOR.  Two  specimens. 

9.  Olv.—  M.M.  ?     Much  chipped,  but  like  last. 

Rev.—  M.M,  sun.     Two  crosses  after  JftGTSft  and  DOR. 

10.  Olv.—  M.M.  sun.    ffDWTVED  x  DI  x  6E7T  x  E€CX  x  7VR6L  x 

S  x  FET^RCL  Quatrefoil  on  each  side  of  neck  ; 
arches  fleured,  except  those  over  crown. 

Rev.—  M.M.    crown.       POSVI    DGCVJft  *  7U)IVTOEeC  x 

mecvm.   aiviTTvs  LORDOR. 

11.  Obv.—  M.M.  crown.     ffDWTVED  x  DI  x  6E7V  x  E6CX  x 

7\:R6L  x  S  x  FETVRd.  Arches  of  crown  not  fleured, 
quatrefoil  on  each  side  of  neck. 

Rev.-  M.M.  crown.  POSVI  DffVffi  TVDIVTOEd  mOTM. 
dlVITTO  LORDOR.  Six  specimens;  one  has  a 
cross  after  T^DIVTOEff. 


12.  OZw.— M.M.  cross  fitchee.      6CDW7YBD   DI 

7TR6L  x  X  FBT^RCC  *.  Trefoil  on  each  side  of  neck. 

Rev.— M.M.  sun.     POSVI  Off  VSR  x  7YDIVTOBH  maVfll 

13.  Same,  but  some  slight  variation  in  the  position  and  number 

of  the  stops. 

14.  Same,  but  m.m.  both  sides   annulet,  trefoil  stops   on  the 

obverse,  none  on  the  reverse,  and  no  trefoils  at  the 
sides  of  the  neck. 

15.  Same,  but  no  stops  visible. 

16.  Same,  but  m.m.  cross  pierced  both  sides.     Reads  DOT,  and 

the  A's  of  &R6L  and  TSS  are  peculiarly  barred, 
the  other  7T  being  without  bar :  crosses  as  stops. 
[PI.  VI.  2.] 

Bristol  Mint. 

1.  Obv.— M.M.  sun.      6CDW7TRD  DI  x  GR7V  x  R6CX  7VR6L 

Z  FRTTRCC.     B  on  breast,  quatrefoil  on  each  side 
of  neck. 

Bev.—MM.  sun.     POSVI  DOTfll   TtDIVTORet  mOTH* 

2.  Same,  but  x  before  and  after  %,  m.m.  on  reverse  blurred, 

I  after  DOTtf*,   x    before  ffiaVffi,   and  reading 

3.  Same,  but  m.m.  crown  on  both  sides,  crosses  as  stops.   Three 


4.  As  last,  but  BR6CSTOLL  for  BBISTOLL. 

York  Mint. 

1.  Olv.—  M.M.  lis.     etDWTTRD  DI  x  GR7C  x  R&X 

%  FRARCC.     ff  on  breast,  quatrefoil  on  each  side 
of  neck. 

Eev.—  M.M.   lis.     POSVI   DaT$ft   TtDIVTORGC 


2.  Where  visible,  same,  but  *  after  FEftRCC,  x  before 

3.  Same,  but  no  stops  on  obverse  and  x  after  D&Vift,  trefoil 

on  each  side  of  neck  instead  of  quatrefoil. 

Norwich  Mint. 

1.   Olv.— M.M.  effaced.   GCDWTtRD  x  DI  x  GETS  x  E6CX 

x  E  x  FE7TRGC.     R  on  breast,  quatrefoil  on  each 
side  of  neck. 

Rev.—  M.M.  sun.  POSVI  DftVStt  *  ADIVTOEGC  x 
dlVITTVS  ROEVia  x. 


Light  Coinage. 

1.   Olv.—  M.M.  cross.     ^aREIdV  DI  6E7V  E6CX  A  7YR6L  A 
Z  A  FE7YRQ.     Arches  fleured  with  small  trefoils. 

Eev.—  M.M.  cross.     POSVI  DGCVm  TTDIVTOEff 

aiVITTYS    LORDOR.      This  coin  has   the  mis- 
shapen letters  R  as  D  and  E  as  B. 


1.  Qlv.  —  M.M.  sun  and  rose  conjoined.  SDW7TED  DI  6E7^ 
E6CX  7TR6L  %  FETYRtt. 

Rev.—  M.M.  sun  and  rose.      POSVI  DQVfl*   7YDIVTOEGC 

mavm.   CIVITTYS  LORDOR.   [Pi.  vi.  4.] 

This  coin  is  rather  rubbed  and  clipped;  crosses,  where  visible, 
as  stops  ;  arch  on  breast  not  fleured,  nor  are  the 
arches  above  crown.  Wt.  45  grs. 


1.  Obv.—  M.M.  sun  and  rose.  EICC7YED  x  DI  x  (SEA  x  E6CX 
7YR6L  x  %  FE7VROC.  Arches  above  crown  and 
on  breast  uot  fleured. 

Hi  -v.—  M.M.  sun  and  rose.  POSVI  DGCVm  x  TTDIVTOES  x 
ffietVSft.  aiVITAS  LORDOR.  Very  line.  Wt. 
47  grs.  [PI.  VI.  5.] 



(A)  First  Coinage,  with  open  Crown. 
1.   Obv.—  M.M.  lis  and  rose.     tyaREia  x  DI  x  GETC  x  EffX  x 

ARGL  x  Z  FE7YRCC  *.     The  six  side  arches  only 

.—  M.M.  lis  and  rose.  POSVI  DGCVfl*  *  ADIVTOE6C 
flier™.  CCIVITAS  LORDOR.  Very  fine.  Wt. 
45  grs. 

2.  Obv.—  M.M.    lis   and   rose  conjoined. 

GETS  x  ESX  x  ARGL'  x  Z  FETYRd  *.      Crown 
and  breasb  arches  not  fleured. 

Rev.—  M.M.  none.    POSVI  DetVfll  x  ADIVTOE6C 

CCIVITAS  +  LORDOR.       In  the   finest   possible 
condition.     Wt.  45'5  grs.     [PI.  VI.  6.] 

3.  Obv.—  M.M.  cross  fitchee.  t]ffREICCVS  D6CI  GEA  EffX 
AR6L  Z  FEA.  Cross  on  each  side  of  neck, 
arches  of  cross  not  fleured. 

Rev.  —  From  same    die  as   last  ;   very  fine,  but  apparently 
clipped.     Wt.  48  grs.     [PI/  VI.  7.] 

(B)  Second  Coinage,  with  arched  Crown^ 

1.  Olv.—  No  m.m.  t]€CREI(I  x  DI  GEA  x  E6CX  •<  ARGL  r 
Z  FEAROC.  Crown  with  two  plain  arches,  cross 
on  each  side  of  neck. 

Rev.—So  m.m.     Y  POSVI  DOTtf*  Y  ADIVTOE6C 

aiVITAS  LORDOR.  Large  cross,  pattee  at 
ends,  small  trefoils  as  stops  ;  fine.  Wt.  48*5  grs. 
[PL  IV.  8.] 

2.  Olv.—  M.M.  heraldic  cinquefoil.      l}€tREI(I  A  DI  GEA  Y 

EGCX  •<  AR6L  >•  Z  FEACC.    Plain  arches  to  crown. 

Rev.—  Same  m.m.  POSVI  DGCVmiADIVTOEa  YmGCVm. 
ttlVITAS  LORDOR.  The.  ends  of  the  cross  have 
a  slight  slit  in  them  ;  very  fine.  Wt.  46  grs. 
[PI.  IV.  9.] 

3.  As  last,  except  FE7TRCC  for  FE7TCC,  obverse  TTs  unbarred, 

two  trefoils  after  TAS  and  DOR;  in  fine  condition. 
Wt.  48  grs.,  a  small  flan. 


4.   06v.~M.M.  escallop.     f}ffREICC  r  £>I  v  6B7T  Y  ESX  Y 
7YR6L  r  Z  r  FE7TR.       Two  ornamented  arches  to 

Rev.—  M.M.  escallop.  POSVI  D6CVM  r  TtDIVTOEGt  r 
MSVM  ?  dlVITTYS  ??  LORDOR.  Two  trefoils 
before  and  two  after  dlVITTTS,  two  before 
LORDOR.  Cross  fourchee  ;  the.  letters  all  orna- 
mental ;  fine.  Wt.  41  grs. 

5.  As  last,  but  reads  FB7VROC,  and  has  one  rosette  between 
each  word  instead  of  trefoil.  There  is  an  additional 
trefoil  after  LORDOR  ;  very  fine.  Wt.  47'5  grs. 
[PI.  IV.  10.] 

6.  Olv.—KM.  escallop.  ^REId  *  DI  ®  6E7T  «  E£X  ? 
7TR6L  ?  Z  ?  FEAR.  Crown  as  before,  rosettes 
between  words. 

Rev.—  M.M.  heraldic  cinquefoil.      POSVI   D£VM  ?  7YDIV- 

TOEE   »  M£YM  *  aiVITTYS  |    *  LORDOR 
Eosettes  as  stops  ;  not  fine.     Wt.  48  grs. 

7.   Q})V,—  M.M.  escallop.      ^GCREia  ®  DI   GETf  EffX    .  .  .  L 
Z  FEA  «.     Eosette  after  each  word  where  visible. 

Rev.—  M.M.  escallop.  POSVI  DGT  •  TTDIVTOEff  •  m«V 
|  aiVlTTTS  |  *  LORDOR  «.  Cross  fourchee,  much 
branched  ;  clipped  ;  fine.  Wt.  48  grs. 

8.   OIV—KLM.  escallop.      fyeCREId   DI    6E7V  EGCX  7TRSL 
Z    FEA.     One  rosette  separates  each  word. 

Rev.—  M.M.  escallop.     POSVI   DOT  «  7TDIVTOS  « 

•  aiVITTTS  «    «  LORDOR.      Coarser  work,  cross 
ends  not  so  branched  ;  fine.     Wt.  48  grs. 

9.  As  last,  but  reads  FE7TR,  with  a  rosette  above  crown  ;  fine. 
Wt.  48  grs. 

10.  As  last,  but  reads  FE7T,  has  rosette  after  STi&V,  one  in  each 
fork  of  cross,  omits  one  before  CCIVI  ;  fair.  Wt. 
46-5  grs.  [PL  VI.  11.] 

11.  Olv.—  M.M.  escallop.  ^GCREItt  •  DI  *  6E7Y  $  E&X  » 
AN6L  ®  Z  ®  FEA.  This  groat  is  of  much  plainer 

Ikv.—  M.M.  escallop.      POSVI  DffV  *  7YDIVT06C  » 

aiVITTTS  •   LORDOR.      Fair    condition.       Wt. 
49'  o  grs. 


12.  Obv.  —  M.M.   regular  cinquefoil  (5  equal  foils,  annulet  in 

centre).     l^REICI  *  DI  *  6E7Y  «  E6CX  *  7VR6L  « 
Z  «  FE7Y.     Two  ornamented  arches  to  crown. 

-Rev.—  M.M.  regular  cinquefoil.      POSVI    DGCV  «  7VDIV- 

Toec  ®  mav  «  aivrms  |  LORDOR.   Ends  of 

cross  as  on  the  escallop  groats  ;  fine.     Wt.  49  grs. 

13.  Obv.  —  M.M.  same  cinquefoil.      tyGCREICC  •  DI  •  GE7Y  * 

E6CX  *  7TO6L  •  Z  •  FE7VR. 

jKev.—  M.M.  same.  POSYI  D6CV  ®  TtDIVTOG!  «  STlffY 
|  aiVITTCS  |  J  LORDOR  J.  Ends  of  cross  much 
more  closed  in  ;  fair.  Wt.  48  '5  grs. 

14.  Obv.—  Samem.m.     ^REItt  »  DI  »  6E7T  »  Eff  X  «  7VR6L  • 

Z  «  FE7V. 

.flev.—  Same  m.m.     POSYI    DOT  «  7VDIVT06C 

g  aiVITTYS  J  §  LORDOR  |.    Fair.    Wt.  45-5  grs. 

15.   Obv.—  Same  m.m.     I?aREICC  9  DI  *  6E7V  »  EffX  •  7U76L  • 

Z  *  FETYRtt.     Eosettes  as  stops. 

.Rev.—  Same  m.m.  POSVI  DffV  x  7VDIVT06C  x  JttGCV 
aiVITTVS  ^  x  LORDOR  x.  Crosses  as  stops, 
ends  of  cross  pattes,  except  for  a  small  annulet  or 
hole  ;  fair.  Wt.  47  grs. 

16.  Obv.—  Same  m.m.      fy&nEia    pj   GRTV    EQ;X  7VR6L  Z 

FE7V.     No  stops,  one  ornamented  arch  to  crown. 

.Rev.—  Same  m.m.  POSVI  DOT  x  7tt)IVT06C  x  SUGCV 
ttlVITTVS  LORDOR.  Ends  of  cross  almost  pattee  ; 
fine.  Wt.  48  grs. 

17.  Obv.  —  Same,  but  reads  FE,  and  cross  between  each  word 

where  visible. 

Rev.—  Same,  but  *  CCIVITfiS  *  x  LORDOR  x.  Fair.  Wt. 
45'5  grs. 

18.    Obv.—  Same  m.m.     fyaREJCt  x  DI  x  6E7T  x  EffX  x  7VR6L 
Z  x  FE  x. 

Rev.— Same   m.m.     POSVI    DGCV   *   flDIVTO€C    I 

*  dlVITfiS  x  *  LORDOR  *.    Fine.    Wt.  49-5  grs, 



19.  Olv.  —  Same,  but  no  final  cross. 

fiev.  —  Same  as  16,  but  ends  of  cross  more  fourches;  fine. 
Wt.  46  grs. 

20.  Obv.—  M.M.  true   cinquefoil.      J^RRICC   x   DI  x  GKTt  x 

E6CX  x  7YR6L  x  Z  x  F  x.     Same  crown. 

Eev.—N.M.  true  cinquefoil.  POSYI  DOT  x  TVDIVTOff  x 
maV  ttlYITTTS  +  LORDOR  +.  Fair.  Wt. 
48  grs.  [PL  VI.  12.] 

21.  Obv.  —  M.M.   leopard's  head.       tyetRRICC  x  DI  x  6R7V  x 

x  7V6L  x  Z  +  FR7L 

£ev.—M.M.  leopard's  head.  POSVI  DGCY  x  TtDIVTOGt 
x  mOT  CCIVITTTS  +  +  LORDOR.  Work  coarse, 
like  that  bearing  anchor  mark;  fair.  Wt. 
46-5  grs. 

The  find  has  been  described  rather  minutely  and  at 
some  length,  especially  in  reference  to  the  later  coins. 
This  seemed  warranted  in  order  to  bring  out  clearly  the 
relationship  of  the  various  mint-marks.  The  arrangement 
of  those  of  Edward  IY  has  been  on  its  trial  for  some  years 
now,  and  has  run  the  gauntlet  of  three  hoards.  The  coins 
of  Henry  VII  were  provisionally  arranged  by  the  Rev.  Gr. 
F.  Crowther  in  1887  ;  but  some  alterations  were  made,  with 
Mr.  Crowther's  concurrence,  in  1892,  chiefly  with  reference 
to  the  position  of  the  escallop  groat.  This  find  bears  out 
the  1892  conclusions,  and  it  is  interesting  as  being  one 
which  places  the  position  of  the  escallop  coins  beyond 
dispute.  The  arrangement  of  the  coins  by  a  combination 
of  stops  and  mint-marks  seems  to  point  much  more 
accurately  to  the  true  sequence  than  either  of  these 
features  could  have  done  when  considered  by  itself. 

It  will  be  observed  that  each  coin  of  the  later  part  of 
the  find  has  had  its  weight  and  condition  placed  in  the  list. 
A  study  of  these  points  taken  together  will  go  far  to 


convince  anyone  that  but  little  reliance  is  to  be  placed 
on  the  subject  of  weight.  The  coins  weighing  more  than 
they  should  were  by  no  means  the  finest  in  the  hoard,  and 
some  of  those  which  were  in  the  most  beautiful  condition 
did  not  come  up  to  the  normal  weight.  In  a  hoard  of  groats 
of  this  period,  however,  the  weight  argument  cannot 
help  us;  but  supposing  for  a  moment  the  coins  had 
been  those  of  quite  early  years  of  Edward  IV,  and  had 
contained  smaller  coins,  or  again  if  the  hoard  had  been 
of  the  period  of  Henry  IY  and  V,  what  deductions  would 
have  been  made  from  an  extra  grain  or  two  on  the  penny  ? 
I  am  afraid  possibly  much  more  than  might  have  been 

The  coins  depicted  on  Plate  YI  are  chiefly  from  the 
find  in  connection  with  which  it  is  published.  The  coins 
of  Edward  IY,  Nos.  1  and  2,  although  closely  resembling 
those  described  in  the  list,  are  not  representations  of  the 
actual  specimens  in  the  find,  but  are  taken  from  examples 
in  the  National  Collection ;  No.  3  shows  the  missing  mint 
mark.  In  the  same  way,  the  picture  of  the  coin  of 
Edward  Y,  No.  4,  is  taken  from  a  fine  specimen,  rather 
than  from  the  poor  one  described.  The  other  coins  are 
all  from  the  find.  The  object  of  replacing  the  earlier 
poor  specimens  by  finer  ones  was  to  show  the  differences 
existing  between  the  early  and  later  coins  of  Edward  IY, 
the  differences  in  the  barring  of  the  A,  &c.,  and  also  the 
relationship  of  the  later  pieces  of  Edward  IY  to  those  of 

Edward  Y  and  Richard  III. 



The  types  follow,  in  general,  the  piece  described  in  the  Med.  III., 
vol.  ii.,  No.  119,  p.  538,  the  obv.  bearing,  THE  BRITISH 
GLORY .  REVIV'D .  BY.  ADMIRAL  .  VERNON,  with  Admiral 
Vernon  standing  to  1.  on  a  square  platform.  The  rev.,  however, 
differs  from  any  specimen  heretofore  described,  and  has  on  the 
border,  HE  .  TOOK .  PORTO  .  BELLO  .  WITH  .  SIX .  SHIPS . 
ONLY .  NOV.,  and  in  the  exergue,  22  .  1739  .  I .  K  .  DUBLIN. 
The  type  is  that  of  six  ships  entering  Porto  Bello  harbour. 

The  medal  is  interesting,  as  showing  the  widespread  popu- 
larity of  the  taking  of  Portobello,  and  it  may  be  accepted  as 
evidence  that  this  popularity  was  less  attributable  to  political 
causes  than  is  generally  supposed. 

An  examination  of  the  medal  shows  that  the  peculiarity 
which  distinguishes  it  from  other  specimens — the  initials  I .  K  . 
and  the  word  DUBLIN — is  an  addition  to  the  die.  The  original 
exergue  has  been  cut  away,  and  a  new  one,  giving  the  date, 
the  publisher's  initials,  and  the  place  of  issue  are  added.  I 
have  been  unable  to  trace  the  name  of  the  artist  whose  initials 
are  here  given.  They  do  not  appear  to  occur  on  any  of  the  Irish 
tokens  of  this  period. 

lowing medal  is  also  unpublished.  It  has  on  the  obv.  the  legend 
THE  .  MOST  .  HEROIC  .  G  .  F  .  Ill  .  K  .  OF  .  PRUSSIA, 
and  the  King  on  horseback  to  r.  ;  in  the  exergue,  WHO  . 
PERIALISTS .  &  .  SWKDES.  On  the  rev.  is  the  legend, 
and  Justice  trampling  on  Discord.  In  the  exergue,  the  date  1757. 

The  successes  referred  to  by  this  medal  were  the  victories  at 
Rosbach  and  Lissau  and  the  capture  of  Breslau.  These  victories 
were  very  popular1  in  this  country,  and  the  portrait  of  Frederick 
the  Great  was  to  be  found  in  nearly  every  shop  and  house. 




Mint.  C7won.Ses:ff/. 

.  V. 

-       '     *         J      V   ».. 


Mim,.0iron,.Scr  ff/.m.XXPl.  VI. 


a^     ~V  U*&       -*  7jr-_^ 

x£^  -P^> 

c  '^Q£*&£ 

,~ -*/<&;*:• 

^i^3&  &£&?'&  M*g 

&^  [*&*£.>       &<&&&?*        &*.(&£,•& 

ft      ^]q^te4^^^ 


A    Fl  ND    OF    GROATS 


(See  Plates  VII.,  VIII.,  IX.) 

'Apo-aKcu  yap  *:aXowrat  xai/res,  tSia  Sc  6 
'Opaxfys,  6  Se  <£>paaT>/s,  6  S'aAAo  Tt. — SxBABe. 

ANY  essay  on  Parthian  coinage  may  well  begin  with  an 
expression  of  indebtedness  to  the  well-known  monograph 
of  Professor  Percy  Gardner,  which,  since  its  publication 
in  1877,  has  been  rightly  recognised  as  the  standard  work 
on  this  difficult  branch  of  numismatics.  Mr.  Gardner  had 
several  illustrious  predecessors,  but  his  work  is  distin- 
guished from  theirs  not  only  by  the  excellence  of  its 
plates  and  clearness  of  arrangement,  but  by  the  numis- 
matic acumen  and  sober  judgment  brought  to  bear  upon 
the  evidence,  which,  whether  furnished  by  history  or  by 
the  coins  themselves,  is  rarely  of  a  satisfactory  and  decisive 

There  is  probably  general  agreement  that  Mr.  Gardner 
has  been  successful  in  determining  what  coins  should  form 
part  of  the  various  groups  that  he  describes,  but  a  diver- 
gence of  opinion  may  well  arise  when  we  attempt  to  name 
these  groups  and  to  determine  their  precise  relation  to 
one  another.  A  regal  coinage — and  the  Parthian  series 
is  the  currency  of  more  than  four  hundred  years — cannot 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  B   B 


be  profitably  arranged  like  a  civic  coinage  in  large  periods 
of  fifty  or  even  of  a  hundred  years.  Chronological  exact- 
ness is  of  the  essence  of  the  classification,  yet  is,  unfor- 
tunately, not  attainable  in  cases  where  the  coinage  bears 
no  date.  It  is  well  known  that  until  the  reign  of 
Phraates  IV  (B.C.  37-2)  hardly  a  single  date  is  found  on 
Parthian  coins,  and,  further,  that  the  literary  material 
for  reconstructing  the  history  of  Parthia  is  always  scanty 
and  frequently  untrustworthy.1  Even  after  the  labours  of 
Longuerue,  Rawlinson  and  Gutschmid,2  we  cannot  com- 
pile with  certainty  the  list  of  Parthian  monarchs  or  deter- 
mine with  definiteness  the  limits  of  their  reigns.  Nothing 
but  the  recovery  of  the  Parthica  of  Apollodorus  or  of  one 
of  the  other  lost  histories  of  Parthia  will  perhaps  avail, 
though  meanwhile  our  difficulties  would  probably  be 
lessened  by  the  compilation  of  a  really  critical  corpus  of 
the  ancient  texts  relating  to  Parthia,  accompanied  by  a 
commentary  of  the  kind  found  in  Clinton's  Fasti. 

During  the  twenty-three  years  that  have  elapsed  since 
the  appearance  of  Mr.  Gardner's  work,  very  large  addi- 
tions from  the  Cunningham,  India  Office,  and  other  collec- 
tions have  been  made  to  the  series  of  Parthian  coins  in 
the  British  Museum,  and  at  least  one  private  collection, 
that  of  Hitter  A.  Yon  Petrowicz,  has  grown  to  be  of 
great  importance.3  Little,  however,  has  been  written  on 

1  See    e.g.   H.    Ten    Gate   Fennema,    Quaestiones   Parthicae 
(Neomagi),  1882,  p.  1  f. 

2  Longuerue,  AnnalesArsacidarum,  1732  ;  Rawlinson,  Parthia 
(1893),    mainly   abridged   from  his   Sixth    Oriental  Monarchy 
(1878) ;  A.  Von  Gutschmid,  Geschichte  Irans,  Tubingen,  1888 
(ed.  Noldeke)  ;  Gutschmid's  article  "  Persia  "   in  the  Encyclo- 
paedia Britanniea,  9th  ed.,  is  an  abridged  translation  of  this. 

3  Colonel  Allotte  de  la  Fuye  of  Nantes  has  also  a  collection 
of  the  coins  of  Persis  and  Parthia. 


Parthian  numismatics,  with  the  important  exception  of 
papers  by  Markoff  and  Rapson,4  which  have  made  known 
some  new  coins  of  the  highest  importance.  These  coins 
show  us,  for  instance,  that  the  tetradrachm  was  a  much 
more  important  denomination  in  the  early  coinage  than 
was  previously  suspected.  They  show  us  also  that  the 
Parthian  mints  were  for  a  time  largely  under  the  influence 
of  Greek — especially  Seleucid — models.  This  influence  is 
seen  not  only  in  the  adoption  of  Seleucid  types  and  the 
Seleucid  ("  fillet ")  border,  but  also  in  the  practice  of 
directing  the  obverse  head  to  the  right,  instead  of  (as 
usual  on  Parthian  coins)  to  the  left.  In  studying  these 
and  other  new  coins  with  a  view  to  the  preparation  of  the 
British  Museum  Catalogue  of  the  Parthian  series,  I  have 
been  led,  though  reluctantly,  to  the  conclusion  that  not 
a  few  modifications  must  be  made  in  the  accepted  arrange- 
ment of  the  coinage  as  set  forth  in  Gardner's  work.  The 
rectifications  that  seem  to  be  called  for  are  principally  in 
the  period  before  Phraates  IV,  and  it  is  to  the  attribu- 
tions of  that  period  that  I  confine  myself  in  the  present 
paper.  The  alternative  arrangement  here  proposed  is, 
however,  a  tentative  one,  and  is  rather  a  series  of  sug- 
gestions put  forward  with  a  keen  sense  of  the  great  diffi- 
culty in  arriving  at  certainty  for  this  division  of  Parthian 

It  will  be  convenient  at  the  outset  to  give  the  names 
and  dates  of  the  Arsacids  as  determined  by  Gutschmid  in 
his  Geschichte  Irans. 

4  Markoff,  Coins  of  the  Arsacidae,  St.  Petersburg,  1892  (text 
in  Russian)  ;  Rapson,  "  Markoff's  unpublished  Coins  of  the 
Arsacidae,"  in  Num.  Chron.  for  1893,  p.  203  f. 



(ARSACES,6  the  founder           ....  250—248) 

TIRIDATES,  brother  of  Arsaces  [infra,  p.  192]  248-7—211-10 

ARSACEs,6  son  of  Tiridates  [p.  192]         .         .  210—191 

PHRIAPATIUS  [p.  191] 191—176 

PHRAATES  I,  son  of  Phriapatius  [p.  191]          .  176—171 

MITHRADATES  I,  brother  of  Phraates  I  [p.  188]  171—138 

PHRAATES  II,  son  of  Mithradates  I  [p.  186]    .  138—128-7 

ARTABANUS  I,7  son  of  Phriapatius  [p.  184]       .  128-7 — 123 
(HiMERus,  viceroy  (and  king?)  [p.  193]          circ.  124—3) 

MITHRADATES  II,  son  of  Artabanus  I  [p.  187]  123—88 

ARTABANUS  II  8  [p.  195]        .         .     "    .         .  88—77 

SINATRUCES  [p.  195] 77—70 

PHRAATES  III,  son  of  Sinatruces  [p.  196]         .  70 — 57 

MITHRADATES  III,  son  of  Phraates  III  [p.  197]  57 — 54 

ORODES,  son  of  Phraates  III  [p.  199]     .         .  57—37 

PACORUS  I,  son  of  Orodes  [p.  199]          .  d.  B.C.  38 

PHRAATES  IV,  son  of  Orodes  [cp.  p.  198]        .  37—2 

The  most  important  coin  that  has  come  to  light  since 
Gardner  wrote  is  undoubtedly  the  tetradrachm  reproduced 
in  PI.  VIII.  5,  for  it  has  in  the  exergue  the  letters  HFIP, 
which  will  be  admitted  to  be  a  date  of  the  Seleucid  era 
(year  188)  equivalent  to  B.C.  125-4.  This  date  falls  in  the 
reign  of  Artabanus  I  (B.C.  128-7—123).  The  tetradrachm 
bears  a  head — one  of  the  most  interesting  and  strongly 
individualised  of  Arsacid  portraits — which  is  identical 
with  the  head  found  on  the  drachms  and  bronze  attri- 
buted by  Gardner  [PL  I.  9-11 ;  PI.  VIII.  4]  to  an  earlier 
Parthian  king,  Phriapatius.  The  principal  reason  for 

5  Gutschmid  (pp.   30,   31)  doubts  whether  Arsaces  was  ever 
actually  King  of  Parthia. 

6  The  personal  name  of  this  ruler  is  not  given  by  Justin. 
Most  modern  writers  have  without  authority  called  him  "  Arta- 
banus I  "  ;  see  Gutschmid,  p.  36,  note  4  ;  cp.  p.  81  ;  see  also 
F.  Cauer,  art.  "  Artabanos,"  in  Pauly's  Real-Encyclop. 

7  Called  "  Artabanus  II  "  by  those  writers  who  have  assigned 
the  name  of  "  Artabanus  I  "  to  Arsaces,  son  of  Tiridates. 

8  On  the  reasons  for  inserting  this  name  in  the  list  of  Par- 
thian kings,  see  Gutschmid,  p.  81. 


assigning  these  coins  to  Phriapatius  was  that  one  variety 
of  the  drachms  (though  one  only)  bore  in  the  exergue  the 
letters  EKP  [G.  PL  I.  10J,  which  were  naturally  inter- 
preted as  year  "  125  "  of  the  Seleucid  era,  equivalent  to 
B.C.  188-7,  a  date  in  the  reign  of  Phriapatius.  But  if 
this  interpretation  is  correct,  it  is  in  flagrant  contradiction 
with  the  date  on  the  tetradrachm  with  the  same  head.  It 
can  hardly  be  doubted  that  the  date  on  the  tetradrachm 
(of  which  several  specimens  and  two  varieties  are  now 
known)  should  prevail.  For  if  H  PI  P  be  not  a  date,  it  is 
a  meaningless  combination  of  letters.  On  the  other  hand 
EKP  need  not  necessarily  be  a  date,  but  may  be  part  of  a 
proper  name,  or  possibly  it  may  be,  as  Mr.  Rapson  has 
ingeniously  suggested,9  a  date  of  the  Parthian  era  begin- 
ning in  B.C.  248,  in  which  case  it  would  be  equivalent  to 
B.C.  125-4,  a  date  identical  with  that  found  on  the  tetra- 
drachm. The  difficulty  in  this  last-named  interpretation 
is  that  no  other  instance  is  known  on  the  Arsacid  coinage 
of  the  use  of  this  native  era.  But  whatever  the  explana- 
tion of  EKP  may  be,  it  certainly  seems  necessary  to  move 
down  all  the  drachms  and  bronze  attributed  to  Phriapatius 
[G.  PI.  I.  9-11],  so  that  they  may  take  their  place  with 
the  tetradrachm  of  Artabanus  I.  This  new  attribution 
will  displace  the  drachms  and  bronze  assigned  by  Gardner 
[PI.  II.  13-15 ;  cp.  PI.  IX.  7]  to  this  Artabanus  I 

9  Num.  Chron.,  1893,  p.  212, 

10  This  king  (one  of  the  three  sons  of  Phriapatius)  calls  him- 
self 0EOP1ATOPOZ  (drachm  in  British  Museum,  not  pub- 
lished by  Gardner),  but  he  also  has  the  epithet  <t>IAAAEA- 
<|>OY.     He  was  not,  however,  the  brother,  but  the  uncle,  of 
his  immediate  predecessor  (Phraates  II).    The  <i8eA0os  referred 
to  must  be  his  brother,  Mithradates  I,  another  son  of  Phria- 
patius.    The   only  other  kings  to  whom  <£iAaS«A0os  could  be 


Mr.  Gardner  has  recognised  the  close  connection  in  style, 
&c.,  between  the  drachms  of  "  Phriapatius  "  [PI.  VIII. 
4]  and  those  which  he  assigns  to  his  successor  Phraates  I 
[G.  PI.  I.  13  ;  PI.  VIII.  2].  If,  therefore,  the  drachms  of 
"  Phriapatius  "  are  moved,  as  I  have  just  proposed,  to 
a  lower  place  in  the  series,  it  follows  that  the  drachms 
of  "  Phraates  I "  must  accompany  them.  I  propose  to 
assign  them  to  Phraates  II  (B.C.  138 — 128-7),  the  pre- 
decessor of  Artabanus  I.11 

The  predecessor  of  Phraates  II  was  Mithradates  I,  the 
great  Parthian  king  who  was  the  first  to  extend  materially 
the  dominions  of  the  Arsacid  monarchs — the  conqueror  of 
Mesopotamia,  Media,  and  Persia,  and  the  successful  anta- 
gonist of  Eukratides,  King  of  Bactria.  It  has  been 
generally  agreed,  for  reasons  that  seem  to  me  rather 
plausible  than  decisive,  that  the  principal  currency 
of  this  ruler  must  be  looked  for  in  the  familiar  coins 
figured  in  G.  PL  I.  17-28  ;  PI.  VIII.  9-11.12  But  if  we 

applicable  are  the  brothers  Phraates  I  and  Mithradates  I,  but 
the  date  of  the  4>|  AAAEA<I>OY  coins  (as  determined  by  the 
HHP,  B.O.  125-4,  tetradrachm,  PL  VIII.  5)  is  too  late  for 
their  reigns. 

11  I  am  inclined  to  agree  with  Von  Sallet  and  Gardner  that 
the  tetradrachm,   G.  PI.   I.  12  =  PL  VIII.  1,   belongs  to  the 
king  who  issued  the  drachms  and  bronze. 

12  Markoff,  op.  cit.,  PL  III.   12  (cp.   figure  in  Rawlinson's 
Parthia,  1893,  p.  63),  publishes  a  tetradrachm  of  the  usual  type 
of  "Mithradates  I."   on  which  he  reads  the  date  oP  =  year 
170  =  B.C.  143-2.     But  on  his  plate  the  supposed  oP  is  clearly 
og  :  it  is  therefore  not  a  date,  but  one  of  the  numerous  mono- 
grammatic  combinations  that  occur  on  the  coins  of  "  Mithra- 
dates  I."     I   may   here   also   remark   that    the   tetradrachm 
("  Mithradates  I  "  ?)  referred  to  in  Num.  Chron.,  1890,  "  Pro- 
ceedings of  Numismatic   Society,"    pp.   6,  7,  cannot  now  be 
accepted  as  genuine;  see  Num.  Chron.,  1894,  " Proceedings  of 
Numismatic  Society,"  p.  4.     An  electrotype  of  the  coin  is  in  the 
British  Museum,  where  are  also  two  or  three  other  fabrications 
of  Parthian  tetradrachms. 


apply  what  may  be  called  the  "  throne  and  omphalos  " 
criterion  to  these  coins,  it  can,  I  think,  be  shown  that  this 
attribution  is  incorrect.  Mr.  Gardner  has  well  pointed 
out  that  the  whole  of  the  Parthian  series  may  be  roughly 
divided  into  two  great  classes,  the  first  consisting  of  the 
coins  on  which  the  archer-king  of  the  reverse  is  found 
seated  on  the  omphalos,  the  second,  of  those  on  which  he 
sits  on  the  throne.  Now  we  find  that  on  the  earliest  (pre- 
Mithradatic)  coins  the  king  sits  on  the  omphalos.  On 
the  coins  assigned  by  Gardner  to  Mithradates  I,  he  sits 
first  on  the  omphalos  and  afterwards  on  the  throne.  But 
then — if  my  attributions  are  correct  —  his  successor 
Phraates  II  [PI.  VIII,  2]  returns  to  the  omphalos,  and  this 
seat  is  also  occupied  by  Artabanus  I  [PL  VIII.  4].  The 
successor  of  Artabanus,  however,  and  all  the  later  Parthian 
kings  revert  to  the  throne.  If,  then,  the  throne  and 
omphalos  test  is  a  valid  one,  as  I  quite  agree,  it  is  obvious 
that  the  coins  assigned  to  Mithradates  I,  have  been  placed 
too  high  in  the  series.  They  must  be  placed  after  the 
last  "omphalos"  coins  and  introduce  the  long  later  series 
of  "  throne "  reverses.  I  propose  to  assign  them  to 
Mithradates  II  (B.C.  123 — 88),  the  son  and  successor  of 
Artabanus  I. 

This  king  enjoyed,  like  the  first  Mithradates,  a  lengthy 
reign,  and  by  his  achievements  earned  the  title  of 
"  magnus."  The  numerous  varieties  of  the  coinage  will 
therefore  suit  the  second  Mithradates  no  less  than  the  first. 

The  obverse  of  the  coins  has  in  various  ways  an  affinity 
with  the  tetradrachm  of  Artabanus  I  [cp.  PL  VIII,  9  with 
PL  VIII,  5],  but  that  the  coins  are  later  than  the  reign  of 
Artabanus — and  especially  later  than  Mithradates  I — seems 
obvious  from  the  absence  of  those  Seleucid  characteristics 
which  were  prevalent  at  an  earlier  period  (see  the  coins 



of  Phraates  II  and  Artabanus  I  [PI.  VIII.  1,  5]  and  infra  on 
Mithradates  I).  The  Seleucid  border  has  disappeared,  the 
head  on  all  the  coins  is  turned  in  the  Parthian  direction, 
to  the  left,  and  the  Seleucid  reverse-types  are  superseded 
by  the  "  archer  "  of  the  drachms,  who  is  now  promoted  to 
a  place  on  the  tetradrachms.  This  coinage,  in  fact, 
inaugurates  a  stereotyped  Parthian,  as  opposed  to  a 
Seleucid,  type  of  currency.13 

We  have  now  to  ascertain  what  was  the  coinage  of 
Mithradates  I.      A  series  of  coins  of  Seleucid  character 

13  The  title  BAZIAEHZ  BAZIAEHN  occurs  for  the 
first  time  in  the  Parthian  series  on  some  of  the  coins  of 
this  king.  It  represents,  as  M.  Drouin  has  remarked  ("Sur 
1'origine  du  titre  royal  BAZIAEYZ  BAZIAEHN,"  in 
La  Gazette  Numismatique,  Bruxelles,  1899),  the  khshayathiya 
khshayathiyanam  (king  of  kings)  of  the  Achaemenid  monarchs. 
All  modern  writers  have  stated  that  the  title  was  first  as- 
sumed in  Parthia  by  the  victorious  Mithradates  I.  This  king 
may  well  have  taken  the  title,  but  the  proof  that  he  did  so 
rests  solely  on  the  attribution  of  these  coins  to  his  reign. 
If  he  was  the  first  king  to  inscribe  the  title  on  his  coins,  it  is 
remarkable  that  it  should  not  appear  on  the  coins  of  any  of  his 
successors  (including  even  Mithradates  II,  "  Magnus  ")  until 
the  reign  of  Mithradates  III,  or  rather  (according  to  my  ar- 
rangement) of  Orodes  I,  circ.  B.C.  57.  Even  if  we  assign  the 
coins  of  "  Mithradates  I  "  to  Mithradates  II,  as  I  have  proposed, 
there  is  still  a  considerable  interval  during  which  the  title  is  in 
abeyance,  at  any  rate,  on  the  coins.  The  numismatic  evidence 
with  regard  to  the  first  appearance  of  the  title  points  rather  to 
the  time  of  the  second  than  of  the  first  Mithradates.  For  we 
find  BAZIAEI1Z  BAZIAEJ1N  (i)  on  the  coins  of  Maues, 
the  Saka  dynast,  circ.  B.C.  120  ?  contemporary  with  Mithra- 
dates II ;  (ii)  on  the  coins  of  Tigranes  the  Great,  of  Armenia, 
who  uses  it  on  the  money  struck  by  him  at  Antioch  (B.C.  72-70 
and,  perhaps,  earlier,  from  the  year  B.C.  83,  when  he  became 
master  of  Syria;  Babelon,  Eois  de  Syr.,  p.  cci.  f.).  It  is  pos- 
sible that  Tigranes  may  have  adopted  the  title  as  a  kind  of 
counterblast  to  the  pretensions  of  Mithradates  II,  or,  at  any 
rate,  in  imitation  of  him.  The  disuse  of  the  title  by  the  imme- 
diate successors  of  Mithradates  II  may  be  due  to  the  influence 
of  Tigranes,  who  made  conquests  in  Arsacid  territory. 


[G-.  PL  II.  1,2;  PL  VII.  12-13]  is  necessarily  admitted  by 
Gardner  and  other  writers  to  belong  to  the  time  of  this 
king,  for  the  coins  bear  the  dates  POP  (—  B.C.  140-39) 
and  AOP  (=  B.C.  139-138).  A  series  of  bronze  coins 
[G.  PL  II.  4-6  ;  PI,  VII.  9-11]  and  a  drachm  and  obol  [G.  PL 
II.  3,  7 ;  PI.  VII.  7>  6]  which  show  a  portrait  head  appa- 
rently of  the  same  king  who  struck  the  TOP  class  are 
also  assigned  by  Gardner  to  this  reign.  Mr.  Gardner 
remarks  (page  32)  that  these  coins  have  a  distinctly 
"  Bactrian  tinge  "  (cp.  some  of  the  coins  of  Eukratides, 
the  contemporary  of  Mithradates  I),  though  he  does  not 
insist  (as  I  think  quite  rightly)  that  they  were  struck  in 
Bactria.  The  TOP,  AOP  pieces  belong  to  the  closing 
years  of  the  reign  of  Mithradates  I,  the  other  class  seems 
to  be  earlier. 

Yet  while  assigning  all  these  coins  to  the  time  of 
Mithradates  I,  Mr.  Gardner  has  rather  discounted  their 
importance  by  describing  them  as  coins  of  the  satraps  of 
Mithradates.  For  myself,  I  have  great  difficulty  in  sup- 
posing that  coins  bearing  the  name  and  titles  of  Arsaces 
would  accompany  the  head  of  a  satrap  ;  and  it  is  further 
to  be  remarked  that  the  Greek  or  Seleucid  characteristics 
of  these  coins — the  head  is  turned  to  the  right,  and  the 
fillet  border  generally  appears  —  which  seemed,  when 
Gardner  wrote,  to  differentiate  them  from  the  Parthian 
series  proper,  are  no  longer  so  remarkable  now  that  we 
know,  from  recently  published  coins,  the  somewhat  ex- 
tensive influence  of  the  Syrian  on  the  Parthian  coinage. 
There  is  now  little  difficulty,  therefore,  in  regarding  these 
coins  as  the  money  of  Mithradates  I,  and  as  bearing  the 
portrait-head  of  the  King  himself. 

But  we  require  also  a  coinage  for  the  earlier  portion  of 
this  reign.  I  would  recognise  this  mainly  in  the  silver 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  C   C 


and  bronze  attributed4by  Gardner  [PL  I.  6-8  ;  PI.  VII.  4,  5] 

to  Arsaces,  son  of  Tiridates  (the  so-called  "  Artabanus  I "). 
These  coins  bear  a  head  not  unlike  the  head  which  we 
consider  to  be  that  of  Mithradates  I,  and  are  especially 
distinguished  from  the  bulk  of  Parthian  coins  by  the  use 
of  the  fillet  border  which,  as  we  have  seen,  generally 
appears  on  the  supposed  "  satrapal "  coins  that  we  have 
assigned  to  Mithradates  I. 

The  two  immediate  predecessors  of  Mithradates  I, 
namely  Phriapatius  and  Phraates  I,  we  have  already  de- 
prived of  coins  (in  favour  of  Artabanus  I  and  Phraates  II), 
and  we  have  next  to  determine  what  money  was  used 
by  them  and  by  the  two  earliest  kings  of  Parthia,  Tiridates 
and  his  son  Arsaces. 

The  only  early  coins  that  remain  unattributed  are  those 
of  what  may  be  called  the  "  beardless  head  "  class  [e.g., 
PI.  VII.  1-3].  These  were  assigned  by  Gardner  (PL  I. 
1-5)  to  Tiridates  and  to  his  (perhaps  doubtful)  predecessor 
on  the  throne,  Arsaces,  the  founder.  When  Gardner 
wrote,  only  three  varieties  of  legend  were  known  to  occur 
on  this  series  of  coins,  but  now  that  no  less  than  six  varieties 
are  published,  the  attribution  may  prove  less  simple.  I 
agree  with  my  predecessors  in  thinking  that  these  are  the 
earliest  Parthian  coins,  for  there  is  certainly  great  diffi- 
culty in  intercalating  them  anywhere  among  the  bearded 
portrait-heads,  but,  at  the  same  time,  their  exact  attribu- 
bution  seems  to  me  to  require  reconsideration. 

The  coins  (drachms)  are  as  follows  : — 

i.  APZAKOY     (G.  PI.  I.  1.) 

ii.  BAZI AEHZ  APZAKOY    (G.  PL  1. 2  ;  PL  VII,  1.) 


3,  4 ;  pi.  VII.  2  ;  also  diobol  and  obol  in  British 



flATOP  British  Museum,  acquired  in  1900. 
(PL  VII.  3.) 

vi.  APZAKOY    [AYTOJKPATOPO      (Obv.  Head 
to  right.)9 

Judging  from  the  number  of  dies  known,  these  coins 
may  be  the  currency  of  a  considerable  period,  but  their 
inscriptions  give  the  best  clue  to  the  date.  From  legends 
i.  and  ii.  nothing  much  can  be  argued,  though  the  legend 
APZAKOY  (a  very  rare  variety)  would  certainly  seem 
to  inaugurate  the  coinage  of  Parthia.  The  title 
BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAOY  (iii.),  however  early  it  may 
have  been  assumed  by  Greek  and  Eastern  monarchs,16  does 
not  occur  on  coins  till  the  reign  of  Eukratides  of  Bactria, 
B.C.  190-160,  a  king  who  was  contemporary  with  Phria- 
patius,  Phraates  I,  and  Mithradates  I.  It  occurs  also  in 
the  Seleucid  series  on  the  money  of  Timarchus,  circ. 
B.C.  162.  Unless,  therefore,  we  are  to  lose  sight  of  these 
land-marks,  we  cannot  well  place  the  BAZIAEflZ 
MEPAAOY  class  earlier  than  Phriapatius,  or  later 
than  Mithradates  I.  I  propose  to  assign  them  to  Phria^ 
patius  and  Phraates  I.  Some  may  also,  possibly,  have  been 
struck  by  Mithradates  I,  though,  as  we  have  already  seen, 

14  The  original  of  this  drachm  is  not  now  known  to  exist,  but 
it  has  been  published  from   an  impression  that  belonged  to 
Longperier,  by  M.  Drouin,   in   Gazette   Numismatique,  1899, 
"  Une  drachme  arsacide  inedite." 

15  Linewitch  collection.     See  Drouin  in  the  article  cited  in 
the  previous  note,  and  in  Rev.  Num.,  1890,  p.  258. 

16  Antiochus  I  Soter  (B.C.  281-261)  is  called,  on  a  Babylonian 
cylinder,   "  the  great  king,  the  mighty  king."     See  Schrader, 
"  Die    datirung    der  babylonischen    sogenannten  Arsacidenin- 
schriften,"  in  Sitzungsberichte  der  konig.  preussischen  Akademic, 
1890,  p.  1331. 


he  uses  this  title  for  liis  drachms  with  the  bearded 
portrait-head  [PI.  VII,  4].  The  coins  with  APZAKOY 
and  BAZIAEHZ  APZAKOY  having  a  simpler  form  of 
legend,  and  being,  apparently,  earlier  in  style  than  the 
BAZIAEflZ  MEfAAOY  class,17  may  be  assigned  to  Tiri- 
dates and  Arsaces,  son  of  Tiridates.  This  coinage  is 
indeed  hardly  sufficient  for  the  long  reign  of  Tiridates, 
but  the  peculiar  features  of  early  Parthian  history  and 
culture  do  not  necessarily  require  the  assumption  (made 
by  all  previous  writers)  that  Tiridates  struck  coins  from 
the  first  moment  of  his  reign. 

The  legend  0EOY  (v.)  is  found  in  Bactria  on  the  coins 
of  Agathocles  and  Antimachus,  contemporaries  (?)  of 
Eukratides,  i.e.,  cifc.  B.C.  190-160.  It  is  a  title  used  by 
the  earliest  kings  of  Syria,  though  it  does  not  occur  on 
their  coins  before  Antiochus  IY  Epiphanes,  B.C.  175-164. 
Judging,  therefore,  from  the  evidence  of  coins,  0EOY  is 
likely  to  have  been  adopted  in  Parthia  during  the  period 
from  Phriapatius  to  Mithradates  I. 

The  title  GEOriATOPOZ  (iv.)  first  occurs  on  the 
series  of  Alexander  I,  Bala,  of  Syria,  B.C.  150-145,  whose 
reign  coincides  with  the  later  portion  of  the  reign  of  Mithra- 
dates I.  In  the  Parthian  series  itself,  GEOnATOPOZ 
is  first  found  on  the  drachms  that  I  have  assigned  to 
Phraates  II,  the  son  of  Mithradates  I,  and,  indeed,  the 
reverse  of  our  beardless  -  head  drachm  with  this  title 
[PI.  VII.  3]  bears  a  remarkable  resemblance  to  the  reverse 
of  Phraates  II  [PI,  VIII.  2].  Possibly,  the  GEOriA 
TOP.  .  drachm  now  in  question  is  the  earliest  coinage  of 
Phraates  II,  while  the  0EOY  drachm  may  be  of  his 

17  Notice  the  attenuated  figure  on  the  reverse,  which  grows 
shorter  as  the  Parthian  coinage  advances. 


father,  Mithradates  I.  The  difficulty  about  this  is,  that 
Phraates  II  would  thus  employ  the  beardless-head  type, 
though  his  father  [PL  VII,  4]  had  during  the  latter  part 
of  his  reign  used  the  bearded-portrait  type.  An  alternative 
arrangement  would  be  to  assign  0EOF1ATOPOS  to 
Phraates  I,  and  0EOY  to  his  father,  Phriapatius.  Both 
these  coins  are  unique,  and  at  present  their  attribution 
may  well  be  left  doubtful. 

The  remaining  legend  (vi.)  supplies  the  title  AYTO- 
KPATOPOZ,  which  is  extremely  rare  on  Greek  auto- 
nomous coins.  It  occurs  in  Parthia  on  the  money  that 
is  almost  certainly  of  jSinatruces,  B.C.  77-70,  and,  still 
later,  on  the  coins  that  Gardner  (PL  IY.  18)  attributes  to 
"  Phraates  IY,  or  a  usurper."  The  earliest,  and,  so  far 
as  I  know,  the  only  other  appearance  of  AYTOKPA- 
TOPOZ  is  (in  the  Seleucid  series)  on  the  coins  of 
Tryphon,  B.C.  142-139.  The  title  cannot,  therefore,  on 
coins,  be  traced  earlier  than  the  period  of  Mithradates  I 
of  Parthia,  and  it  seems  best  to  assign  the  drachm  in 
question  to  his  reign. 

We  have  now  considered  the  coinage  from  Tiridates  to 
Mithradates  II,  but  two  or  three  coins  of  difficult  attribu- 
tion remain  for  discussion.  The  drachm  in  PL  VIII.  7,  with 
a  short  beard,  bears  a  resemblance  to  our  Phraates  II  [G. 
"Phraates  I"  :  PL  VIII.  3],  but  its  title  NIKH<K>POY, 
its  Seleucid  style,  and  especially  the  date  0flP  =  B.c. 
124-3,  show  that  it  cannot  be  of  his  reign.15  Gardner 
has  assigned  it  to  Himerus,  the  favourite  of  Phraates  II, 

18  Dr.  Dressel,  who  has  kindly  examined  the  original  in  the 
Berlin  Museum,  informs  me  that  there  is  practically  no  doubt 
about  the  date ;  the  numerals  0F1,  at  any  rate,  are  quite  cer- 
tain. The  British  Museum  variety  [PL  VIII.  8],  without  date, 
belongs,  of  course,  to  the  same  issuer. 


who,  as  viceroy,  despotically  governed  Seleucia  and 
Babylon.  Gutschmid  (op.  cit.  pp.  78,  79)  rather  arbi- 
trarily denies  the  correctness  of  this  attribution,  though, 
if  we  may  trust  Diodorus,  Himerus  was  actually  King  of 
Parthia.  The  tetradrachm  in  PI.  VIII.  6  (not  known  when 
Gardner  wrote)  is  poorly  preserved,  but  I  am  inclined  to 
think  that  it  belongs  to  the  issuer  of  the  ©PIP  drachm, 
though  it  bears  different  titles,  namely,  Eni4>ANOYZ 
<I>IAEAAHNOZ.  If,  however,  a  difficulty  is  found  in 
attributing  this  tetradrachm  and  drachm  to  Himerus,  the 
alternative  is  to  regard  them  as  the  earliest  coinage  of 
Mithradates  II.  The  title  EfII<l>ANOYZ  is  prominent 
on  the  coins  that  we  have  already  assigned  to  him 
[PL  VIII.  9-11],  and — if  this  point  may  be  insisted  on — the 
letters  TY  found  in  the  exergue  of  the  tetradrachm 
[PI.  VIII.  6]  occur  also  on  a  tetradrachm  of  Mithradates  II 
(British  Museum).  At  the  same  time,  if  we  assign  these 
coins  to  Mithradates  II  rather  than  to  Himerus,  it  must 
be  admitted  that  the  appearance  of  this  king  greatly 
altered  in  the  course  of  years  [cp.  PI,  VIII.  8  with  PI. 
VIII.  9.]. 

PI.  VII.  8  is  an  unpublished  drachm  in  the  British 
Museum.  It  is  carelessly  executed,  or,  at  any  rate, 
badly  struck,  and  does  not  closely  resemble  any  of  our 
known  portrait-heads.  The  style  and  legend — BAZI- 
AEHZ  MEPAAOY  APZAKOY— seem  to  indicate  a 
fairly  early  date.  I  assign  it,  though  very  doubtfully,  to 
Mithradates  I.  The  portrait  is  not  unlike  his,  and  the 
bow  behind  the  head  f which  is  turned  to  the  right)  finds  a 
sort  of  parallel  in  the  club  behind  the  head  on  some  of  the 
bronze  coins  that  we  have  attributed  to  this  king  (Long- 
perier,  Arsacidts,  PI.  II.  23  ;  cp.  PL  VII.  9-11). 

The  British  Museum  tetradrachm  in  PL  VIII.  3  (first 

ON    THE    REARRANGEMENT    OF    PARTHIAN    COINAGE.          195 

published  by  Rapson)  is,  unfortunately,  not  well  pre- 
served, and  the  monogram  (?)  on  the  reverse,  the  details 
of  the  drapery  or  cuirass,  and  the  shape  of  the  nose — 
that  important  Parthian  feature — are  not  distinct.  I 
thought  at  first  it  might  be  the  tetradrachin  accompanying 
the  drachms  [PI.  VII.  4,5]  of  Mithradates  I,  but  the 
reverse  type  (Tyche  seated)  rather  points  to  the  reign  of 
Artabanus  I.  Possibly  it  is  the  first  portrait-head  of 
Artabanus  I,  treated  with  less  care  and  refinement  than 
the  portrait  on  his  known  tetradrachms  [PL  VIII,  5]. 

The  ten  years  that  followed  the  death  of  Mithradates  II 
(circ.  B.C.  88)  are  among  the  most  obscure  in  Parthian 
history.  During  this  time  the  influence  of  the  famous 
Tigranes  of  Armenia  was  predominant,  and  we  know  that 
he  annexed  portions  of  Parthian  territory.  During  the 
years  77-70  it  is  fairly  certain  that  the  king  of  Parthia 
was  Sinatruces,  who,  according  to  Lucian,  had  reached 
the  age  of  eighty  when  he  ascended  the  throne.  I  agree 
with  Mr.  Gardner  in  assigning  to  this  king  the  coins  in 
PI.  IX.  3,  4;  G.  PL  III.  1-3,  which  alone  uniformly 
present  an  aged  portrait. 

In  the  gap  between  Mithradates  II  and  Sinatruces, 
Gutschmid  has  inserted  a  king  named  Artabanus  (II), 
whose  existence  he  infers  from  an  ingenious  emendation 
of  Justin,  ProL  41.  There  is  certainly  room  for  a  king 
here,  and  I  suggest  the  attribution  to  him  of  the  coins 
which  Gardner  has  given  to  Phraates  II  [PI.  II.  8-12 ; 
PL  IX.  1,  2].  On  historical  grounds,  this  coinage  is,  no 
doubt,  difficult  to  date,  for  on  the  drachms  we  find  the 
remarkable  legends  APEIA,MAPriANH,TPAZIANH, 
KATAZTPATEIA,  legends  which  seem  to  point  to  a 
period  of  conquest,  or,  at  any  rate,  to  an  asserted  claim 
over  Aria  and  Margiana.  We  should  have  looked  for 


such  legends  in  the  time  of  Mithradates  I,  or  Mithra- 
dates  II,  but  on  numismatic  grounds  it  seems  to  me — as 
it  has  seemed  to  Mr.  Gardner — impossible  to  attribute 
them  to  either  of  these  reigns.  Judging  from  the  coins 
themselves,  they  seem  to  follow  fairly  well  after  our 
Mithradates  II  [PI,  VIII.  9-11]. 19 

Of  Artabanus  we  know  nothing,  but  certainly  the 
portrait  on  these  coins  bears  considerable  resemblance, 
allowing  for  difference  of  age,  to  that  of  Sinatruces 
[PI,  IX,  3,  4],  who  was  doubtless  of  Arsacid  stock,  and  who 
calls  himself  4>IAOnATOPOZ.  Perhaps  the  conjec- 
ture may  be  permitted  that  Artabanus  II  was  the  father 
of  Sinatruces.  It  would  appear  (Lucian,  Macrob.  16)  that 
Sinatruces  came  back  to  Parthia  after  a  sojourn  or  exile 
among  the  Scythian  Sakauracae.  Perhaps  Artabanus, 
during  a  period  of  confusion  and  opposition  from  Armenia, 
had  set  up  his  court  in  the  remoter  parts  of  the  empire, 
in  Aria  and  Margiana. 

Three  kings  only  remain  to  be  noticed — Phraates  III 
and  his  two  sons,  Mithradates  III  and  Orodes.  To 
Phraates  III  I  would  assign  the  coinage  that  Gardner 
attributes  to  Mithradates  II  [PI.  IX.  5,  6,  8 ;  G.  PL  II. 
17-24].  The  tetradrachm  PI.  IX.  5,  it  will  be  observed, 
bears  the  title  0EOY,  which,  according  to  Phlegon,  was 
a  title  assumed  by  Phraates  III;  but  without  laying 
much  stress  on  this,  it  may  be  further  pointed  out  that 
these  coins  seem,  on  account  of  their  monograms,  to 
belong  to  this  king  rather  than  to  Mithradates  II.  The 

19  Notice  the  treatment  of  the  head,  the  style  of  the  cuirass, 
and  the  reverse  type  (archer)  of  the  tetradrachm.  These  coins 
bear  monograms  which  are  distinct  from  those  on  the  coins  of 
Mithradates  II  (G.  "  Mithradates  I "),  and  which  are  not  found 
on  the  coins  of  later  kings. 


monograms  are  of  a  well-known  series,  in  which  2f-, 
>S,  &c.,  often  occur,  and  which  is  found  in  several 
later  reigns — on  the  coins  (according  to  Gardner)  of 
Mithradates  III,  on  those  of  Orodes  and  of  Phraates  IV. 
It  seems  desirable  to  keep  these  groups  of  monograms  in 
proximity.  This  can  be  done  if  we  transfer  Gardner's 
"Mithradates  II"  to  Phraates  III.  If,  however,  the 
attribution  to  Mithradates  II  be  maintained,  two  reigns 
(Artabanus  II  and  Sinatruces),  with  two  different  series  of 
monograms  and  letters,  will  break  the  continuity  of  the 
Sf-,  &c.,  series. 

The  drachms  and  bronze  with  helmeted  head  assigned 
by  Gardner  [PL  II.  13-15;  PI.  IX,  7]  to  Artabanus  I 
("  II ")  are  almost  identical  in  appearance  with  the 
drachms  that  I  give  to  Phraates  III  [PL  IX.  6  ;  G.  PL  II. 
19-22].  It  is  convenient,  therefore,  to  class  them  with 
his  coins,  though,  in  this  case,  it  is  rather  a  difficulty 
that  Phraates  employs  two  different  legends  on  his 
drachms:  i.  EYEPfETOY  EFIWANOYZ  <NAEA- 
unsatisfactory  alternative  is  to  assign  the  coins  to  some 
unknown  ruler  of  about  the  time  of  Phraates  III. 

To  Mithradates  III,  Gardner  has  attributed  a  series  of 
drachms  and  bronze  [G.  PL  III.  11-14;  PL  IX,  12, 13] 
with  a  portrait-head  that  admittedly  resembles  that  of 
Orodes.20  Gardner  considers  this  resemblance  to  be 
a  family  likeness  —  Mithradates  being  the  brother  of 
Orodes.  And  he  further  points  out  that  Mithradates  has 
a  different  legend  from  Orodes,  and  that  he  wears  a 

0  This  supposed  coinage  of  Mithradates  III  resembles  the 
coinage  of  Orodes  in  several  other  respects ;  the  triple  tie  of 
the  diadem ;  the  bulging  out  of  the  hair ;  and  the  occurrence 
of  a  star  behind  the  head. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD   SERIES.  D    D 


necklace  of  clasps,  while  Orodes  is  adorned  with  a  spiral 
necklace.  The  difference  of  legend  must  be  admitted, 
but  I  doubt  whether  much  weight  can  be  allowed  to  the 
distinction  between  the  two  kinds  of  necklace,  for  we  find 
(under  Orodes)  a  clasp  necklace  worn  by  Pacorus,  and 
also,  occasionally,  by  Phraates  IV  when  he  became  sole 

New  light  seems  to  be  thrown  on  this  supposed  coinage 
of  Mithradates  III  by  the  remarkable  drachm  [PI.  IX,  13], 
named  and  dated,  which,  as  I  have  elsewhere  shown 
(Num.  Chron.,  1900,  p.  92,  No.  3),  must  have  been  struck 
by  Phraates  (IV)  in  the  year  |~OZ,  i.e.,  B.C.  40-39, 
during  the  lifetime  of  his  father  Orodes.21  This  drachm 
has  the  clasp  necklace,  and  the  head  is  practically  identical 
with  the  head  on  a  drachm  [PL  IX.  12  =  Num  Chron., 
1900,  p.  92,  No.  4]  which  Gardner  (p.  37)  assigns  to 
Mithradates  III.22  We  seem  compelled,  then,  to  refer 
the  coins  of  Mithradates  III  to  the  time  of  Orodes,  when 
they  were  probably  struck  under  the  influence  of 
Phraates  (IV),  though  with  the  head  of  Orodes.23 

21  In  the  Von  Petrowicz  collection  is  a  remarkable  tetradrachm 
(obv.  Bust  of  Orodes  (?),  rev.  King  seated  holding  Nike)  bearing, 
like  this  drachm,  the  date  I~OZ. 

22  In  Num.  Chron.,  1900,  p.  92,  No.  4,  I  read  this   drachm 
(PI.  IX.  12)  as  Mr.  Gardner  had  read  it.     Col.  A.   de  la  Fuye 
kindly  informs  me  that  he  reads  (and  I  think  rightly)  oE  after 
the  word  APCAKoY.     He  regards  oC  as  a  date  =  year  270 
=  B.C.  43-42.  If  oC  is  not  a  date,  it  may  be  merely  an  engraver's 
blunder — the    whole   inscription    is    carelessly    executed — e.g. 
pE  may  be  the  last  two  letters  of  6YTTAToPoE,  written,  by 
inadvertence,  in  two   different  parts  of  the  coin.     Longperier 
(PI.  VII.  83)  reads  on  a  similar  coin  ©EoV. 

23  The  coins  of  Gardner's   "  Mithradates    III "  here    trans- 
ferred to  Orodes  are  inscribed    BAZIAEflZ  MEfAAOY, 
and    also     BAZIAEJIZ      BAZIAEflN.        All    the    coins 
hitherto  assigned  to   Orodes  have   the  legend  BAZIAEflZ 

,  and  the  reversion  to  the  simpler  BAZIAE.QZ 


To  Mithradates  III,  whom  we  have  thus  deprived  of 
his  coins,  I  attribute  the  only  specimens  not  yet  assigned, 
those  of  Gardner's  "  Phraates  III "  [PL  IX.  9,  10 ;  G. 
PL  III.  4-10]. 

With  regard  to  the  coins  to  be  assigned  to  Orodes  (and 
to  Pacorus)  I  am  quite  in  agreement  with  Mr.  Gardner 
[G.  PL  III.  15-30  ;  IV.  1,  2  ;  cp.  PI,  IX.  11],  though,  if 
the  attribution  above  discussed  be  accepted,  we  shall  have 
to  add  the  coins  of  Gardner's  "  Mithradates  III." 

The  tetradrachms  of  Phraates  IV  (the  successor  of 
Orodes),  and  of  the  later  Parthian  kings,  are  dated,  and 
though  not  a  few  difficulties  remain,  we  are,  for  the  first 
time,  in  comparatively  smooth  water.  I  will  not,  there- 
fore, make  further  demands  on  the  attention  of  those 
readers  who  have  kindly  followed  me  so  far.  For  the 
sake  of  lucidity,  no  less  than  of  brevity,  I  have  omitted 
many  matters  of  detail,  some  of  which  would,  I  imagine, 
support  the  attributions  here  proposed,  though,  on  the 
other  hand,  it  may  well  be  that  I  have  omitted— of 
course,  unintentionally  —  to  notice  various  points  that 
may  be  held  to  make  against  my  views.24 

In  conclusion,  I  may  say  that  the  main  object  of  this 
paper  will  have  been  attained  if  it  stimulates  discussion, 
and  leads  to  the  publication  of  coins  not  hitherto  made 
known.  WARWICK  WROTH. 

MEFAAOY  is,  I  must  admit,  an  objection  to  the  proposed 
transference.  It  may  be  remarked,  however,  that  Orodes  and 
his  sons  (Pacorus  and  Phraates  IV)  indulged  in  many  varieties 
of  legend  on  their  coins. 

^  There  are  many  topics  of  interest  that  require  discussion  ; 
for  instance,  the  relationship  to  the  Parthian  series  of  the  coins 
of  Andragoras  (Howorth  in  Num.  Chron.,  1890,  p.  83),  of 
those  of  the  Kamnaskires  dynasty  (Elymais  ?),  and  of  those  of 
Persis.  Still  more  important  is  a  discussion  as  to  Parthian 



All  the  coins,  unless  otherwise  .described,  are  in  the  British 

Plate  VII. 

1.  Tiridates  and  Arsaces  (his  son).    BAZIAEflZ  APZA- 
KOY.     Wt.  61-3  grs. 

2.  Phriapatius  and  Phraates  I.    BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAoY 
APZAKoY  0.    Wt.  58-4  grs. 

3.  Phraates  I  or  II.     BAZIAEI1Z   MEfAAoY  APZA- 
KoY  GEonAToP.    Wt.  60  grs. 

4.  Mithradates  I.   BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAoY  APZAKoY 
:=  Gardner,  PI.  I.  6. 

5.  Mithradates  I.     Similar  to  No.  4.     Wt.  60  grs. 

6.  Mithradates  I.     Obv.   Head  of  King,  diademed  (Mithra- 
dates I);   fillet  border.      Rev.    BAZIAEHZ    MEfAAoY 
APZAKoY.     Bearded   head   in  Parthian   or   Persian   head- 
dress (Mithradates  I  or  one  of  his  predecessors).     Wt.  9'4  grs. 

7.  Mithradates  I.    BAZIAEflZ  MEfAAoY  APZAKoY 
(and  monogram  ?)  =  G.  PI.  II.  3. 

8.  Mithradates  I  ?      Obv.  Head  with  bow  at  neck ;  border 
of  dots.      Rev.    BAZIAEHZ    MEfAA    APZAK.     Wt. 
57'4  grs.     Purchased  of  Mr.  G.  le  Strange  in  1881. 

9.  Mithradates  I.     =  G.  PI.  II.  4  (obv.  Border  of  dots  ?). 

10.  Mithradates    I.       Obv.     Head    in    fillet    border.      Rev. 

11.  Mithradates  I.     =  G.  PI.  II.  6. 

12.  Mithradates  I.  BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAoY  APZAKoY 
<NAEAAHNoZ  TOP.    Wt.  241-1  grs. 

13.  =  G.  PI.  II.  2. 

Plate  VIII. 

1.  Phraates  II.  BAZIAEHZ  APZAKoY.  =  G.  PI.  1.12. 
Berlin  Museum. 

2.  Phraates  II.    BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAoY  APZAKoY 
GEoHAToPoZ.     Wt.  64  grs. 

3.  Arfcabanus  I  ?     BAZIAEHZ  APZAKoY.     =  Rapson, 
Xiun.  Chron.,  1893,  p.  213,  No.  4. 


4.  Artabanus  I.     BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAoY  APZAKoY 
<!>IAAAEA<l>oY.     =G.PLL9. 

5.  Artabanus  I.     BAZIAEflZ  APZAKoY.     =  Rapson, 
Num.   Chron.,  1893,  p.  213,  No.  2. 

6.  Himerus  or  Mithradates  II  ?      =  Eapson,  op.  cit.,  p.  214, 
No.  5.   BAZIAEnZ  APZAKoY  Eni4>ANOYZ  4>IAEA- 
AHNoZ  ;  in  ex.,  TY  and  mon. 

7.  Himerus  or  Mithradates  II.     B  AZ I A  EHZ  M  EfA  AoY 
APZAKoY  NIKhWoPoY.  =  G.  PI.  II.  16;  in  ex.,0nP. 
Berlin  Museum. 

8.  Himerus  or  Mithradates  II.     =  Rapson,  op.  cit.,  p.  214» 
No.  6. 

9.  Mithradates  II.     =  Num.  Chron.,  1897,  p.  116,  No.  36. 

10.  Mithradates  II.     Wt.  65  grs. 

11.  Mithradates   II.      BAZIAEilZ    BAZIAEHN    ME- 
TAAoY  APZAKoY  EHWANOYZ.    Wt.  64-5  grs. 

Plate  IX. 

1.  Artabanus  II.      BAZIAEHZ    MEPAAOY    APZA- 
<I>IAEAAHNOZ.     Wt.  246  3  grs. 

2.  Artabanus  II.     =  G.  PI.  II.  9. 

3.  Sinatruces.     BAZIAEHZ  MEfAAOY  APZAKOY 
NOYZ   <I>IAEAAHNOZ.     The  British  Museum  does  not 
possess  an   original  tetradrachm.      This  specimen  is  from  a 
plaster  cast  in  another  collection. 

4.  Sinatruces.     Wt.  64  grs.     Cp.  G.  PI.  III.  2. 

Wt.  240-4  grs. 

6.  Phraates  III.   Same  inscription  as  No.  5,  without  0EOY. 
Wt.  60  grs. 

7.  Phraates  III?      BAZIAEHZ   MEfAAOY  APZA- 
KOY GEOnATOPOZ  NIKATOPOZ.    Wt.  59  3  grs. 

63'3  grs. 


9.  Mithradates  III.     =  G.  PL  III.  4.     BAZIAEflZ   ME- 

10.  Mithradates  III.      Similar   inscription  to  No.   9,  with 
<HAOnATOPoZ  for  GEOnATOPoX.    Wt.  61-4  grs. 

11.  Orodes.     Obv.  of  drachm  of  Orodes. 

12.  Phraates    (IV)    under    Orodes.       BAEIAEYoNTOC 
BACIAEflN     APCAKoY(oE?)    eYflAToPo    E    Al- 
KAloY  Eni<l>ANOYC   KAI  4>IAEA  AHNOE  =  Num. 
Chron.,  1900,  p.  92,  No.  4.     Cp.  supra,  p.  198,  note  22. 

13.  Phraates  (IV)   under   Orodes.       BACIAEHC    BACI- 
AEHN     [APjCAKoY     Alo[Y    or    E  ?]    EYEPfEToY 
WPAAToY        EFllKAAoYMENoY       Eni<|)ANoYZ 
[<!>]IAEAAHNoZ  ToZ  =  Num.  Chron.,  1900,  p.  92,  No.  3. 



THE  large  collection  of  Greek  coins  in  the  Bodleian 
Library  is  singularly  strong  in  some  regions,  just  as  it 
is  quite  absurdly  weak  in  others.  From  the  first  it  has 
depended  entirely  on  donors,  and  has  never  possessed  any 
endowment  of  its  own,  so  that  its  increase  comes  entirely 
from  the  chance  gifts  of  the  collector  and  the  traveller, 
not  from  systematic  additions  by  its  curators. 

Among  the  well-represented  districts  is  Ionia,  one  of 
the  earliest  benefactors  of  the  cabinet  having  been 
William  Raye,  Consul  at  Smyrna.  He  made  over  to  the 
library,  in  1704,  600  Greek  coins  obtained  from  the  widow 
of  Daniel  Patridge,  a  Smyrna  merchant,  who  had  himself 
intended  to  give  them  to  the  Bodleian  had  he  survived. 
The  Patridge-Raye  gift  accounts  for  the  fact  that  the 
cabinet  contains  some  dozens  of  Smyrniot  coins  not  found 
in  the  British  Museum  Catalogue.  The  majority  are  varieties 
of  known  types,  but  a  certain  amount  appear  to  be  wholly 
new  to  the  collector.  I  have  therefore  thought  it  worth  while 
to  prepare  a  list  of  them  for  the  Numismatic  Chronicle. 

1.   Qbv.  —  Head  of  Kybele  r.,  turreted. 

JR.     Grs.  256.     Size  1-4. 


The  monogram  on  the  reverse  of  this  very  fine  coin 
differs  wholly  from  those  on  the  two  pieces  of  similar 
type  in  the  B.  M.  Catalogue.  It  must  have  belonged  to 
a  magistrate  whose  name  began  with  EY,  as  those  letters 
are  emphasized. 

2.  Olv. — Head  of  Kybele  r.,  turreted. 

Rev. —  IMYP.     Portable  altar  with  three  legs,  narrow 
waist,  handles,  and  large  cover.     TIMI1N  (1.) 

M.     -5. 

3.  Obv. — Head  of  Kybele  r.,  turreted. 

Rev.—  Portable  altar,  &c.     IMYP.     flJPOl  EN[OZ. 

M.     -5. 

These  magistrates'  names  do  not  appear  among  the 
similar  coins  inS.  M.  Cat.,  Smyrna,  65 — 70. 

4.  Olv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate,  border  of  dots. 

Rev.—  IMYPNAIflN.       Hand  in  cestus,  to  1.  palm- 
branch.     A  PI  O  A  All ;  in  exergue  N  EH. 

M.    -55. 
Also  a  new  magistrate's  name. 

5.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 
Rev.—  IMYP.     Lyre.     EYMAXOZ. 

M.     -45. 

6.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

Rev. —  IMYPNAIUN.    Lyre  charged  with  a  very  large 
star  across  the  chords.     nP-QTOfENHZ. 

JE.     -45. 

This  large  star  suggests  that  the  lyre  may  be  the 
constellation  Lyra. 

RARE    COINS   OF    SMYRNA    IN    THE    BODLEIAN    CABINET.      205 

7.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.r  laureate. 

jfot'.— XMYPNAinN.  Homer  seated  l.,his  right  hand 
raised  to  his  chin,  holding  volumen  on  his  knees  ; 
behind  him  transverse  staff.  API  ATOYPIOZ. 

M.     -9. 

8.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 
Rev.—A.B  last.     APIZTOKAHZ. 

M.     -9. 

9.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 
Rev.— As  last.    APIZTOMENHZ. 

M.     -9. 

10.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

Eev.—  As  last.     0EOTI MOZ. 
TO  B. 

M.     -9. 

11.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 
Re,.— As  last.     [4>]ANOKPATHZ. 

M.     -9. 

12.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

Rev.— As  last.     HPHAHZ 

M.     -9. 

13.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 
Rev.— As  last.     M EN EKPATHZ 

.  .  .  EPIO3    TO  B. 

M.     -9. 

14.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

Kev.—  As  last.     NIKIAZ 

...    flTOZ. 

M.     -9. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  E    E 


15.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

Eev.—  As  last.     4>ANHZ 


JE.     '9. 

16.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

Rev. — Similar  type,  in  front,  star. 

JE.     -9. 

[Without  Emperors'  heads.] 

17.  Obv.— 0EON  CYN   KAHTON.     Bust  of  the  Senate 

draped,  with  formal  curls,  to  r.,  on  each  side  of 
the  neck  Z  and  M. 

Eev.— 4>IAOnATPIZ.  GEAN  PflMHN.  Rome 
in  military  dress  standing  to  left,  holding  spear 
in  r.  and  trophy  in  1. 

M.     '8. 

A  very  pretty  coin,    of  the  finest  work  of   the  early 
empire.     The  type  seems  quite  unknown. 


18.  Obv.— [ZIHYJAHNH.     Bust   of  Cybele   Sipylene   r., 

turreted  :  border  of  dots. 

Rev. — CM  YPN  A     Lion   r.,  holding  tympanum  in   his 
I  UN         front  paws. 

M.     -7. 

A  combination  of  the  obv.  of  B.  M.  160,  with  the  rev. 
of  B.  M.  169. 



19.  obv.— I  EPA   CY  NKAHTOZ    Youthful  bust  of  the 

Senate  r.,  border  of  dots. 

-  JRw.— CMYPNAin  NE  niMENEK;  in  exergue, 
AEOYZ.  Two  Nemeses  face  to  face,  each 
plucking  chiton  at  neck ;  one  holds  bridle,  the 
other  cubit  rule  ;  at  foot  of  latter  a  wheel ;  border 
of  dots. 

^E.     -9. 

A  well-known  type,  but  Menecles  is  a  new  magistrate. 

20.  Obv.— IEPA   CY   NKAHTOZ    Youthful  bust  of  the 

Senate  r.,  border  of  dots. 

Rev.— CMYPNAIHN      EF1ITEPTI;     in    exergue, 

OY  AZI  Tetrastyle  temple,  in  which  Statue  of 
Tyche,  with  modius,  rudder  and  cornucopias  to  1., 
border  of  dots. 

M.     1-0. 

The  type  of  B.  M.  239,  but  with  the  magistrate 
Tertius,  whose  name  is  found  only  on  the  Amazon  Smyrna 
type  in  the  B.  M.  Collection. 


21.  Obv. — Young  bare  head  of  an  emperor,  much  like  that  of 

C.  Caesar,  draped  to  r. 

Jfcv.-CMYPNAI     Crab. 

M.     -6. 

22.  Obv.— <|>AYCTEINA   ZEBACTH     Draped  bust  of 

Faustina  junior  to  r. 

^r.-CTPAKAnP[OKA]OY  CCWCTO  ;  in  ex- 
ergue, CMYP.  Two  Nemeses  face  to  face,  each 
plucking  chiton  at  neck ;  one  carries  bridle,  the 
other  cubit  rule.  [No  wheel.] 

M.     M. 


This  well-known  type  does  not  occur  on  the  coins  of 
Faustina  II,  in  the  B.  M. 

23.  Obv.— KPICneiNA    CEBACTH     Draped   bust  of 

Crispina  to  r. 

Rev.—.  .  .  PO  CTPA  MEAE ;  in  exergue,  CMYP  .  . 
Commodus    riding  to  r.,   with    spear    uplifted ; 
under  feet  of  his  horse  a  captive,   with  hands 
bound,  seated  to  r. 

M.     M. 

No  coins  of  Crispina  are  in  the  B.  M.  The  name  of 
the  strategos,  MEAE,  is  unfortunately  in  a  state  of  hope- 
less mutilation. 

24.  Obv.— IOY    MAME    CEOYHPAC.     Draped  bust  of 

Julia  Mamaea  to  r. 

Rev.— CMYPNAIHN     f    NEnKOPjQN.      Heracles 
holding  cantharus,  club  and  lion  skin,  to  1. 

M.     -9. 

This  is  a  coin  of  Mamsea  hastily  and  unskilfully  altered 
into  one  of  Otacilia  (not,  of  course,  of  Aquilia  Severa) ; 
the  engraver  has  not  even  taken  the  trouble  to  change  the 
IOY  MAME  into  MflTAKIA.  The  piece  is  in  excellent 
condition,  so  that  the  idea  of  a  faulty  restrike  is  excluded. 

25.  Obv.—  HO    AIK    OYAAEPIANOC      Draped    and 

bare-headed  bust  of  Saloninus  to  r. 

Eev.—ZM   (in  field)  YPNAIHN    T    NEHKO   PUN 

(in  field).     Heracles  with    cantharus,  club  and 
lion  skin,  to  1. 

M.     '8. 

The  bare  youthful  head  and  want  of  imperial  titles, 
show  that  this  is  a  piece  of  Saloninus,  and  not  of  his 
grandfather  Valerian.  He  seems  to  have  been  hitherto 
unrepresented  at  Smyrna. 

C.  OMAN. 



IN  November,  1869,  a  large  hoard  of  Roman  coins  was 
discovered  in  the  parish  of  St.  Michael  Carhayes  (or  Caer- 
hays),  a  village  about  ten  miles  east  of  Truro,  on  the  coast 
near  Dodman  Point.  The  discovery,  I  am  told,  was  made 
b}'  two  labourers,  who  were  digging  a  ditch  in  a  wooded 
valley  called  the  Beechtree  Wood,  on  the  property  of  Mr. 
Williams,  of  Carhayes  Castle.  The  valley  was  once  a 
tidal  creek,  and  when  the  labourers  had  dug  through  the 
black  earth  of  vegetable  deposit,  nearly  three  feet  thick, 
they  came  to  sea-sand  and,  in  it,  three  stones  set  to  enclose 
a  small  triangular  space.  In  that  space  was  a  tin  jug 
fastened  with  a  wooden  plug,  and  when  the  finders  had 
battered  off  the  neck,  plug,  and  handle,  they  found  the 
interior  full  of  Roman  coins.  The  total  number  of  coins 
in  the  jug  must  have  been,  so  far  as  I  can  make  out,  not 
less  than  2,500.  The  hoard  was  at  once  divided.  The 
jug  and  some  1,500  coins  passed  into  the  possession  of 
the  late  Mr.  J.  M.  Williams,  and,  with  the  exception  of 
some  coins  given  away,  are  still  preserved  at  Carhayes 
Castle.  A  summary  of  these,  in  total  1499,  with  a  notice 
of  the  discovery,  was  contributed  by  the  late  Rev.  W. 
Willimott,  then  rector  of  the  parish,  to  the  Archaeological 
Institute  in  1870  (Journal,  xxvii.  142,  208).  The  total 


of  coins  seems  to  have  been  since  diminished  by  gifts, 
which  must  have  amounted  in  all  to  not  far  short  of  200 
coins.  Thus  30  coins  were  given  by  Mr.  Williams  to  the 
Royal  Institution  of  Cornwall  and  deposited  in  the  Truro 
Museum  (E.I.C.  Journal,  Yol.  iii.  No.  12,  pp.  xxi.,  xxix.), 
and  Mr.  W.  C.  Borlase,  in  his  Laregan  Catalogue,  men- 
tions 28  as  presented  to  him.  The  remainder,  1,309  in 
number,  were  submitted  to  me  with  the  jug  in  1888  by 
the  kindness  of  Mr.  Williams  and  Mr.  Willimott.  The 
other  part  of  the  hoard,  somewhere  about  1,000  coins,  was 
kept,  I  am  told,  by  one  of  the  finders,  long  since  dead,  and 
ultimately  came  into  the  possession  of  Mr.  Dunn,  of 
Mevagissey.  Of  these  1,000,  100  were  given  by  Mr. 
Dunn  to  the  Wisbeach  Museum ;  about  the  same  number 
were  dispersed  among  private  individuals,  and  the  rest, 
790  in  number,  were  submitted  to  me  in  1890,  through  the 
Rev.  W.  lago,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  much  of  the 
above  information  and  for  other  kindnesses. 

The  hoard  is  a  good  specimen  of  a  numerous  class. 
It  consists  wholly  of  "third  brass"  minted  between  the 
accession  of  Valerian  (A.D.  253)  and  the  death  of  Probus 
(A.D.  282).  Many  hoards  of  almost  identical  contents 
have  been  found  in  England  and  northern  France,  and 
it  is  probable  that  they  were  buried  or  lost  during 
the  troublous  years,  which  followed  the  death  of  Probus 
in  282  and  the  usurpation  of  Carausius  in  287.  More 
hoards  probably  were  buried  than  lost :  the  Carhayes  hoard 
certainly  was  buried  on  purpose,  if  the  circumstances  of 
the  discovery  have  been  correctly  reported  to  me.  The 
discovery  of  such  a  hoard  in  Cornwall  need  cause  no 
surprise.  Roman  remains,  coins  or  other,  of  the  first  or 
second  century,  are  somewhat  infrequent  west  of  Exeter, 
but  during  the  third  century  the  Roman  element  in  the 

ON    ROMAN    COINS    FOUND    AT    CARHAYES,    CORNWALL.       211 

far  west  becomes  more  apparent.  The  tin-streams,  neg- 
lected since  the  days  of  Csesar,  seem  now  to  have  been 
reopened.  It  cannot  be  an  accident  that  nearly  all  the 
kjiown  Romano- British  vessels  or  objects  of  tin  or  pewter 
are  connected  with  the  period  250 — 400.  The  pewter 
slabs  dredged  out  of  the  Thames  near  Battersea  at  various 
times  in  this  century  can  hardly  be  earlier  than  the  Con- 
stan tines,  and  we  may  equally  ascribe  to  the  fourth  century 
the  one  existing  piece  of  direct  evidence  that  Romans  ever 
sought  tin  in  Cornwall — I  mean  the  inscribed  pig  of  tin 
which  I  detected  some  years  ago  in  the  Truro  Museum. 
Not  unnaturally  we  find  the  Roman  coins  of  250 — 400 
are  also  relatively  plentiful  in  Devon  and  Cornwall,  and 
parallels  to  the  Carhayes  hoard  are  not  unknown.  They 
have  been  found  in  Devon,  at  Bovey  Tracey,  Hennock, 
Compton  Gifford,  and  Milter  Down,  and  in  Cornwall,  at 
Mopas  (or  Malpas)  Passage  near  Truro,  Morvah,  Ludgvan 
and  (I  believe)  Land's  End. 

The  tin  jug  in  which  the  coins  were  found  must,  when 
perfect,  have  resembled  a  squat  claret  jug.  At  present, 
with  its  neck  broken  off,  it  stands  eight  inches  high,  and 
is  just  three  times  as  much  round  its  greatest  circum- 
ference. The  metal  has  been  tested  by  expert  analysis, 
and  is  almost  pure  tin. 

The  following  catalogue  is,  in  the  main,  a  list  of  the 
reverses,  with  references,  where  desirable,  to  the  second 
edition  of  Cohen's  Description  historique  des  monnaies 
frappees  sous  I'empire  romain  (vols.  v.  vi.,  1885 — 6),  and 
statistics  of  the  numbers  of  coins  of  each  reverse.  I 
have  catalogued  the  two  parts  of  the  hoard  separately, 
because  it  was  not  inconvenient  to  do  so,  and  it  seemed 
a  good  opportunity  of  illustrating  the  extent  to  which 
a  half  or  a  third  of  a  large  hoard,  taken  at  random, 


may  be  reasonably  considered  as  representative  of  the 
whole.  So  much  of  our  knowledge  of  hoards  is  a  know- 
ledge only  of  such  random  portions  that  the  figures  here 
ascertainable  seemed  worth  printing.  I  think  the  result 
is  reassuring.  W  means  Mr.  Williams's  half,  X  Mr. 

The  hoard  contains  very  few  new  varieties,  and  none, 
so  far  as  I  can  judge,  of  the  least  importance. 


w  x 

FELICITAS  AVGG.     Cohen  53    ...          1  0 

EESTITVTOE  OEBIS.     C.  183    .          .         .         1  (2)        0 


ABYNDANTIA  (exergue  B).     C.  5       .         .11  1 

AEQVITAS  AVG.  (field  VI.  and  6).     C.  24  .  2 

AETEENITAS  AVG.     C.  38         ...  1             4 

APOLLINI  CONS.  AVG.     C.  72,  73,  77        .  5             4 

BON.  EVEN.  AVG.  (ex  MT).     C.  98    .         .  1 

CONCOE.  AVG.     C.  116      .         .         .         .  1 



DIANAE  CONS.  AVG.  (ex.  S,  xi.  or  xii).  C. 

157,  168,  160,  163,  165             ...  16              7 

FELICITAS  PVBL.      C.  192         ...  —             1 

FIDES  MIL.     C.  246            ....  —             3 
FOETVNA  EED.  and  EEDVX.  C.  260,  261, 

265,  269 8              5 

HEECVLI  CONS.  AVG.  (ex.  6).     C.  317      .  —             1 

IOVI  CONS.  AVG.  (ex.  S).     C.  341,  344,  352  5             1 

IOVI  PEOPVGNAT.  (field  XL).     C.  380      .  3 

IOVIS  STATOE  (field  G).     C.  388        ..  1 

IOVI  VLTOEI.  C.  408  ?       .          .         .         .  —             1 


LIBEEAL.  AVG.  (field  S).     C.  563        .         .  2              1 

MAETI  PACIFEEO  (field  H).     C.  617,  621  5             3 
NEPTVNO  CONS.  AVG.  (ex.  S  and  N).     C. 

667,  670  4           — 


W  X 

OEIENS  AVG.     C.  699  ?    .         ...         .  —             1 

PAX  AVG.  (field  T).     C,  727       .         .         .  5             1 


PIETAS.     C.  785 —             1 

PEG VI.  PEOVID.  or  PEOVIDENTIA  AVG.  5             1 
EELIGIO    AVG.    (field   Q).       Obv.—  IMP. 
GALLIENVS  AVG.  apparently  the  same 

as  Cohen's  Valerian  177,  178  .          .    -     .  1 

SALVS  AVG.  (field  0  P)    .         .         .         .  1 

SECVEIT.  PEEPET.  (field  H).     C.  962        .  4              2 

SOLI  CONS.  AVG.  (ex.  N).     0.979    .         .  3 

VBEEITAS(1008)  VBEETAS       .         .         .  1             1 

VICTOEIA  AVG.        .         .         .     .-'..         .  1             1 

VIETVS  AVG.  and  AVGVSTI.   C.  1221, 1321, 

1322     .          .         ......  5             2 

Uncertain    .         ......  10  (108)  5  (47) 


AVG.  IN  PACE  (ex.  MS.).     C.  17       .         *  3 
FECVNDITAS  AVG.  (field  A).    C.    44:  but 
the  obverse  has  COENEL  •  SALONINA  • 

AVG.           .         .         .'.'..  1 

IVNO  AVG.  (ex.  MS.).     C.  55    ...  —             2 

IVNO  CONSEEVAT.  (field  N).     C.  56         .  1 

IVNONI  CONS.  AVG.  (ex.  A).     C.  69         .  1 

IVNO  EEGINA  (field  P).    C.  67        .         .  1 

PIETAS  AVG.  and  AVGG.     C.  77,  79,  84    .  3 

VENVS  VICT.  and  VICTEIX.     C.  126,  129  2 

VESTA  FELIX  (field  S).    C.  147         ..  1  (13)  —  (2) 


COS.  IIII.     C.  31        .         .         .       ". •.  4           — 

COS.  V.     C.  32   .        .         .         .         .         .  1 

FIDES  EQVIT.  (ex.  P).     C.  59  .         .         .'  1 

IMP.  X.  COS.  V.     C.  144  .         .         ,         ,  1 

IOVI  VICTOEI.    C.  161     .         .         .     ,   .  —             2 

OEIENS  AVG.  (field  P).     C.  213          .         '.  3 

P.M.  TE.P.  COS.  II.  P.P.     C.  243        ..  2 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  F  F 


W  X 

PAX  AVG.    0.  215,  227       ....  12             4 

PAX  EQVTTVM  (ex.  T).    0.  228         ..  1 
SAEC.     FELICITAS.       Apparently   a    new 
variant.    Rev. — Felicity  to  1.  with  cadu- 

ceus  and  cornucopiae     ....  —             1 

SALTS  AVG.     0. 336,  339  ....  1             1 

VIETVS  EQVITVM  (ex.  T).    C.  441,  443     ,  2 

Undecipherable 2  (28)  —  (10) 

VICTORIA.     C.  4 2 


AEQVITAS  AVG.  4 5  — 

COMES  AVG.     C.  18 1 

FIDES  MILITVM.     C.  36           ...  6  1 

INVICTVS  (field  #).     C.  49         .         .         .51  27 

Ditto  C.  46 —  1 

PAX  AVG.     C.   79  (with  or  without  star  in 

field) 59  32 

Ditto,  0.  83,  85 —  2 

PIETAS  AVG.     C.  90          .         .         .         .27  14 

PEOVIDENTIA  AVG.     C.  101    .          .         .  35  30 

SALVS  AVG.     C.  112,  118            ...  56  42 

VICTORIA.     C.  126  (or  variant  thereof)         .  1  1 

VIRTVS  AVG.     C.  131         .         .         .         .  33  24 

Undecipherable 18(292)   4(178) 


CONCORDIA  MILITVM.     C.  4  .         .  —  1 

SAEC.  FELICITAS.     C.  13          ...  1 

VICTORIA  AVG.     C.  19,  20        ...  4  1 

VIRTVS  AVG.     C.  22          .         .         .         .  1(6)  —(2) 

1  As  there  has  been  controversy  respecting  the  name  Piavonius, 
borne  by  this  ruler,  I  may  say  that  nothing  in  this  hoard  (nor  on 
any  coin  known  to  me)  supports  the  notion  that  it  was  Pius 




COMES  AVG.     0.  17,  18    .         .         .         .  33  29 

CONCOEDIA  AVG.     0.  22,  23  .         .         .  1 

FIDES  MILITVM.    C.  37,  39,  43         .         ,  17  22 

HILAEITAS  AVGG.    0.  54                 .         .68  29 

INVICTVS.    C.  60 —  1 

LAETITIA  AVGG.  and  AVG.  N.  0.  70,  71,  75  109  98 

MAES  VICTOE.     C.  80     .         .         .         ,  —  1 

PAX  AVGG 95  87 

PEINO.  IVVENT.     C.  131          ...  2  2 

SALVS  AVGG.     C.  153,  154        .         .         .  40  20 

SPES  AVGG.  and  SPES  PVBLICA             .  25  21 

VICTOEIA  AVG.    C.  185  .         .         .         .  22  14 

VIETVS  AVGG.     C.  201,  207     .         .         .45  29 

Undecipherable            .         .         .  31  (481)  10(363) 


COMES  AVGG.     C.  7         ....  2  7 

PAX  AVGG.    C.  34 5  4 

PIETAS  AVGG.  and  AVGVSTOE.   C.  48,  53, 

59,  60 34  27 

PEINC.  IVVENT.    C.  62  .         ,         ,         ,14  3 

SPES  AVGG.     0. 88  (89  ?)          .         .         .  70  46 

SPES  PVBLICA.     C.  97     ....  54  65 

Undecipherable 17(196)13(169) 


AEQVITAS  AVG.     C.  6,  7  (10  ?)        .         .  15  1 

AETEENIT.  AVG.     C.  16           ...  2  — 

ANNONA  AVG.     C.  21,  22         .         .         .  5  — 

CONSECEATIO.     C.  41,  43,  50,  54       .         .  9  3 

FELIC.  TEMPO.     C.  77    ....  1  — 

FELICITAS  AVG.    C.  79,  80      .         .         .  3  5 

FIDES  EXEECI.     C.  86            ...  2  — 

FIDES  MILITVM.     C.  88,  92     .         .         .  4  — 

FOETVNA  AVG.     C.  96    .         .  '       .         .       2 

FOETVNA(E)    BED.    (EEDVX).     C.  104, 

108     ..  _ 



W  X 

GENIVS  AYG.     0.  109,  110       ...  4  3 

GENIVS  EXERCL     C.,114  .         .  1  2 

IOVI  VICTORI.     C.  125,  129,  131        ..  4  1 

LIBERALITAS  AYG.     C.  144    .         .         .  2 
LIBERT,  and  LIBERTAS  AYG.  C,  150,  151, 

152      .......  6 

MARS  YLTOR.     C.  159,  160        ...  1  2 

ORIENS  AYG.    C.  185  (?  186)    ...  1 

P.M.  TR.P.  II.  COS.  P.P.     C.    214    .          .  3 
PROYID.    and   PROYIDEN.    and    PROYI- 

DENTIA  AYG.     C.  226,  227,  230,  234  .  9  5 

SALYS  AYG.     C.  262,  265   ....  2  1 

SECYRIT.  AYG.     C.  268     .         .         .         .  1 

SPES  AYG.     C.  276 1 

SPES  PYBLIOA.     C.  281     .         .         .         .  4 

VICTORIA  AYG.     C.  293,  294,  295       ..  7 

YIRTYS  AYG.     C.  313,  314          ...  2 

Undecipherable 13  (106)  2  (27) 


APOLLINI  (field  H).     C.  5          .         .         .  1 

CONCORDIA  AYG.     C.  8,  17       .         .         .  3 

FIDES  MILITYM  (field  6).     C.  28       .         .  2 

FORTVNA  REDYX  (field  Z).     C.  32  .          .  2 

LAETITIA  AYG.  (ex.  XII).  C.  39  .  .  1 
MARTI  PACI.  (ex.  P).  C.  47  .  .  .2 

PAX  AYGYSTI     C.  52  .         .         .  1 

PROYIDENT.  AYG.  (ex.  S).  C.  59  .  .  2 
SECYRIT.  AYG.  (field  XI).  C.  63  .  .  1 
VICTORIA  AYG.  (field  F).  C.  70  .  1 

YIRTYS  AYG.  (field  B).     C.  73  .         .         .         2  (18)     1  (1) 


ORIENS  AYG.  (ex.  XXI* ;  field  II).    C.  143         1 

Ditto,  C.  154 1 

PACATOR  ORBIS  (ex.  CL).  -  C.  161     .         .  1 

PAX  AYGYSTI  (field  #  T).  C.  169  .  .  1 
PROYIDEN.  DEORYM  (ex.  T  XX).  C.  183  1 

ON    ROMAN    COINS    FOUND    AT    CARHAYES,    CORNWALL.       217 

W  X 

EOMAE  AETEBNAE  (ex.  Q).     0.220          .  —             1 

SOLI  INVICTO  (ex.  II).     0.  230          .  1  (fi)     —  (2) 


FIDES  MILITVM  (ex.  BA).    C.  47      .         .         1 

LAETITIA  FVND.  (ex.  XXI  B).     C.  52      .  1 

PAX  AETEBNA  (field  B#).     C.  65      .         .  1 

PEOVID.  DEOE.    C.  86      .         .         .         .  1 

SALVS  PYBLIOA  (field  0).     0.  130     .         .  1 

TEMPOEYM  FELICITAS  (field  AA).  C.  144  1  (6)     —  (0) 


AEQVITAS  AVG.  (ex.  XXII).     C.  1    .         .  1 

PBOVIDENTIA  AVG.  (ex.  XXI  A.)     C.  77.  1  (2)    —  (0) 


ABVNDANTIA  AVGK     C.  1      -.„"•'...         .  1 

ADVENTVS  AVG.  (ex.  B#A).     C.  37  .         .  1 

COMES  AVG.     C.  105          ....  2 

CONSEEVAT.  AVQ.  (ex.  T  XXX).     C.  188 .  1 

FIDES  MILIT.  and  MILITVM.     C.  248,  252  3 

LAETITIA  AVG.  (ex.  IIII).     C.  329    .         .  2           — 

MAES  VIOTOE  (ex.  II  and  III).     C.  334       .  4           — 

MAETI  PACIF.  (ex.  AXXI).     C.  350  .         .  1           — 

P AX  AVG.  (field  D).     0.401  2           — 

Ditto  (field  L) _             1 

PIETAS  AVG.  (field  C).    C.  435   .         .         .  1           — 

PEOVIDENTIA  AVG.  (ex.  III).    0.  496      .  1           — 

SALVS  AVG.  (field  B).    C.  571     .         .         .  1           — 

SEGVEITAS  OEBIS  (ex.  I).     0.  624    .         .  1           — 

SOLI  INVICTO.    0.  647      ....  1           — 

TEMPOEVM  FELICITAS.     0.  728      .         .  1           — 

VIETVS  AVG.  (ex.  IIII).    C.  816         .         .  1  (24)  —  (1) 

Undecipherable     .         .         .         .     : . ,.  '      .  20             2 

1,309         790 


(See  Plates  X.  and  XI.) 

IT  has  not  infrequently  occurred  to  me  that  there  are 
two  separate  issues  of  English  coins,  which  have  not 
received  from  numismatic  writers  the  full  amount  of 
attention,  to  which  for  more  than  one  reason  they  are 
fully  entitled. 

The  issues  to  which  I  refer,  are  those  of  the  gold 
penny  by  Henry  III,  and  of  the  florin  and  its  parts  by 
Edward  III.  "With  regard  to  each  of  them  I  propose  to 
say  a  few  words,  and  in  doing  so,  to  treat  both  of  the 
actual  coins  and  of  their  history.  Though  there  is  little 
new  to  add,  it  will  be  well  to  gather  together  what  has 
already  been  said  on  the  subject. 

First,  as  to  the  gold  penny  of  Henry  III.  In  the  year 
1736,  Martin  Folkes  published  "A  Table  of  English 
Gold  Coins  from  the  eighteenth  year  of  King  Edward  the 
Third,  when  gold  was  first  coined  in  England,  to  the 
present  time,"  thus  clearly  showing  that  he  was  unaware 
of  any  gold  coins  having  been  struck  under  Henry  the 
Third.  In  1745  and  again  in  1761  the  work  was  re- 
printed with  the  same  title,  but  to  the  edition  of  1763,  in 
which  the  Tables  of  English  Silver  and  Gold  Coins  were 
reproduced  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  a  Supplement 


is  appended,  and  there,  as  Plate  VI.,  No.  18,  in  an  unob- 
trusive position  between  nobles  of  Henry  IY  and  VI,  the 
gold  penny  of  Henry  III  is  for  the  first  time  figured. 

In  all  three  editions  of  Ruding's  Annals  of  the 
Coinage,  this  same  Supplemental  Plate  appears.  In  Snel- 
ling's  View  of  the  Gold  Coin  and  Coinage  of  England, 
printed  in  1763,  an  engraving  of  the  gold  penny  is  pre- 
fixed to  the  Introduction,  and  it  is  stated  that  it  was 
"  but  within  a  twelvemonth  that  Mr.  Hodsol  has  had  the 
good  fortune  to  have  his  fine  cabinet  adorned  with  this 
truly  curious  and  valuable  piece." 

Pinkerton,  in  his  Essay  on  Medals,  1808,  engraves  the 
same  coin  on  PL  II.,  No.  1,  and  adds  (vol.  ii.,  p.  433)  that 
only  three  such  gold  pennies  were  at  that  time  known, 
one  of  which  was  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Hodsol  and 
another  in  that  of  Mr.  Solly. 

A  second  and  different  specimen  of  the  gold  penny  is 
figured  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle,  vol.  iii.  (1841), 
p.  191,  in  illustration  of  a  paper  on  a  new  method  of 
obtaining  representations  of  coins;  but  the  author,  J.  W.  B. 
(J.  W.  Burgon),  merely  describes  the  coin  and  says  that 
only  three  specimens  of  it  are  known  to  be  in  existence. 
Two  of  these  in  the  British  Museum  form  the  subject  of  a 
short  article  by  Mr.  S.  F.  Corkran,  in  the  Numismatic 
Chronicle,  N.S.  vol.  viii.  (1868),  p.  234 ;  but  no  illustra- 
tions are  given,  and  there  is  but  little  added  to  the  infor- 
mation that  had  already  been  published  by  Snelling. 

A  poor  engraving  of  a  gold  penny  of  Henry  III  appears 
in  Noel  Humphreys'  Coinage  of  the  British  Empire,  pub- 
lished in  1854,  as  PI.  XXI.  No.  1.  It  there  seems  to  have 
been  inserted  as  an  after-thought,  among  foreign  siege- 
pieces  and  pieces  of  necessity. 

In  1870,  Mr.  H.  W.  Henfrey,  in  his  Guide  to  the  Study 


and  Arrangement  of  English  Coins,  has  a  woodcut  of  the 
first  mentioned  coin,  and  says  that  the  workmanship  is 
much  superior  to  that  of  the  silver  coins  of  the  same 

In  1884,  Mr.  Kenyon's  excellent  work  on  the  Gold 
Coins  of  England  made  its  appearance,  but  though  an 
account  of  three  varieties  of  the  gold  penny  is  given,  the 
coin  by  some  unfortunate  accident  is  not  represented  in 
the  Plates.  A  woodcut  of  one,  however,  appears  upon  the 
title-page,  and  a  much  enlarged  figure  of  the  same  coin  is 
stamped  upon  the  back  of  the  original  binding  of  the 

An  example  of  the  variety  of  the  gold  penny  of 
Henry  III,  reading  LVNDGC  on  the  reverse,  is  given  in  the 
autotype  Plate  (VII.  238)  of  Grueber's  Handbook  of  the 
Coins  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  in  the  British  Museum, 
issued  in  1899. 

Such  are  the  principal  notices  that  have  been  published 
of  the  coins  now  under  consideration ;  but  before  proceed- 
ing to  cite  the  various  contemporary  records  of  their 
issue  and  the  allusions  to  them  in  ancient  chronicles,  it 
will  be  well  to  describe  in  some  detail  the  four  varieties 
of  the  gold  penny  of  Henry  III  that  are  at  present 

1.  Obv.—\i  ffNRICC'  RSX-  I-ri-  Bearded  king,  crowned 
and  in  his  robes,  seated  facing  on  a  throne, 
holding  in  his  right  hand  a  sceptre  ending  in  a 
fleur-de-lis-like  ornament,  and  in  his  left  hand 
an  orb  surmounted  by  a  cross.  The  throne  has 
a  plain  vertical  arm  on  either  side,  and  a  shorter 
plain  leg.  The  edges  of  the  seat  are  beaded, 
a  line  of  annulets  runs  along  the  back  of  the 
throne,  and  the  floor  below  is  diapered  ;  the  feet 
of  the  king  extend  to  the  edge  of  the  coin.  There 
is  a  beaded  circle  around  the  whole. 


Rev.—WM*  L6CM  ONI>  VND  :  within  two  beaded  circles, 
and  between  the  limbs  of  a  voided  cross  extend- 
ing nearly  to  the  outer  circle,  and  having  a  pellet 
in  the  centre ;  in  each  angle  of  the  cross  an  ex- 
panded rose  between  three  small  pellets. 

N.  British  Museum.    451  grs.    [PI.  XI.  No.  1.] 

This  coin  is  at  present  unique.  Its  pedigree  is  as 
follows:  —  It  belonged  to  Samuel  of  Lincoln;  was  acquired 
by  Mr.  Hodsol  in  1762  ;  subsequently  entered  the  Tyssen 
collection  ;  was  bought  by  Mr.  Roberts  at  the  Tyssen 
sale  in  1802,  and  was  acquired  with  the  Roberts  collection 
by  the  Museum  in  1810. 

2.  Obv.—Yi  ffREia'  EGCX:  III':  King  seated,  as  on  No.  1. 

The  vertical  arms  of  the  throne  are  beaded  in- 
stead of  being  plain,  as  are  also  the  legs.  In 
other  respects  the  type  is  almost  identical. 

Rfv.—Wll*  LetM  ONI/TE)  VND  :  As  No.  1  but  not  from 
the  same  die. 

N.     J.  E.     44£grs.     [PI.  XL  No.  2.] 

This  coin  is  also  at  present  unique.  It  has  suffered  by 
being  perforated,  though  the  hole  has  been  skilfully 
plugged.  It  was  formerly  in  the  Cuff  collection  (dis- 
persed in  1854),  thence  passed  into  that  of  Mr.  Wigan, 
and  is  now  in  my  own  cabinet. 

3.  Obv.—li  HNEICT  E€CX-I-IT     Bearded  king  seated  as 

on  Nos.  1  and  2.  The  arms  and  legs  of  the 
throne  more  distinctly  formed  of  pellets. 

Rev.—  WILL  ffM  :  0  NLV  ND6C  :     As  No.  1. 

N.     British   Museum.     45i  grs.     [PI.  XL 
No.  3.] 

Col.  Leslie  Ellis,  45i  grs.  ;  J.  E.  45f  grs. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  G  G 


All  three  coins  are  apparently  from  the  same  dies.  The 
Museum  specimen  originally  belonged  to  Mr.  Solly,  then 
passed  into  the  possession  of  Mr.  Tyssen,  from  whose 
executors  it  was  purchased  in  1802.  Col.  Leslie  Ellis's 
coin  is  in  fine  condition,  and  was  found  in  recent  times  in 
Italy,  probably  on  its  Eastern  side.  Mine,  purchased  in 
Rome,  is  unfortunately  rather  worn. 

4.  Obv.—ti  etNKKT  EGCX  :  I-I-I'  :  Bearded  king,  seated  as 
on  No.  1  ;  the  end  of  the  sceptre  more  dis- 
tinctly in  the  form  of  a  fleur-de-lis,  the  arms  and 
legs  of  the  throne  formed  of  pellets. 

7ta,._WILL  ffM  :  0  NLYR.  DffN  -I-     As  No.  1. 

JT.     J.   G.   Murdoch,  Esq.     45J  grs.     [PI. 
XI.  No.  4.] 

There  is  but  one  specimen  known  of  this  coin.  This 
was  bought  privately  by  Mr.  Martin  from  Mr.  Trattle ;  at 
his  sale  it  was  bought  by  Capt.  Murchison,  from  whose 
collection  it  passed  into  that  of  the  Rev.  E.  J.  Shepherd, 
at  the  sale  of  whose  coins  it  was  bought  by  the  late 
Mr.  Montagu.  From  his  collection  it  was  acquired  by 
Mr.  John  Gf.  Murdoch,  who  has  kindly  allowed  me  to 
figure  it. 

It  is  impossible  to  determine  the  order  in  which  these 
four  varieties  were  struck;  but  not  improbably  that 
in  which  I  have  placed  them  is  correct.  They  were  all 
issued  by  the  same  money er,  Willem,  who  also  coined  long- 
cross  silver  pennies,  reading  on  the  obverse  tyeCNJICCVS 
E€CX  :  III,  and  on  the  reverse  WIL  L6CM  (NL  VN3.  The 
king's  head  on  these  pennies  is  bearded  and  the  hair  on 
either  side  of  the  forehead  is  represented  by  two  crescents, 
each  enclosing  a  pellet.  A  sceptre  ending  in  a  fleur-de-lis 
is  in  his  right  hand. 


It  is  to  be  observed  that  the  Lombardic  R  is  used  on 
the  obverse  of  No.  2,  instead  of  the  Roman  N.  The 
Lombardic  R  also  appears  on  the  reverse  of  No.  4,  and  it 
is  a  curious  fact  that  the  Lombardic  U  is  employed  instead 
of  Y  on  some  of  the  long-cross  silver  pennies  of  Henry  III. 
Both  n  and  II  are  employed  on  the  Great  Seal  of  Henry 
III  of  1259.  The  H  in  ^HNEICC  on  No.  3  is  also  noteworthy, 
as  is  the  L  with  a  branched  end  on  Nos.  1  and  2. 

With  regard  to  the  types  :  that  of  the  king  seated  (the 
sovereign  type)  had  already  been  in  use  for  his  pennies 
by  Edward  the  Confessor ;  but  in  that  case  the  king  was 
looking  to  the  right  instead  of  being  full-faced.  The 
full-faced  sovereign  seated  was  destined  to  reappear  on 
the  florin  of  Edward  III  and  on  the  first  English  "  sove- 
reign "  struck  in  1489  under  Henry  VII.  The  reverse  type 
is  merely  a  modification  of  that  of  the  long-cross 
pennies  first  struck  under  Henry  III,  the  three  large 
pellets  in  the  angles  of  the  cross  being  replaced  by  an 
expanded  rose  between  three  small  pellets.  The  voided 
cross  was  no  doubt  intended  to  assist  as  a  guide  in  cut- 
ting the  coins  into  halves  and  quarters,  a  practice  which 
would  be  even  more  necessary  with  the  gold  than  it  was 
with  the  silver  pennies. 

It  has  usually  been  thought  that  the  first  actual  portrait 
of  an  English  king  that  appeared  upon  his  coins  was  that 
of  Henry  VII.  I  am,  however,  inclined  to  claim  the 
carefully  executed  head  upon  these  coins  as  intended  to 
be  a  real  portrait.  Anyone  comparing  the  face  on  the 
coin  with  that  of  Henry  III  on  his  monument  in  West- 
minster Abbey,  as  given  by  Stothard,1  in  his  Monumental 
Effigies  of  Great  Britain,  will  at  once  see  the  similarity 
in,  the  broad  forehead,  the  long  side-locks,  the  beard,  and 

1  Ed.  1817,  PL  I.,  opposite  p.  30. 


the  general  expression.  The  beard  is  longer  and  there 
are  moustaches  on  the  monument,  but  allowance  must  be 
made  for  the  interval  of  fifteen  or  sixteen  years  between 
the  two  portraits.  Mr.  Andrew  will,  I  believe,  carry 
back  portraiture  on  English  coins  at  all  events  to  the 
time  of  Henry  I. 

The  weight  of  the  gold  penny  was,  as  we  shall  presently 
see,  fixed  at  twice  that  of  the  silver  penny. 

All  four  varieties  are  of  extreme  rarity. 

In  treating  of  the  historical  allusions  to  the  history  of 
these  coins,  I  can  hardly  do  better  than  commence  with  an 
extract  from  Leake's  Historical  Account  of  English  Money? 
published  in  1745 :  "  We  are  told  from  the  Manuscript 
Chronicle 3  of  the  City  of  London,  that  this  King 
(Henry  III),  in  1258,  coin'd  a  Penny  of  pure  Gold,  of 
the  Weight  of  two  Sterlings,  and  commanded  it  should 
go  for  twenty  Shillings ;  but  this  is  such  a  singular 
Assertion,  and  so  contrary  to  Experience,  that  it  requires 
to  be  corroborated  by  other  Proofs,  before  it  can  be 
admitted  to  any  Degree  of  Probability." 

The  required  tangible  proofs  were  not  long  afterwards 
forthcoming,  and  the  Manuscript  Chronicle  has  now  been 
printed  by  the  Camden  Society  under  the  careful  editor- 
ship of  Mr.  Thomas  Stapleton.4  The  passage  in  question 
appears  under  the  year  1257,  towards  the  end  of  the 
41st  year  of  Henry  III,  and  is  quoted  in  the  description 
of  the  supplemental  plates  to  Folkes's  English  Coins.  The 
Latin  text  is  given  below.5 

2  P.  72. 

3  Tindal's  Rapin,  1732,  Notes,   fol.  347  ;  Maitland's  History 
of  London,  1739,  p.  53. 

4  De  antiquix  legibus  liber.       "  Cronica  Maiorum   et  Vice- 
comitum  Londoniarum,"  &c. 

5  "  Hoc  anno  creavit  Hex  monetam  auream   denar',  (quaere 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  225 

The  chronicle,  however,  goes  on  to  record  that  in  the  same 
year  (1257),  on  the  Sunday6  after  the  Feast  of  All  Saints, 
the  King  having  summoned  the  mayor  and  citizens  of 
London  to  the  Exchequer,  demanded  their  opinion,  and 
adjured  them  by  the  fealty  they  owed  him  that  they 
should  certify  him  according  to  their  consciences,  whether 
the  aforesaid  coin  would  be  useful  for  the  common  con- 
venience of  his  kingdom  or  not :  who,  after  counsel  and 
conversation  among  themselves,  came  before  the  King 
and  said,  "  That  through  that  coin  great  damage  might 
arise  to  his  kingdom,  and  especially  to  the  poor  therein, 
the  chattels  of  most  of  whom  were  not  worth  a  gold 
penny."  And  they  farther  said  that  through  this  coin 
gold  would  become  much  cheaper,  since  this  money  would 

denarium  or  denariorum)  ponderis  duorum  sterlingorum,  de 
auro  purissimo,  et  voluit  ut  ille  aureus  curreret  in  pretio  viginti 
sterlingorum." — Op.  cit.,  p.  29. 

6  "  Hoc  anno  die  Dominica  proximo  (sic)  post  festum  Omnium 
Sanctorum,  venientibus  Maiore  et  Civibus  Londoniarum  coram 
Domino  Rege  per  preceptum  suum,  ad  Scaccarium,  posuit  illos 
ad  rationem,  conjurans  eos  in  fide,  qua  tenenturei,  ut  certificas- 
&ent  ipsum  secundum  conscientiam  eorum,  si  predicta  moneta 
foret  utilis  ad  commune  commodum  regni  sui,  an  non.  Qui, 
habito  consilio  et  colloquio  inter  se,  venerunt  coram  Rege 
dicentes,  *  Quod  per  illam  monetam  posset  magnum  dampnum 
pervenire  regno  suo  et  maxime  pauperibus  regni  sui,  quorum 
plurimorum  catalla  non  valent  unum  aureum.  Et  insuper 
dixerunt  quod  aurum  per  hanc  monetam  multum  vilius  habe- 
retur,  cum  in  tot  manus  ilia  moneta  dispersa  fuisset ;  quod 
nunc  patet,  quia  aurum  de  folio,  quod  semper  solebat  valere 
decem  marcas,  nunc  non  valet  nisi  novem  marcas  vel  octo.' 
Unde,  multis  rationibus  ostensis  quod  ilia  moneta  non  fuit 
utilis,  dixit  Dominus  Rex  '  Volo  quod  ista  moneta  currat, 
denarius  pro  viginti  steiiingis,  ita  quod  nullus  cogatur  ad  ilium 
capiendum,  et  qui  ilium  ceperit,  possit  ilium  excaml>iare,  ubi 
voluerit,  sine  occasione,  et,  si  voluerit,  veniat  ad  excambium 
nostrum  et  habebit  pro  quolibet  aureo  decem  et  novem  denarios 
et  oboluin.'  "—Op.  cit.,  pp.  29,  30. 


be  dispersed  into  so  many  hands ;  which,  indeed,  was  now- 
obvious,  because  gold-leaf,  which  always  used  to  be  worth 
ten  marks,  was  now  not  worth  more  than  nine,  or  even 
eight.  Whence,  after  many  reasons  had  been  shown  why 
that  coin  was  not  useful,  our  lord  the  King  said,  "  I  will 
that  that  money  shall  be  current,  the  penny  for  twenty 
sterlings,  but  so  that  no  one  shall  be  compelled  to  take  it, 
and  whoever  has  taken  it  shall  be  able  to  exchange  it 
where  he  will,  without  loss,  and  if  he  likes,  let  him  come 
to  our  exchange,  and  he  shall  have  for  each  gold  coin 
nineteen  pence  half-penny/' 

The  corroboration  of  the  chronicler  by  the  discovery  of 
the  coins  themselves  induced  antiquaries  to  make  farther 
researches,  and  Mr.  Holmes  found  among  the  records  in 
the  Tower,  in  the  Close  Rolls  of  the  41st  year  of  Henry  III, 
a  precept  direct'ed  to  the  mayor  and  sheriffs  of  the  city 
of  London  to  the  following  effect  :7  "  As  to  gold  money  it 
is  commanded  to  the  mayor  and  sheriffs  of  London  that 
they  shall  proclaim  within  the  aforesaid  city  that  the  gold 
money  of  the  King,  which  the  King  had  had  made, 
should  for  the  future  be  current  in  the  city  aforesaid,  as 
elsewhere  in  the  realm  of  England,  both  for  buying  and 
selling,  viz.,  each  penny  for  twenty  sterling  pennies,  and 
that  the  silver  money  of  the  King  should  in  like  manner 

7  Rot.  Glaus.,  Ao.,  41,  Rs.  Hen.  Ill,  M.  3.  "  De  moneta  aurea 
mandatum  est  Majori  et  Vicecomitibus  London',  quod  clamari 
faciant  in  civitate  predicta,  quod  moneta  Regis  aurea,  quam  Rex 
fieri  fecit,  de  cetero  currat  in  civitate  predicta,  quam  alibi  per 
regnum  Anglie  tarn  ad  empciones  quam  ad  vendiciones  faci- 
endas,  viz.  quilibet  denarius  pro  XX  denariis  Sterlingorum 
et  quod  moneta  Regis  argentea  currat  similiter  sicut  currere 
consuevit.  Teste  Rege  apud  Cestriam  XVIto  die  Augusti. 
Per  Consilium  Regis."  —  Folkes,  p.  208 ;  Snelling,  Gold 
Coins,  ii. 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  227 

be  current  as  accustomed — dated  at  Chester  on  the  16th 
day  of  August.  By  the  King's  Council/' 

It  will  be  observed  that  this  precept  is  dated  the  16th 
August,  1257,  and  that  the  meeting  of  the  King  with  the 
mayor  and  citizens  did  not  take  place  until  the  Sunday 
after  the  Feast  of  All  Saints,  or  the  4th  of  November  in 
that  same  year.  It  is  probable,  therefore,  that  some 
general  feeling  of  discontent  with  the  new  coins  led  to 
the  summoning  of  the  city  magnates  to  discuss  the  ques- 
tion of  their  utility  with  the  King. 

John  Capgrave,  in  his  Chronicle  of  England,  from 
some  unknown  cause  antedates  the  issue  of  the  gold 
penny  of  Henry  III  by  eleven  years.  He  says,8  "  In  the 
XXX  zere  of  his  regne  he  let  make  a  new  money  of  gold, 
whech  we  clepe  now  a  ferthing  of  gold  :  than  they  cleped 
it  a  peny  of  gold  ;  for  this  was  the  cry  thorw  the  land, 
that  no  man  refuse  a  peny  of  gold,  but  take  it  in  stede  of 
XXd."  Of  course,  inasmuch  as  in  Capgrave's  time,  circa 
1430,  the  noble  was  current  for  six  shillings  and  eight 
pence,  the  "ferthing"  would  be  twenty  pence,  the 
nominal  original  value  of  the  gold  penny. 

In  his  book  of  the  Illustrious  Henries,  Capgrave  is 
nearer  the  mark.  Between  A.D.  1253  and  1257  he  says,9 
about  this  time  a  new  gold  coin  was  struck  by  the  King's 
command,  and  proclamation  was  made  throughout  the 
cities  of  England  that  no  one  should  dare  to  refuse  a  gold 
penny  in  exchange  for  twenty  pence. 

From  the  small  number  of  coins  that  have  survived, 
and  from  the  evident  difficulty  that  there  was  in  getting 

8  The  Chronicle  of  England,  by  John   Capgrave,  ed.   1858, 
p.  155. 

9  Hingeston's  translation,  Rolls  Series,  1858,  p.  94. 



them  universally  accepted  as  money,  as  well  as  from  the 
fact  that  no  other  moneyer's  name  than  that  of  Willem 
appears  upon  any  of  them,  it  seems  extremely  probable 
that  their  coinage  and  issue  were  of  very  short  duration. 

At  the  same  time  it  does  not  appear  that  they  were 
withdrawn  from  circulation.  Snelling10  was  able  to  collect 
and  publish  several  interesting  records  relating  to  the 
new  gold  coins  at  dates  subsequent  to  their  first  issue  in 
1257.  The  first  of  these,  dated  November,  1259,  mentions 
seventy-two  gold  pennies  of  the  new  coinage  which  are  to 
be  placed  in  the  Treasury. 

The  second  document  is  a  "  Liberate  "  addressed  to 
the  Barons  of  the  Exchequer,  authorising  them  to  pay  to 
William  Fitz  Richard,  the  keeper  of  the  Exchange  in 
London,  the  sum  of  forty  shillings  for  twenty  pennies  of 
the  new  Gold  Money  which  he  had  bought  by  the  King's 
order.  This  is  dated  October  25th,  1265.  The  third, 
dated  in  1267,  directs  the  repayment  of  sixty  shillings 
paid  for  thirty  gold  pennies  of  the  new  coin.  The  fourth 
is  as  late  as  1270,  and  mentions  two  shillings  paid  for 
one  gold  penny. 

From  these  notices  the  inference  has  been  drawn  that, 
within  seven  or  eight  years  of  their  issue,  the  current 
value  of  the  coin  was  raised  from  twenty  pence  to  twenty- 
four.  Indeed,  Kenyon  ll  says  that  this  was  effected  by 
proclamation  in  1265.  I  am  not,  however,  aware  of  the 
existence  of  any  such  proclamation,  and  it  is  worthy  of 
notice  that  the  gold  pennies  bought  for  the  King,  and 
referred  to  in  these  documents,  were  paid  into  the  Ward- 
robe, and  used  by  the  King  as  offerings  on  St.  Edward's 
day  and  other  feast  days.  It  seems,  therefore,  not  im- 

10  Introduction,  pp.  ii.  and  iii.  u  P.  15. 


probable — as  was  the  case  with  James  I  and  his  Bezant12 — 
that  he  took  a  pride  in  offering  in  the  church  gold  coins 
of  his  own  striking,  and  was,  therefore,  willing  to  buy 
them  up  at  somewhat  above  the  current  value.  Possibly 
the  ecclesiastics  who  received  them  had  them  melted 

Edward  III,  of  whose  florins  I  shall  shortly  have  to 
speak,  inherited  the  same  desire  for  gold  coins  with 
which  to  make  his  offerings  in  church.  In  the  Issue  Roll 
of  Michaelmas  in  the  first  year  of  Edward  III  (1327)  is 
the  following  passage13 :  "  To  Robert  de  Wodehous,  Keeper 
of  the  Wardrobe  aforesaid,  for  the  price  of  eight  score 
and  fourteen  florins  of  Florence,  the  price  of  each  florin 
as  purchased  39  Jd.,  delivered  to  the  same  keeper  by  the 
hands  of  John  de  Houton  his  clerk,  for  one  pound  and 
one  mark  of  gold,  for  the  offerings  of  our  lord  the  King 
to  be  made  on  the  day  of  his  Coronation,  and  a  pound 
contains  104  florins  and  a  mark  70 ;  by  the  King's  com- 
mand under  his  privy  seal  which  he  used  before  he 
undertook  the  rule  of  his  Kingdom,  which  is  here  among 
the  briefs  and  mandates  of  this  first  year — £28  12s.  9d." 

To  return  to  the  gold  penny,  Pegge,  in  a  letter  to  the 

12  Num.  Chron.,  3rd  ser.,  vol.  xvi.,  p.  254. 

13  **  Roberto   de  Wodehous  Custodi  Garderobe  supradicte,  in 
precio  viij  xx  xiiij   Florenorum  de  Florencia,  precio    cujuslibet 
floreni  prout  emebantur  xxxix  d.  ob.  liberatorum  eidem  custodi 
per  manus  Joharmis  de  Houton  clerici  sui  pro  una  libra  et  una 
marca  auri,  pro  oblationibus  domini  Regis  die  Coronacionis  sue 
faciendis,  et  con.  .tet  libra  ciiij  florenos  et  marca  Ixx  :  per  man- 
datum  Regis  de  privato  sigillo   suo  quo  utebatur  ante  regni 
sui    regiminis    suscepcionem,  quod    est   hie    inter    brevia    et 
mandata  de  hoc  anno  primo — xxviij  li.  xij.s.  ix.d."     For  this 
extended  transcript  I  am  indebted  to  Sir  H.  Maxwell  Lyte.     A 
somewhat  erroneous   translation  of  the  passage  is  given  in  the 
Issues  of  the  Exchequer,  by  Frederick  Devon  (1837,  p.  139)  and 
repeated  in  Notes  and  Queries,  1st  S.  Vol.  I  (1849),  p.  119. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SEKIES.  H  H 


Gentleman9 s  Magazine  for  1756,14  calls  attention  to  a  bond 
or  instrument  between  two  Jews,  dated  in  Henry's  46th 
year,  1261-62,  in  which  mention  is  made  of  a  Jaku  of  gold 
which  he  supposes  to  be  the  penny.  He  states  that  among  the 
Jews  Jaku  meant  "refined/'  and  that  they  used  the  words 
denarius  and  Jaku  like  penny  and  sterling.  It  seems  likely 
that  Pegge's  views  are  founded  on  the  word  p1p*>  which 
he  would  probably  transliterate  Jakuk,  having  occurred  in 
an  abbreviated  form.  The  word  in  the  full  form  is  derived 
from  PPJ,  and  seems  to  mean  "  refined,"  but  it  is  con- 
stantly used  in  Jewish  "  Shetaroth  "  15  of  the  thirteenth 
century  in  the  abbreviated  form  ipt  to  designate  a  mark 
of  thirteen  shillings  and  four  pence. 

After  1270  we  hear  no  more  of  the  gold  penny,  and 
though  Edward  I  rehabilitated  the  silver  coinage,  he 
made  no  attempt  to  reintroduce  a  gold  currency,  neither 
did  Edward  II.  It  was  left  for  Edward  III  to  undertake 
the  task,  and  it  was  not  until  the  seventeenth  year  of 
his  reign,  in  1343,  after  an  interval  of  upwards  of  eighty 
years  since  the  gold  coinage  of  Henry  III,  that  he  did  so. 
The  delay  seems  to  have  been  due  to  the  manner  in  which 
that  coinage  was  received  in  London.  Already  some 
years  before  its  issue  in  1257,  gold  coins  had  been 
struck  in  several  foreign  countries.  The  Augustalis  of 
Frederick  II  is  mentioned  in  a  document  of  1232,16  and 
the  issue  of  florins  at  Florence  dates  from  the  year  1252.17 
In  France,  Louis  IX  had  also  introduced  a  gold  coinage 
at  about  the  same  time.  Edward  III  himself  seems  to 
have  had  a  Florin,  with  the  fleur-de-lis,  struck  for  Aqui- 

14  P.  465. 

15  Hebrew  Deeds  of  English  Jews  before  1290.    1888,  pp.  131, 
190,  272,  &c. 

0  Engel  and  Serrure,  Num.  du  Moyen  Age,  vol.  ii.,  p.  814. 
17  Keary,  Num.  Chron.,  3rd  ser.,  vol.  vi.  (1886),  p.  87. 



taine  before  1337,  and  the  Ecu  or  Chaise  probably  from 
1337  to  1344.  I  take  the  dates  from  a  letter  of  Mr. 
Lionel  M.  Hewlett. 

Gold  coins,  therefore,  formed  an  important  element  in 
the  foreign  transactions  of  the  English  merchants,  and  in  a 
Parliamentary  enquiry  held  in  1343  upon  the  condition  of 
the  currency  they  had  to  be  taken  into  full  consideration. 

The  history  is  related  at  some  length  by  Ruding,18  so 
that  it  would  be  superfluous  to  reproduce  it  here.  The 
deliberations  resulted  in  a  recommendation  that,  if  the 
Flemings  were  willing,  one  kind  of  gold  money  should  be 
made  in  England  and  in  Flanders,  which  should  be  cur- 
rent in  both  those  countries,  and  that  the  use  of » all  other 
money  of  gold  should  be  prohibited  and  the  coins  should 
be  treated  as  bullion. 

It  does  not  appear  that  any  special  arrangement  was 
made  with  the  Flemings,  but  strangely  enough  Grafton 
in  his  Chronicle,  under  the  date  of  November,  1337,  states 
that  Edward  was  made  vicar-general  and  lieutenant  to  the 
Emperor,  with  power  to  coin  money  of  gold  and  silver. 
He  adds  that  he  kept  his  winter  at  the  castle  of  Louvain 
and  caused  great  sums  of  money,  both  of  gold  and  silver, 
to  be  coined  at  Antwerp.  Froissart  makes  the  same  state- 
ment, but  at  present  the  coinage  has  not  been  identified. 

The  discrepancy  among  different  chroniclers  with 
regard  to  the  date  of  the  first  issue  of  gold  coins  by 
Edward  III  in  England  is  most  remarkable.  Euding19 
has  already  written,  "  It  is  extraordinary  that  the  date 
of  a  circumstance  so  strikingly  impressive  as  the  issuing 
of  a  gold  coinage  must  have  been,  should  be  involved  in 
any  uncertainty :  our  old  chroniclers,  however,  vary 

18  Ann.  of  the  Coinage,  vol.  i.,  p.  215. 

19  Op.  cit.,vol.  i.,  p.'  217,  note. 


materially  from  the  truth  in  their  accounts.  Caxton 
says  that  in  his  14th  year,  King  Edward  commanded 
his  coin  of  gold  to  be  made  forthwith  the  best  that  might 
be,  that  is  for  to  say,  the  floreyne  that  was  called  the 
noble,  price  of  six  shillings  eight  pence  of  sterlings 
(Sig.  "W.  1) ;  Fabian,  that,  in  the  same  year,  he  changed 
his  coin,  and  made  the  noble  and  the  half-noble  of  the 
value  of  six  shillings,  eight  pence,  nine  pence,  or  ten  pence 
(vol.  ii.,  p.  207) ;  Grafton,  that  in  1339  he  caused  a 
new  coin  of  gold  to  be  coined,  called  the  noble,  of  the  value 
of  six  shillings,  eight  pence,  or  nine  pence,  &c.,  and  that,  in 
1343  he  made  a  new  coin  of  gold,  and  named  it  the  floreyn, 
that  is  to  say  the  penny  of  the  value  of  six  shillings, 
eight  pence,  &c.,  which  coin  was  specially  ordained  for  his 
war  in  France ;  for  the  gold  thereof  was  not  so  fine  as  the 
noble,  which  as  before,  in  the  14th  year  of  his  reign,  he 
caused  to  be  coined. 

"  Holinshed  likewise  speaks  of  the  superior  fineness  of 
the  noble,  which  was  coined  in  his  14th  year,  over  the 
florins  of  1344,  the  value  of  which  he  fixes  at  six  shillings 
and  eight  pence  (sub  anno  1344). 

"  Stow  makes  the  same  mistake  as  to  the  value,  but 
fixes  the  coinage  in  the  year  1342  (Annals, -p.  229,  quoted 
by  Leake,  p.  102)." 

It  is  needless  to  remark  that  Edward  III  struck  no 
nobles  before  his  eighteenth  year. 

The  monk  of  St.  Albans 20  is  more  accurate  than  most 
of  the  chroniclers,  but  places  the  issue  of  the  florins  in 
1343.  His  words  are  as  follows  :  "  Fabricatio  florenorum. 
Hoc  anno  apud  turrim  Londoniarum  jussit  rex  florenos 
fieri ;  scilicet  denarium,  obolum  et  quadrantem." 

20  Chronicnn  Angliae,  Rolls  ed.,  1874,  p.  16. 


Henry  Knighton  of  Leicester,21  under  A.D.  1344,  says : 
"  Moneta  auri  oritur — Eodem  tempore  nobile  et  obolus  et 
ferthing  de  auro  coepere  florere  in  regno,"  but  adds  that 
no  one  could  be  compelled  to  take  gold  for  a  larger  amount 
than  twenty  shillings.  From  what  he  says  farther,  it 
would  appear  that  the  striking  of  nobles  at  York  and  at 
other  important  cities  had  been  in  contemplation. 

Fortunately,  the  Proclamation  authorising  the  currency 
of  the  Florin  and  its  parts,  and  two  indentures  under 
which  they  might  be  struck  are  still  extant,  and  have  for 
three  centuries  at  least  been  known  by  antiquaries  to 
be  in  existence.  The  Proclamation  is  dated  the  27th 
January,  1344  (or  1343  O.S.),  and  is  to  be  found  in  E/ymer's 
Foedera^  It  has  also  been  printed  by  Pinkerton.23  It 
is  in  Norman  French  and  to  the  following  effect — 

"  The  King  to  the  Sheriffs  of  London,  Greeting.  As  it 
has  been  accorded  and  agreed  by  our  prelates  and  other 
great  persons  of  our  Kingdom  of  England,  for  the  common 
profit  of  us  and  of  our  people  of  the  said  kingdom  that 
three  coins  of  gold  be  made  in  our  Tower  of  London, 
that  is  to  say: — 

"  One  coin  of  two  Leopards,  the  piece  current  for  six 
shillings,  which  shall  be  of  the  weight  of  two  small 
florins  of  Florence  of  good  weight ;  and  one  coin  of  gold 
of  one  Leopard,  weighing  the  half  of  the  other  aforesaid 
coin,  the  piece  current  for  three  shillings. 

"And  one  coin  of  gold  of  a  Helmet,  weighing  the 
fourth  part  of  the  aforesaid  first  coin,  the  piece  current  for 
eighteen  pence. 

"  The  which  coins  of  gold  ought  to  have  course  among 
all  manner  of  persons  within  the  said  realm  of  England. 

21  Chronicon  Henrici  Knighton,  Rolls  ed.,  1895,  p.  30. 

22  V.,  403.  23  Essay  on  Medals,  vol.  ii.,  p.  437. 


"  We  command  that  in  the  said  city,  and  in  the  places 
where  you  shall  see  that  it  ought  to  be  done  within  your 
bailiwick,  you  shall  have  proclaimed  and  published  the 
aforesaid  things,  and  that  every  man  of  whatever  con- 
dition, private  or  stranger,  shall  receive  the  said  coins  of 
gold  in  every  manner  of  payment,  and  likewise  that  the 
coins  be  refused  of  none  under  evident  peril. 

"  And  herein  fail  in  no  manner. 

"  Given  at  Westminster  on  the  27th  day  of  January." 

The  indentures  for  coining  the  three  denominations  of 
gold  money  set  forth  in  the  Proclamation  are  given  by 
Ruding.  The  first  was  with  George  Kirkyn  and  Lotte 
Nicholyn  of  Florence,  masters  and  workers,  and  Hugh  de 
Brandon  and  others,  changers  of  the  money,  and  is  dated 
1343;  but  it  is  doubtful,  as  Ruding  observes,  whether  any 
coinage  of  gold  took  place  by  virtue  of  this  indenture. 
It  is,  however,  interesting  to  note  that  the  masters  and 
workers  of  the  mint  were  "  of  Florence,"  the  original 
home  of  the  florin. 

The  second  indenture,  under  which  in  all  probability  the 
florin  and  its  parts  were  actually  struck,  bears  date  1344, 
and  is  between  the  King  and  Walter  Dunflower,  then 
master  and  worker ;  and  fifty  florins  were  to  be  struck 
from  the  pound  Tower  of  gold.  The  so-called  leopards  of 
the  proclamation  are  in  reality  lions,  leopard  being  the 
French  heraldic  term  for  a  lion  passant  guardant,  such  as 
those  in  the  royal  arms  of  England. 

When  we  bear  in  mind  that,  so  far  as  we  are  aware, 
nearly  five  hundred  years  elapsed  between  the  time  when 
these  florins  were  in  circulation  and  the  date  when  an  actual 
gold  florin  was  seen  by  an  antiquary,  and  further,  that 
during  all  this  period  the  proclamation  and  indenture 
relating  to  their  striking  and  currency  were  extant,  it  is 


not  surprising  that  speculations  as  to  the  exact  types  of 
the  coins  were  not  always  well  founded. 

Ruding  himself,  who  knew  the  half  and  the  quarter 
florin,  thought  that  the  florin  probably  presented  an  im- 
pression allusive  to  the  royal  arms  of  England,  which 
originally  consisted  of  two  lions  only,  the  third  having 
been  added  by  Henry  II.  Like  myself,  he  regarded  the 
"  piece  of  two  Leopards  "  as  referring  to  the  type  and  not 
to  the  weight.  The  Leopard  and  the  Helmet  are  identified 
by  the  types. 

Camden   says  that   "  the  first   gold   that  K.  Edw.    3 
coyned  was  in  the  yeare  1343,  and  the  peeces  were  called 
Florences,  because  Florentines  were  the  coyners."  24     This 
statement  is  repeated  by  Fleet  wood  25  in  1745. 

Leake,26  in  his  Historical  Account  of  English  Money  t 
published  in  1745,  was  the  first  to  give  a  figure  of  the 
quarter  florin.  He  describes  it  as  having  on  one  side  a 
helmet  with  lambrequins  and  the  crest  of  the  lion  passant 
guardant,  as  we  see  upon  Edward's  great  seal,  the  field 
being  seme  de  lys. 

Wise,27  in  1750,  publishes  the  same  coin,  which  then 
belonged  to  Bryan  Fairfax,  and  says  that,  owing  to  the 
recalling  of  the  gold  coinage  on  August  20,  1344,  neither 
the  florin  nor  the  half  was  then  known.  Both  his  descrip- 
tion and  engraving  of  the  coin  are  slightly  inaccurate. 

As  Ruding  relates,  it  was  soon  discovered  that  this  money 
was  rated  too  high,  that  is,  was  overvalued  in  proportion 
to  the  silver  coins  then  current,  and  it  was  on  that  account 
generally  refused.  For  this  reason  it  was  ordered  by  a 
proclamation,  dated  on  the  9th  of  July  in  the  same  year, 

24  Remaines,  ed.,  1614,  p.  105. 

!5  App.  to  Chronicon  preciosum,  p.  10. 

26  Plates,  2nd  ser.,  ii.  14,  p.  104.   *  De  nummis,  &c.,  p.  233. 


to  be  taken  in  payment  only  with  the  consent  of  those  to 
whom  it  might  be  offered.  And  by  a  subsequent  procla- 
mation on  the  20th  of  August  immediately  following,  it 
was  declared  to  be  no  longer  current  without  the  consent 
of  the  receiver,  but  was  to  be  considered  as  bullion,  and 
taken  according  to  its  value  as  such. 

The  issue  of  nobles  with  a  new  type,  of  greater  weight, 
and  current  for  six  shillings  and  eightpence,  the  third  of 
a  pound,  instead  of  for  six  shillings  only,  was  authorised 
in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year.  The  coinage  of  the 
florin  and  its  parts  lasted,  therefore,  only  for  a  few 
months,  and  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  they  are 

Of  the  florins  at  the  present  time  two  only  are  known, 
the  same  number  of  half-florins,  and  of  quarter-florins 
three,  but  not  one  of  these  seven  coins  is  the  exact  dupli- 
cate of  another. 

It  will  now  be  desirable  to  describe  the  different 
varieties  of  the  coins. 


1.  Obv.—KDV/'R  o  D  o  6E7T  o  EffX  o  7Y  R  6  L  o  S  o  FETCHd  o 
DRS  o  tylB.  The  king  beardless,  crowned  and 
robed,  seated  facing  under  a  Gothic  canopy  of 
one  central  and  two  side  arches,  holding  in  his 
right  hand  a  sceptre  with  a  floriated  finial,  and 
in  his  left  an  orb  surmounted  by  a  cross  pattee 
on  a  stem ;  on  either  side  of  the  throne  is  a 
leopard  or  lion  facing :  the  field  is  semee  of 
fleurs-de-lis,  eleven  in  number.  The  legend  is 
between  two  beaded  circles,  and  on  each  side  of 
the  canopy  is  a  foliation  of  three  arches,  at  the 
junction  of  the  two  upper  of  which  is  a  cusp. 
The  throne  and  the  feet  of  the  king  cut  through 
the  inner  circle. 

PU>V.—*&*  II?GC  *  TETinsiGms  *  PGCE  *  mecDivm  * IL- 

L.OEVm  *  IB7YT    between   two   beaded   circles. 
In   the   centre    a  tressure   of  four    semicircular 

THE    FIRST   GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  237 

curves,  consisting  of  an  outer  plain  line  and  an 
inner  one  beaded,  the  cusps  foliated,  containing 
a  short  cross  with  quatrefoiled  and  foliated  ends, 
and  a  quatrefoil  in  the  centre  upon  a  beaded 
cross  voided.  In  each  curve  of  the  tressure  is  a 
crown,  and  outside  each  angle  a  lion  passant 

Jf.     British  Museum.      106  grs.     [PL  XI. 
No.  5.]     Kenyon,  PI.  I.  1. 

2.  Obv.—  6CDWE'  o  D'  o  GE7V  o  E6CX  TO  6  L'  3  FETmCCo 
DRS  o  tylB  o  .  King  seated  as  on  No.  1,  but 
more  fleurs-de-lis,  twenty-three  in  the  field,  one 
of  them  between  the  king's  right  arm  and  his 

Eev.—  As  No.  1. 

N.  J.  E.  107  grs.  [PL  XI.  No.  6.] 
Both  these  coins  were  found  by  boys  grubbing  in  the 
bed  of  the  Tyne  at  Newcastle  about  the  year  1857,  when 
No.  1  was  purchased  for  the  British  Museum.  No.  2 
came  into  the  possession  of  Mr.  William  Forster,  of 
Carlisle,  at  the  sale  of  whose  coins  in  1868  I  purchased  it. 


A  crowned  lion  or  leopard  sejant 
guardant  to  the  left,  his  tail  passing  between  his 
hind  legs  and  turned  behind  him  ;  attached  to 
his  neck  is  a  banner,  which  flows  back  over  his 
shoulder,  bearing  the  arms  of  France  ancient  and 
England  quarterly.  The  legend  is  between  two 
beaded  circles. 

Rev.—i*°0  Dominec  g  nee  g  in  g  FVEOEG;  s  TVO  § 

7CE6V7YS  g  ffiGC.  A  tressure  of  four  curves  with 
lions  in  the  exterior  angles,  containing  a  cross 
nearly  the  same  as  that  on  the  florin,  but  with 
three  trefoils  at  the  end  of  each  limb  instead  of 
the  crown  and  foliation. 

N.     British   Museum.      54   grs.     [PL  XI. 
No.  7.]     Kenyon;  PI.  I.  2..  ....      ...  .-,,. 

VOL.    XX     THIRD   SERIES.  I  t 


This  coin  appears  to  have  come  to  light  in  1800.  On 
August  30th  of  that  year  Mr.  Thomas  Sharp,  a  well- 
known  antiquary  of  Coventry,  addressed  a  letter  to  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine?*  announcing  that  he  had  had  the 
singularly  good  fortune  to  acquire  a  gold  coin  which  he 
recognised  as  the  half-florin  of  Edward  III.  A  good 
engraving  of  the  piece  accompanies  his  letter.  In  his 
obituary  notice  in  1841 29  it  is  stated  that  the  coin  was 
then  in  the  British  Museum.  It  would  appear  that  Mr. 
Sharp  parted  with  it  to  Mr.  Roberts,  as  it  was  bought  for 
the  Museum  with  the  Roberts  collection  in  18JO.  It  is 
engraved  in  Ruding,  Suppl.,  part  ii.,  PL  III.  6,  and  in 
Kenyon,  Plate  I.  2  B. 

2.   Obv.—As  No.  1. 

Rev.—  *  Dominec  g  nee  g  in  g  FVEOEGC  g  TVO  g 

7VE6V7VS  8  flia.     As  No.  2. 

N.     J.E.     53J  grs.     [PL  XL  No.  8.] 

This  specimen  was  purchased  by  Mr.  Wigan  at 
Brumell's  sale  in  1850,  and  came  into  my  cabinet  in 
1872.  Its  principal  difference  from  No.  1  consists  in  its 
having  no  annulets  at  the  sides  of  the  initial  cross  of  the 
legend  on  the  reverse. 


1.  06t>.— GtDWE'gE'g  7U76L'8  5  8  FETmd' 8  D'8  IjIB'.  A 
lion  guardant  crowned,  with  tail  extended,  stand- 
ing to  the  left  on  a  cap  of  maintenance  sur- 
mounting a  helmet  with  mantling  attached  ;  the 
field  semee  of  fleurs-de-lis,  ten  in  number.  There 
is  a  beaded  circle  outside  the  legend,  and  a  faint 
plain  inner  circle  on  which  some  of  the  fleurs-de- 
lis  encroach. 

28  G.  M.,  1800,  vol.  ii.,  p.  945.     M  G.  M.,  1841,  vol.  ii.,  p.  437. 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  239 

7?,t,.-_°,j,°  eCXT^LTTVBITVEgingGLOEm  A  short  cross 
potent  upon  a  beaded  cross  voided,  with  foliated 
ends,  a  quatrefoil  in  the  centre. 

JT.      British    Museum.      27  grs.      [PL  XI. 
Ko.  9.]     Kenyon,  PI.  1.8. 

This  specimen  originally  belonged  to  Bryan  Fairfax, 
and  at  his  sale  in  1751  was  acquired  by  Martin  Folkes, 
and  after  his  death  passed  in  1756  into  the  possession  of 
Mr.  Harnott.  After  passing  through  the  hands  of  the 
Rev.  J.  W.  Martin,  it  eventually  came  into  the  collection 
of  Captain  Murchison,  at  whose  sale  in  1864  it  was  pur- 
chased by  the  Trustees  of  the  Museum. 

2.  Obv.—  °eO)WB,'°K'°7™oL'o   H  °FK7Tna'oD°f}IB'. 

As   No.   1,  but  the  mantling  plain  and  not  cut 
into  lambrequins. 

jR<?i?.--+  °  aXTYLTTYBITTVRginsGLOEITV.     As  No.  1. 
N.     J.  E.     26-A-  grs.      [PL  XL  No.  10.] 

Like  the  half-florin,  this  was  Mr.  Brurneirs,  and  was 
purchased  at  his  sale  by  Mr.  Wigan,  coming  into  my 
collection  in  1872. 

3.  Obv. — As  No.  2,  but  the  head  of  the  lion  farther  from  the 


Rev.— As  No.  1. 

Hunter  Collection,  Glasgow.     27  grs. 

Ruding,30  Suppl.,  pt.  ii.,  PI.  III.  5  (slightly  in- 

So  far  as  the  legends  on  the  obverses  of  all  these  coins 
are  concerned,  it  is  well  to  note  that  they  offer  the  first 
examples  of  the  title  of  King  of  France  being  claimed  on 

io  Mr.  G.  Macdonald  informs  me  that  the  engraving  is  not 
absolutely  correct,  the  annulets  between  the  words  on  the 
reverse  being  omitted,  and  those  on  the  obverse  represented  as 


his  coins  by  an  English  monarch,  though  that  title 
appears  on  King  Edward's  great  seal  some  few  years 
earlier.  "With  regard  to  the  types,  it  may  be  observed 
that  for  many  centuries  it  was  the  usual  custom  to  repre- 
sent a  king  on  his  seal,  and  occasionally  on  his  coins,  as 
seated  in  state  u^)on  his  throne.  The  gold  penny  of 
Henry  III  and  the  silver  penny  of  Edward  the  Confessor 
afford  examples.  In  the  case  of  the  florin,  Edward  is 
seated  beneath  a  Gothic  canopy  in  the  same  manner  as 
he  appears  on  what  is  called  his  sixth  great  seal,31  which 
was  in  use  from  1340  to  1372.  Moreover,  at  his  feet  nre 
two  lions  sejant  guardant,  with  their  tails  recurved  over 
their  backs,  in  much  the  same  posture  as  the  "  leopard  " 
on  the  half-florin,  while  the  helmet,  cap  of  maintenance, 
mantling  and  crest  of  the  horseman  on  the  reverse  of  the 
seal  are  almost  identical  with  the  device  of  the  quarter- 
florin  No.  2,  though  turned  to  the  right  instead  of  the 
left.  The  housings  of  the  horse  are  charged  with  the  royal 
arms  in  the  same  manner  as  the  mantle  or  banner  of  the 
"  leopard  "  on  the  half-florin.  The  seal  is  reproduced  on 
Plate  X.,  as  it  is  so  remarkably  illustrative  of  the  coins. 

The  throne  was  probably  arranged  in  accordance  with 
the  description  given  of  that  of  Solomon,32  with  "  stays 
on  each  side  of  the  sitting  place  and  two  lions  standing 
by  the  stays."  It  must,  however,  be  confessed  that  on 
the  florin  the  two  leopards  occupy  a  most  subordinate 
place,  and  that  no  artist  called  upon  to  produce  a  design 
for  "  a  coin  of  two  leopards  "  would  have  hit  upon  the 
obverse  type  of  the  florin.  Still  it  in  some  manner  fulfils 
the  requirements  of  the  proclamation. 

31  B.  M.  Cat.  of  Seals,  i.,  186,  PI.  II.  3.    Allan  Wyon,  Great 
Seals  of  England,  No.  61,  PI.  X.  1. 

32  2  Chron.  ix.  v.  18. 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  241 

It  must  be  confessed  that  there  is  great  similarity 
between  both  the  obverse  and  reverse  of  the  florins  and 
those  of  the  French  coins  of  Philip  VI  de  Valois  of  France 
of  much  the  same  period.  The  reverse  is  almost  identical 
with  that  of  the  ange  d'or  of  Philip,  but  has  lions  in  the 
spandrels  of  the  quatrefoil  instead  of  crowns.  It  is  also 
much  like  that  of  the  Ecu  of  Edward  III. 

The  face  of  the  King  seems  to  be  a  portrait;  at  all 
events  it  resembles  in  a  remarkable  degree  the  face  upon 
the  Great  Seal. 

The  type  of  the  half-florin  is  both  artistic  and  effective, 
and  is  worthy  of  the  most  flourishing  period  of  Gothic 
art.  The  manner  in  which  the  device  is  made  to  occupy 
the  whole  of  the  field  is  admirable.  The  type  never  re- 
appeared in  the  English  series  ;  and  that  of  the  Leopard, 
subsequently  struck  for  Edward's  French  dominions,  was 
a  lion  statant. 

There  is,  however,  a  Wardrobe  counter  of  Edward  III 
on  the  obverse  of  which  this  type  appears.  It  is  pub- 
lished from  a  specimen  found  in  France,  and  a  figure 
given  of  it  in  Rouyer  and  Hucher's  Histoire  du  Jeton  au 
Hoy  en  Age.^  The  description  of  it  is  as  follows  :  — 

(Obv.)  +  —  L6C  —  OP  —  7VRD  —  SV6C.  (Leopard  Sue}- 
Leopard  haletant  et  accroupi,  la  tete  ceinte  d'une 
couronne  a  trois  neurons,  et  le  col  entoure  d'une 
banniere  flottante  au  seme  de  France  ecartele 
d'Angleterre.  Au  centre  du  flaon  un  point  pro- 
fondement  grave  en  creux. 

(Rev.)  +  —  CTRDa  —  EOB6C  —  E6C6IS.     Croix  a  triple 
nervure,  fleuronnee,  evidee  au  centre  et  aux  ex- 

33  1858,  p.  173,  PI.  XVI.  139;  Medallic  Illustrations,  vol.  i., 
p.  8;  yum.  Chron.,  3rd  ser.,  vol.  xv.,  1895,  p.  168. 



tremites  en  rosaces  a  quatre  lobes.  A  Tavers  et 
au  revers  les  mots  sont  separes  et  meme  coupe's 
par  de  petites  couronnes  ouvertes. 

Ce  jeton  a  toutes  les  apparences  d'un  pied-fort.  Son 
epaisseur  est  de  2  millimetres  largement  mesures 
et  son  poids  est  de  10  grammes  75  centigrammes 
(=  166  grs.). 

The  cross  on  the  reverse  is  not  precisely  that  of  any 
one  of  the  florin  series,  but  resembles  that  on  the  half- 
florin  with  foliations  like  those  on  the  quarter-florin, 
There  are  two  saltires  between  the  words  as  on  the 
reverse  of  the  florin,  and  not  annulets.  The  crowns  in 
the  legend  are  the  same  as  those  on  the  florin  at  the  ends 
of  the  cross.  The  annexed  wood-cut  is  taken  from 
a  cast  of  an  original  counter  in  the  Cabinet  des  medaiUes  at 
Paris,  kindly  procured  for  me  by  Mr.  Francis  Whelan. 

Wardrobe  Counter  of  Edward  III. — M. 

The  legend  "  Leopard  sue  " — I  am  the  Leopard — might 
almost  be  a  repetition  of  words  that  fell  from  the  mouth 
of  Edward  III  or  of  the  Black  Prince. 

It  is  not  surprising  to  find  the  following  lines  in  the 
epitaph  of  Edward  III  in  Westminster  Abbey34  : — 

"  Tertius  Edwardus  regni  complens  Jubileum, 
Invictus.  pardus,  bellis  pollens  Machabeum." 

34  Sandford's    Geneal.    History,  p.    175. 
Ehytkmici  de  H.  Vto-  1858,  p.  72. 

See    also    Versus 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS   OF    ENGLAND.  243 

Which  have  been  thus  translated  by  Sandford — 

"  The  III.  Edward  :  the  Death  of  whom  may  rue 
All  English  Men,  for  he  by  Knighthood  due, 
Was  libarde  invict,  and  by  Feat  Martial, 
To  worthy  Macabe  in  Vertue,  peregal." 

Even  in  the  days  of  Henry  V,  Richard  II  receives  the 
title  of  Leopardus — 

"  Inde  sepultura  Regis  translata  Ricardi, 
Solemni  cura  per  Regem  fit  Leopardi." 

The  type  of  the  helmet  on  the  quarter- florin  thoroughly 
fulfils  the  requirements  of  the  proclamation.  Its  resem- 
blance to  the  king's  head-gear  in  the  equestrian  represen- 
tation of  him  on  the  reverse  of  his  great  seal  has  already 
been  mentioned ;  but  the  fact  that  it  is  almost  identical 
in  character  with  the  helmet,  cap,  and  crest  of  the  Black 
Prince  still  preserved  on  his  monument  in  Canterbury 
Cathedral 35  is  more  striking  still.  The  slight  variation  in 
the  mantling  on  Nos.  9  and  10  shows  how  far  from  servile 
and  monotonous  copying  was  the  art  of  die-sinking  in  the 
middle  of  the  fourteenth  century. 

Although  the  type  does  not  seem  to  have  been  repeated 
on  any  mediaeval  coins.  English  or  foreign,  the  device  on 
the  "  lion  "  shillings  and  sixpences  of  George  IV  may  be 
regarded  as  a  direct  descendant  from  it,  though  'to  my 
mind  "  the  old  is  better." 

Mr.  Allan  Wyon,36  in  speaking  of  the  Third  Great  Seal 
of  Presence  of  Edward  III,  which  was  in  use  from  the  21st 
February  to  the  20th  June,  1340,  observes  :  "  This  seal 
is  remarkable  as  being  the  first  in  which  an  English 
king  used  the  title  of  '  Rex  Franciae,'  and  in  which  the 
arms  of  France  are  quartered  with  those  of  England.  It 
is  also  the  first  seal  in  which  the  lion  statant  guardant 

35   Vetusta  Monumenta,  vol.  vii.,  PL  VII. 
38  The  Great  Seal*  of  England,  1887,  p.  32. 


with  extended  tail,  appears  as  the  Royal  crest  of  England, 
and  it  is  also  the  first  which  has  a  diapered  field." 

These  remarks  are  almost  equally  applicable  to  the 
florin  coinage,  for  the  field  seme  of  fleurs-de-lis  may  be 
regarded  as  the  equivalent  of  a  field  diapered  with 
lozenges  each  containing  a  fleur-de-lis.  Taken  altogether 
the  types  of  this  coinage  testify  to  a  new  departure  in 
medallic  art,  and  it  would  be  difficult  to  point  out  an 
exactly  parallel  case  in  the  English  or  any  other  series, 
though  the  French  and  other  Continental  gold  coins  of 
the  period  are  in  many  cases  of  equally  delicate  work- 

The  legends  on  the  reverses  of  the  three  coins  now 
demand  a  few  words,  especially  as  they  in  their  turn 
afford  the  earliest  instances  of  the  adoption  of  scriptural 
texts  upon  English  coins  ;  the  groats  with  POSVI 
DEYM  ADIVTOREM  MEVM  not  having  been  struck 
until  1351. 

The  legend  on  the  reverse  of  the  florin  is  precisely  the 
same  as  that  on  its  successor  the  noble,  and  on  several 
other  denominations  of  English  gold  coins,  and  has 
formed  a  subject  for  discussion  from  the  days  of  Camden 
until  the  present  time.  Among  the  most  recent  enuncia- 
tions upon  it,  I  may  cite  those  of  the  Rev.  John  Baron, 
D.D.,  F.S.A.,37  to  which  our  attention  was  called  by  Mr. 
Warwick  Wroth 38  a  few  years  ago,  and  of  the  late 
regretted  Mr.  A.  E.  Packe 39  in  his  excellent  paper  on"  The 
Types  and  Legends  of  the  Mediaeval  and  later  Coins  of 

The  text  on  the  florin  is  based  upon  the  Gospel  of  St. 

37  Archaologia,  vol.  xlvii.,  1882,  p.  140. 

38  Num.  Chron.,  3rd  ser.,  vol.  ii.,  1882,  p.  298. 

39  Num.  Chron.,  3rd  ser.,  vol.  xii.,  1892,  p.  257. 

THE    FIRST   GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  245 

Luke,  chap,  iv.,  v.  30,  which  in  the  Vulgate  reads  "  Ipse 
autem  transiens  per  medium  illorum  ibat."  The  first 
word  is  changed  into  Jesus  in  its  abbreviated  form  If]CC — 
in  which  the  d  seems  to  be  a  survival  of  the  Greek  C 
and  the  second  word  is  omitted,  though  in  most  of  the 
later  coins  bearing  this  legend,  it  is  re-introduced. 

As  to  the  meaning  of  the  text  when  placed  upon  a 
coin  there  has  been  no  little  controversy.  Although  *° 
Camden's  account  of  the  matter  is  so  well  known,  I  ven- 
ture here  to  repeat  a  summary  of  it.  His  story  is  that 
the  "  faire  and  fine  gold  "  of  the  florin  and  noble  "  was 
as  our  Alchimists  do  affirme  (as  an  unwritten  verity) 
made  by  proiection  or  multiplication  Alchimicall  of  Ray- 
mond Lully  in  the  Tower  of  London,  who  wold  proue  it 
as  Alchmically  beside  the  tradition  of  the  Rabies  in  that 
faculty,  by  the  inscription/'  on  the  reverse.  "  Which  they 
profoundly  expound,  as  lesus  passed  invisible  &  in  most 
secret  manner  by  the  middest  of  Pharises,  so  that  gold 
was  made  by  invisible  and  secret  arte  amidst  the  ignorant. 
But  other  say  that  text  was  the  only  Amulet  used  in  that 
credulous  warfaring  age  to  escape  daungers  in  battailes." 
There  is  a  third  view  that  the  text  bears  some  reference 
to  the  battle  of  Sluys  in  1340. 

With  regard  to  the  alchemical  view,  the  late  Sir  A. 
Wollaston  Franks  4l  has  been  cited  as  affirming  that  this 
text,  "  Jesus  autem,  &c.,"  is  certainly  found  in  treatises  of 
alchemy,  and  Mr.  Packe 42  says  that  the  alchemical  mean- 
ing of  the  famous  Jesus  transiens,  fyc.,  is  surely  fairly  estab- 
lished now,  after  the  papers  by  Dr.  Baron  and  Mr.  Wroth. 

w  Remaines  concerning  Britaine,  ed.  1614,  p.  206. 
41  ArchaoL,  vol.  xlvii.,  p.  142. 
12  Op.  cit.,  p.  259. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  K  K 


Granting,  however,  that  the  text  was  used  by  the  alche- 
mists, it  by  no  means  follows  that  they  produced  any  of 
the  gold  from  which  the  florins  and  nobles  were  struck, 
and  nothing  is  more  improbable  than  that  their  secret 
charm  should  be  placed  as  a  motto  on  the  public  currency. 
The  passages  cited  from  Ashmole,43  though  giving  an 
account  of  the  relations  that  subsisted  between  Edward  III 
and  Lully  when  he  was  brought  over  to  England,  bring 
us  no  nearer  to  the  production  of  any  gold  for  either 
florins  or  nobles.  Lully,44  indeed,  died  more  than  twenty 
years  before  Edward  coined  any  gold. 

On  the  whole  it  seems  to  me,  that  though  we  may  accept 
as  a  fact  that  alchemists  may  have  made  occasional  use  of 
the  text  under  discussion,  its  connection  with  even  an 
imaginary  production  of  the  gold  for  these  coins  is  in  the 
highest  degree  problematical.  The  occurrence  of  the  text 
on  finger  rings  and  on  the  front  of  a  druggist's  shop  at 
Toledo,  points  more  in  the  direction  of  its  being  regarded 
as  being  in  the  nature  of  a  charm  or  an  amulet  than  as 
bearing  on  alchemy. 

I  need  hardly  say  that  I  do  not  agree  with  Mr.  Packe45 
in  his  remark,  "  I  am  glad  that  we  have  got  rid  of  Sir 
John  Maundeville  as  an  authority  for  any  other  interpre- 
tation "  than  the  alchemical.  On  the  contrary  I  hold  that 
the  text  was  in  the  fourteenth  century  frequently  used  as 
a  charm  against  thieves  or  when  in  peril,  though  whether 
it  was  placed  on  the  coins  in  consequence  of  its  virtue  as 
an  amulet  is  extremely  doubtful.  The  often-quoted 
passage  from  Sir  John  Maundeville's  Travels  seems  to 
afford  sufficient  evidence  as  to  its  use  as  a  charm.  He 

43  Theatrum  chcmicum  Britannicum,  pp.  442,  467. 

44  Ending,  vol.  i.,  p.  220,  note  2. 

Num.  f'hron.,  3rd  ser.,  vol.  xii.,  p.  259. 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS    OF   ENGLAND.  247 

says,46  "  And  an  half  Myle  fro  Nazarethe  is  the  Lepe  of 
oure  Lord :  for  the  Jewes  ladden  him  upon  an  highe 
Roche ;  for  to  make  him  lepe  doun,  and  have  slayn  him : 
but  Jesu  passed  amonges  hem,  and  lepte  upon  another 
Roche ;  and  zit  ben  the  Steppes  of  his  Feet  sene  in  the 
Roche,  where  he  allyghte.  And  therfore  seyn  men,  whan 
thei  dreden  hem  of  Thefes,  on  ony  Weye,  or  of  Enemyes  ; 
Jesus  autem  transiens  per  medium  illom  ibat ;  that  is  to 
seyne,  Jesus  forsothe  passynge  be  the  myddes  of  hem,  he 
wente ;  in  tokene  and  mynde,  that  oure  Lord  passed 
thorghe  out  of  the  Jewes  Crueltee,  and  scaped  safly  fro 
hem ;  so  surely  mo  we  men  passen  the  perile  of  Thefes." 
Maundeville  left  England  in  1322  and  did  not  return  until 
1356,  so  that  in  all  probability  this  passage  was  written 
without  any  acquaintance  with  the  fact  that  the  text 
quoted  was  inscribed  on  either  English  florins  or  nobles. 

It  may  be  that  the  fact  that  it  was  used  as  a  charm  led 
to  its  quotation  by  King  Edward  III  on  a  notable  occa- 
sion in  the  manner  recorded  by  a  little-known  chronicler, 
cited,  as  already  mentioned,  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Baron  in  his 
account  of  a  hoard  of  gold  nobles  found  at  Bremeridge 
Farm,  near  Westbury,  Wilts.  The  chronicle  of  the  Abbey 
of  Meaux,  in  Yorkshire,  written  by  Thomas  de  Burton,47 
who  was  elected  Abbot  in  1396,  gives  an  account  of  the 
great  naval  victory  of  the  English  over  the  French  which 
was  gained  off  Sluys,  near  Flushing,  in  Holland,  on  the 
24th  of  June,  1330. 

In  describing  the  battle,  de  Burton  says  that  at  first 
the  French  ships  were  chained  together  lest  they  should 

46  The  Voiage  and  Travaile  of  Sir  John  Maundeville,  Kt.,  ed. 
1839,  p.  113. 

47  Chronica  Monasterii  de  Melsd,   Rolls  ed.,  1868,  vol.  iii., 
p.  45. 


possibly  be  separated  the  one  from  the  other.  But  before 
the  first  onslaught,  as  King  Edward  and  his  fleet  feigned 
to  flee,  they  broke  the  chains  and  pursued  him  in  a  dis- 
orderly manner.  Which  when  Edward  saw,  he  marshalled 
his  ships  in  order  and,  passing  through  the. midst  of  them, 
obtained  the  victory  as  already  related.  On  which  account 
King  Edward  himself  caused  the  impression  of  his  gold 
money  to  be  changed.  Therefore  on  his  noble,  which  is 
worth  half  a  mark,  he  ordained  that  there  should  be 
impressed,  on  the  one  side,  a  ship  having  in  it  the  King 
armed,  and  around  it  the  King's  name  written,  and  on  the 
other  side  a  cross  with  this  circumscription :  "  Jesus 
autem  transiens  per  medium  illorum  ibat."  The  Latin 
text  is  given  below.48 

The  chronicler  does  not  seem  to  have  been  aware  of 
the  existence  of  such  coins  as  the  florin  and  its  parts,  and 
certainly  without  the  ship  on  the  obverse,  the  connection 
between  the  legend  on  the  reverse  and  the  victory  of 
Sluys  is  by  no  means  apparent.  Ii  seems  to  me  doubtful 
whether  the  type  of  the  King  on  his  throne,  with  the 
two  leopards  in  so  subordinate  a  position,  was  the 
design  originally  contemplated  for  the  coin  of  two 
leopards,  and  possibly  some  design,  more  clearly  indica- 

48  "Ipsae  autem  naves  Francorum  prius  catenatae  erant,  ne 
ab  invicem  possent  separari.  Sed  ante  primum  congressum, 
Edwardo  rege  cum  sua  classe  fugam  simulante,  catenas  suas 
rumpebant  et  regem  Edwardum  inordinate  sequebantur.  Quod 
videns  Edwardus  rex,  ordine  disposito  per  medium  ipsorum 
transibat,  et  de  illis  victoriam  ut  praedicitur  adeptus  est.  Qua- 
propter  ipse  rex  Edwardus  impressionem  monetae  suae  aureae 
fecerat  commutari.  Unde  in  suo  nobili,  dimidiam  marcam 
valente,  ex  una  ejus  parte  navem  cum  rege  armato  in  eo  con- 
tento,  regis  nomine  circumscripto,  et  ex  altera  ejus  parte 
crucem  imprimi  constituens,  hanc  circumscriptionem  adhibuit 
Jesus  autem  transiens  per  medium  illorum  ibat." 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  249 

tive  of  the  victory  over  France,  may  at  first  have  been  in 

Mr.  Packe 49  was  of  opinion  that  "  on  the  noble  the 
legend  suggested  the  type,  instead  of  the  type  the 
legend."  Anyhow,  the  type  and  legends  of  the  noble 
justify  the  old  rhymes.50 

"  For  foure  things  our  noble  sheweth  to  me, 
King,  ship,  and  sword  and  power  of  the  sea." 

The  origin  and  intention  of  the  legend  on  the  reverse  of 
the  half-florin,  "  Domine  ne  in  furore  tuo  arguas  me/'  are 
not  at  once  obvious,  but  I  think  that  Mr.  Packe' s  in- 
genious suggestion  on  the  subject  is  well  worthy  of  con- 
sideration. The  type  of  the  obverse  of  this  piece,  the 
real  equivalent  of  the  Continental  florin,  is  a  leopard.  It 
is  indeed  the  coin  of  one  leopard.  Now  there  is  a  passage 
in  Hosea  which  Mr.  Packe  thinks  shows  the  train  of 
thought  pursued  in  connecting  the  legend  of  the  reverse 
with  the  type  of  the  obverse.  "  In  that  passage  (chap, 
xiii.  v.  7,  11)  we  read  in  the  Vulgate  :  '  Ero  eis  sicut 
pardus  in  via  Assyriorum.  Dabo  tibi  regem  in  furore  meo 
et  auferam  in  indignations  mea.'  '  God/  says  the  prophet, 
'  lies  in  wait  for  his  rebellious  people  like  a  leopard  in  the 
way.  He  gives  them  a  king  in  his  anger,  and  takes  him 
away  in  his  wrath/  The  legend  on  the  coin  is  the 
prayer  of  the  king  against  such  a  calamity,  freely  ren- 
dered into  the  very  similar  but  more  familiar  text  of  the 
penitential  psalm/'  Though  Mr.  Packe  offers  this  expla- 
nation, he  confesses  that  he  is  not  satisfied  with  it,  and 
says  that  he  will  be  glad  if  some  one  can  suggest  a  better. 
So  shall  I. 

With  the  interpretation  of  the  legend  on  the  helm  or 

49  Num.  Chron.,  3rd  ser.,  vol.  xii.,  p.  260. 

50  Selden,  Mare  clausum,  lib.ii.,  cap.  xxv.,  quoted  by  Ruding. 


quarter-florin,  I  agree  with  Mr.  Packe  there  is  less  diffi- 
culty. It  may  refer  to  the  central  cross,  but  more  pro- 
bably it  is  to  be  read  in  connection  with  the  helmet  and 
crest  on  the  obverse.  Taken  together  with  the  context 
in  Psalm  cxii.  v.  9,  it  is  singularly  appropriate  for  a  coin. 
"  He  hath  dispersed  abroad  and  given  to  the  poor  ;  and 
his  righteousness  remaineth  for  ever,  his  horn  shall  be 
exalted  with  honour."  "  Dispersit,  dedit  pauperibus, 
justitia  ejus  manet  in  seculum  seculi,  cornu  ejus  exalta- 
bitur  in  gloria/' 

It  remains  to  say  a  few  words  with  regard  to  the  gold 
of  which  the  florin  and  its  parts  were  composed,  the 
extent  of  the  coinage,  and  the  reason  why  they  were  so 
soon  called  in. 

The  gold  was  as  nearly  as  practicable  pure,  being 
twenty-three  carats  three  grains  and  a-half  fine  gold,  and 
only  half  a  grain  alloy.  In  other  words,  the  pure  gold  in 
the  coins  was  to  the  whole  weight  in  the  proportion  of 
191  to  192. 

From  the  returns  published  in  the  English  Historical 
Review,51  founded  upon  the  Pipe  Rolls,  it  appears  that  from 
the  24th  January,  1344,  to  the  10th  of  July  following 
when  the  coinage  of  the  noble  was  authorised,  there  were 
coined  in  pounds  Tower  of  5,400  grains  £2,129  18s.  8d., 
of  the  value,  at  the  rate  of  £15  to  the  pound,  of  about 
£32,000  in  the  currency  of  those  days,  for  it  will  be 
remembered  that  fifty  florins  of  the  value  of  six  shillings 
each  were  to  be  struck  from  the  pound  Tower  of  fine 

When  the  first  coinage  of  nobles  took  place  later  in  the 
same  year,  they  were  coined  at  the  rate  of  £13  3s.  4d. 

51  Vol.  xii.,  p.  754. 

THE    FIRST    GOLD    COINS    OF    ENGLAND.  251 

only  to  the  pound  Tower,  but  coins  to  the  then  value  of 
£21,500  were  struck.  In  1346  a  lighter  issue  of  nobles 
took  place,  as  they  were  coined  at  the  rate  of  £14  to  the 
pound  Tower.  Of  this  kind,  coins  were  struck  to  the 
value  of  £132,700.  In  1357  a  second  reduction  took 
place,  and  nobles  were  coined  at  the  rate  of  £15  to  the 
pound  Tower,  the  same  rate  as  the  old  florins. 

It  is  evident  from  these  facts  that  about  the  middle  of 
the  fourteenth  century  the  relative  values  of  gold  and 
silver  were  in  a  very  fluctuating  condition.  In  Henry  Ill's 
time  an  issue  of  gold  at  the  rate  of  10  to  1  had  been  tried, 
and  failed.  In  1344  the  rate  of  15  to  1  was  found  too 
high,  and  a  sudden  revulsion  caused  a  coinage  at  the  rate 
of  13£  to  1  to  be  issued ;  to  be  quickly  followed  by  one 
at  14  to  1,  and  in  a  few  years  by  one  of  15  to  1,  which 
for  a  long  period  remained  unaltered. 

The  rarity  of  the  early  nobles  and  of  the  florin  coinage 
of  Edward  III  is  to  be  accounted  for  by  this  misapprehen- 
sion of  the  relative  values  of  gold  and  silver.  The  melting 
value  of  the  nobles  was  greater  than  their  current  value, 
and  they  therefore  disappeared.  The  florins  were  ap- 
praised too  high,  and  therefore  could  not  get  into  cir- 
culation, but  were  returned  to  the  Treasury.  The  old 
chronicler  52  was  right  who  wrote,  under  1343  or  1344  : 
"  Circa  idem  tempus  ordinavit  rex  primo  florenos  aureos 
pro  moneta  ad  currendum  in  Anglia  ;  quod  parum  duravit, 
quia  parum  prof  ait." 


62  Adami  Murimuthensis  Chron.,  E.  H.  S.,  cited  in  Arch., 
vol.  xlvii.,  p.  142  ;  1846,  p.  159. 


(See  Plate  XII.) 

TWENTY  years  ago  the  country  now  known  as  the  Trans- 
vaal, or,  to  give  it  its  official  name,  the  South  African 
Republic,  was  hardly  known  beyond  the  small  circle  of 
those  whom  politics  or  trade  brought  into  direct  contact 
with  it.  It  was  almost  exclusively  inhabited  by  the  Boers. 
This  word  means  "  farmers,"  and  is  applied  to  the  Dutch 
rural  population  of  South  Africa  in  general,  but  in  a 
more  special  political  sense  to  the  Dutch  of  the  Trans- 
vaal and  of  the  neighbouring  Orange  Free  State.  The 
Boers  occupy  themselves  mainly  with  pastoral  and  agri- 
cultural pursuits,  to  which  they  add  some  hunting.  At 
that  time  the  country  had  already  existed  a  quarter  of  a 
century,  under  its  own  rather  patriarchal,  and  certainly 
very  primitive,  form  of  government ;  and  the  inhabitants 
claimed  complete  national  independence  for  it.  The  few 
travellers,  scientific  and  otherwise,  who  had,  up  to  twenty- 
five  or  thirty  years  ago,  visited  the  Transvaal,  had  been 
almost  unanimous  in  their  belief  that  the  country  was 
rich  in  minerals,  but  practical  mining  engineers  were  of 
opinion  that  the  mines  would  prove  difficult  and  expensive 

1  This  account  of  the  Transvaal  coinage  was  communicated 
anonymously  to  the  Society  in  1894,  but  for  obvious  reasons  it 
was  deemed  expedient  to  postpone  its  publication. 

THE    COINAGE    OF    THE    SOUTH    AFRICAN    REPUBLIC.         253 

to  work — ari  opinion  which  is  being  realised  more  and 
more  every  day,  as  we  are  becoming  more  familiar 
with  the  condition  of  things. 

However,  small  quantities  of  alluvial  gold  were  found, 
mostly  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  Transvaal,  in  the  district 
of  Lydenburg,  where,  during  the  Presidency  of  Mr.  Bur- 
gers, the  mining  camp  of  Pilgrims'  Rest  became  established 
as  a  mining  community  and  got  fairly  under  weigh. 

Mr.  Thomas  Burgers,  the  then  President  of  the  Trans- 
vaal, had,  till  a  few  years  before  1874,  been  a  clergyman 
in  Cape  Colony ;  and  after  his  election  he  had  endeavoured 
to  infuse  a  spirit  of  enlightenment  amongst  the  rural 
farmers,  who  had,  till  his  election,  been  under  the 
simple  but  efficient  guidance*  of  presidents  from  their  own 
ranks — men  with  chiefly  religious  and  military  training. 
Now,  however,  Mr.  Burgers  thought  that  the  production 
of  gold  in  the  country  afforded  an  opportunity  to  impress 
the  Yolksraad  (their  Parliament)  with  the  importance  of 
its  wealth  and  capabilities,  by  having  some  of  it  coined 
into  real  metallic  money — an  article  very  much  in  demand 
there  at  thafc  time.  He  therefore  persuaded  the  Yolks- 
raad  to  allow  him  to  have  some  of  the  rough  gold  of  the 
Transvaal  coined  into  money.  It  must  be  admitted  that 
consideration  for  the  country's  economical  condition  was 
not  the  only  motive  of  the  President,  but  his  vanity  was 
nattered  by  the  prospect  of  having  his  likeness  on  the 
coins  circulating  amongst  the  people.  In  1874,  256*275 
ounces  of  rough  alluvial  gold  were  sent  to  Mr.  J.  J.  Pratt, 
the  then  Consul-General  in  London  for  the  Transvaal, 
from  whom  Messrs.  Johnson,  Matthey  and  Co.  received 
it  and  in  turn  forwarded  it  to  Messrs.  Ralph  Heaton 
and  Sons,  at  Birmingham,  to  be  coined  into  money.  This 
last  firm  coined  215 "03  ounces  of  it  into  money  of.  .the 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  L   L 


value  of  eight  hundred  and  thirty-seven  pounds  (£837), 
leaving  40'3  ounces  or  £157  uncoined,  which  was  sent 
back  to  Mr.  Pratt.  The  coin  thus  struck  was  called  the 
"  State's  Pound/'  and  at  the  next  session  of  the  Volksraad 
President  Burgers  handed,  with  much  ceremony,  a  speci- 
men to  each  of  the  members  [PI.  XII.  1],  The  balance 
found  its  way  to  various  favoured  creditors  of  the  govern- 
ment. The  recipients  of  these  coins,  however,  did  not 
put  them  into  circulation,  but  hoarded  them  with  great 
tenacity  (and  do  so  still)  as  curios  ;  a  thing  easy  enough, 
as,  soon  after,  British  coin  became  sufficiently  plentiful  for 
all  purposes.  They  are  real  curios,  for  when  the  account 
was  examined  it  was  found  that  each  pound  cost  26s. 
to  produce.  At  present  it  is  very  difficult  to  obtain 
one  of  these  coins.  The  price  last  heard  of  was  £25 
offered  and  refused !  There  is  yet  another  Transvaal 
coinage,  which,  though  of  a  later  date,  is  much  scarcer 
— because  it  was  searched  for  with  a  view  to  its  being  put 
out  of  circulation  on  account  of  a  mistake  in  the  device — 
and  its  history  is  even  more  curious  than  that  of  the 
coinage  of  Mr.  Burgers. 

When  people  found  that  it  cost  26s.  to  coin  a  pound 
worth  20s. — and  the  coins  of  Mr.  Burgers  were  current 
for  20s.,  being  equal  in  weight  and  proportion  of  pure 
gold  and  alloy  to  British  sovereigns — there  was  no  very 
great  desire  to  repeat  the  experiment.  The  country 
continued  to  yield  gold,  with  an  occasional  interruption, 
but  not  on  anything  like  the  present  scale.  Yet  the  aspira- 
tion after  a  national  mint  only  slumbered  but  was  not 
quite  dead.  So  when,  in  1886,  and  the  next  couple  of 
years,  the  gold  mines  near  Barberton — the  cradle  of  the 
mining  industry  in  the  Transvaal — began  to  yield  their 
thousands  of  ounces  of  gold  per  month — now  eclipsed 

THE    COINAGE    OF    THE    SOUTH    AFRICAN    REPUBLIC.        255 

by  the  tens  of  thousands  from  the  Rand — this  aspiration 
revived.  It  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  a  people, 
living  so  isolated  and  having  had  nothing  to  do  with 
matters  affecting  coinage  and  similar  conditions,  should 
hold  very  crude  notions  in  regard  to  them.  For  instance 
a  then  leading  newspaper  seriously  advocated  the  necessity 
of  making  the  Transvaal  coinage  of  higher  caratage — 
that  is,  to  hold  a  higher  proportion  of  gold  to  alloy — than 
the  British  sovereign  ;  lest  the  enemies  of  the  country 
should  melt  down  the  Transvaal  golden  coins  and  so 
make  money  scarce — a  calamity  very  much  dreaded  all 
over  South  Africa. 

All  that  time  the  discoveries  of  gold  reefs  had  attracted 
a  strong  inrush  of  immigrants  into  the  Transvaal.  The 
newcomers  were  from  various  parts  of  the  world,  but  most 
of  them  were  more  anglicised  or  held  enlightened  views, 
and  good  advice  came  from  them.  They  explained  that 
respectable  governments  which,  nowadays,  coin  bullion 
for  circulation  within  their  territories,  purify  and  coin 
the  bullion  gratis  for  such  as  bring  it  for  that  purpose  ; 
that  a  mint  is  therefore  an  expensive  affair,  more  especi- 
ally for  a  small  and  poor  country ;  and  was  quite  un- 
necessary for  the  Transvaal,  because  all  the  coin  it  wanted 
came  ready  coined  into  it.  For  a  time  it  appeared  as  if 
these  more  moderate  counsels  would  prevail.  But  with 
the  speculative  spirit  engendered  by  gold-mining,  specu- 
lation entered  into  every  form  of  life ;  and  there  was 
soon  no  want  of  persons  ready  and  willing,  even  eagerly 
competing,  for  the  questionable  honour  of  cultivating 
the  national  vanity — for  it  must  be  owned  that  native 
South  Africans  are  vain. 

President  Burgers  was  no  more,  and  in  his  place  there 
was  and  is  now  a  new  President,  Mr.  Kruger — a  man, 


like  the  earlier  Presidents,  from  the  ranks  of  the  people. 
He,  too,  could  not  resist  the  flattering  prospect  of  having 
his  likeness  on  the  coins  of — he  likes  it  to  be  called — his 
realm.  So  it  was  decided  to  have  a  mint.  The  difficulty 
of  making  it  pay  was  overcome  by  granting  a  concession, 
or  rather  a  monopoly  with  very  strong  privileges,  for  a 
national  or  government  bank.  The  profits  to  be  made  or 
expected  to  be  made,  were  to  be  applied  to  defray  the 
cost  of  the  minting — so  it  would  seem  at  first  sight ;  but 
the  National  Bank  belongs  to  shareholders  under  limited 
liability,  and  the  Government  itself  is  a  large  shareholder  ; 
but  of  this  later  on.  At  any  rate  the  Transvaal  Mint  is 
carried  on  by  the  National  Bank  of  the  South  African 
Republic,  according  to  Law  14  of  1891,  published  and 
being  in  operation  from  2nd  September,  1891.  It  was 
very  easy  to  start  the  National  Bank,  which  did  not  wait 
long  to  begin  operations  after  its  capital  was  subscribed 
and  paid  up ;  but  it  was  not  so  easy  to  begin  the  Mint.  It 
was  not  till  1893  that  they  could  begin  to  coin  a  consider- 
able quantity  of  imported  silver  and  a  very  small  quantity 
of  gold.  At  the  present  low  bullion  price  of  silver  it  pays 
to  coin  it ;  whilst  the  bar  gold  from  the  batteries,  but  more 
especially  from  the  cyanide  works  near  Johannisburg  in 
the  Transvaal,  requires  much  skilled  labour  and  elaborate 
chemical  processes  to  refine  it.  Both  are  expensive  in  the 
Transvaal.  Gold  obtained  from  the  cyanide  works  often 
contains  zinc,  which  is  used  to  precipitate  it  from  its 
cyanide  solution,  but  which  injures  the  quality  and  de- 
creases the  purity  of  the  gold. 

President  Kruger,  whose  term  of  office  expired  in  May, 
1893,  did  not  like  to  wait  till  the  Transvaal  Mint  was  in 
working  order.  He  wanted  to  make  sure  that  his  likeness 
appeared  on  the  national  coins,  as  there  were  unmistake- 

THE    COINAGE    OF    THE    SOUTH    AFRICAN    REPUBLIC.        257 

able  signs  that  this  time  his  re-election  was  not  quite  so 
sure  or  easy  as  the  previous  time  ;  and  if  he  were  not  re- 
elected  someone-else's  likeness  would  appear  on  the  coins. 
Some  gold  was  therefore  dispatched  in  1892  to  Europe  to 
be  coined.  This  time,  however,  it  was  not  sent  to  England, 
although  there  were  no  complaints  about  the  preceding 
transaction  with  Messrs.  Ralph  Heaton  and  Sons.  There 
were  then,  and  still  are,  different  people  at  the  helm  of 
affairs  in  the  Transvaal,  whose  sympathies  are  not  with 
England.  The  gold,  in  this  instance,  was  sent  to  Germany 
(Berlin)  for  coinage  according  to  instructions.  In  carry- 
ing out  these  instructions  a  mistake  was  made  in  Germany, 
which  gave  a  lot  of  trouble  to  President  Kruger  and  his 
friends,  and  is  still  a  sore  remembrance  to  the  former. 
The  coins  were  to  have  on  one  side  Mr.  Kruger's  likeness, 
and  this  was  rendered  well  enough.  On  the  reverse  they 
were  to  have  the  coat-of-arins  of  the  Transvaal.  Now  if 
a  clear  Transvaal  postage  stamp,  with  strong  colouring, 
is  examined,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  central  figure  in  it  is 
a  van -like  waggon,  with  a  single  pole  or  single  shaft  in 
front,  called  the  "  Disselboom,"  as  if  two  horses  were 
intended  to  pull  it,  one  on  each  side  of  the  pole.  It  was 
here  that  the  German  die-sinker  made  a  mistake.  For, 
instead  of  the  single  pole,  he  had  depicted  two  poles  or  a 
double  shaft,  as  if  one  horse  was  intended  to  be  harnessed 
between  the  two  poles  or  double  shaft  [see  PL  XII.  2,  4]. 
The  coins  issued  with  this  mistake  were  the  Pound  and 
Half  Pound  in  gold,  and  Five  Shillings  in  Silver. 

It  is  not  known  what  the  cost  per  £  was  for  coining 
this  money ;  but  as  soon  as  it  had  arrived  from  Germany, 
and  began  to  circulate  amongst  the  people,  there  arose, 
amongst  the  plain-minded  folks,  who  form  the  bulk  of 
the  electors,  a  wave  of  indignation  ;  for  the  coins  were 


critically  examined,  and  it  was  not  long  before  the  blunder 
in  the  arms  was  discovered.  Preparations  were  in  pro- 
gress for  the  election  of  a  President,  and  on  that  account 
alone  feeling  ran  quite  high  enough  already  amongst  the 
electors.  But  the  insult  to  their  coat-of-arms,  to  them- 
selves, as  they  considered  it,  was  the  climax.  And  that 
had  been  done  by  their  President,  who  now  sought  his 
re-election  from  them  !  "  We  will  show  him  what  we 
think  of  him  !  "  was  the  general  cry.  "  Why  can  he 
have  his  own  insignificant  features  so  correctly  reproduced 
on  our  coins,  whilst  the  only  thing  belonging  to  us  that 
can  come  on  them — our  coat-of-arms — must  be  insulted 
by  putting  that  '  street  thing  '  of  Germany  on  it  ?  It  is 
not  our  own  bullock-waggon,  which  our  fathers  prized, 
and  honoured  as  we  still  do.  We  never  had  a  waggon 
like  that  amongst  us.  Away  with  it  and  Kruger  !  "  Such 
were  in  substance  the  feelings  of  the  Boers,  when  these 
coins  made  their  appearance  amongst  them.  For  people 
at  a  distance,  and  not  acquainted  with  the  peculiar  idio- 
syncracies  of  a  population  a  couple  of  centuries  behind  us, 
it  is  not  easy  to  enter  fully  into  or  sympathise  with 
opinions  such  as  these.  But  President  Kruger  being  one 
of  the  people  himself,  could  fully  understand  and  appre- 
ciate this  outburst,  especially  as  his  own  amour  propre  was 
touched  by  the  circumstance  that  the  engraver  of  the 
coin  dies,  Otto  Schufa,  had  put  his  initials  0.  S.  on  the 
truncation  of  the  bust,  and  those  letters  in  Dutch  signify 
an  "  ox,"  a  term  which  the  populace  in  their  anger  soon 
applied  to  their  President.  Mr.  Kruger  knew  also  that 
the  feeling  of  the  people  jeopardized  his  re-election,  and 
he  and  his  adherents  at  once  took  steps  to  nullify  if 
possible,  or  otherwise  to  minimise,  the  effect  of  the  blunder. 
Luckily  for  him  economy  had  been  studied ;  a  large 

THE    COINAGE    OF    THE    SOUTH    AFRICAN    REPUBLIC.        259 

amount  of  bullion  had  not  been  sent  off  for  coinage,  and 
all  the  coins  had  not  been  issued  yet.  So  such  of  them  as 
were  not  yet  issued  were  consigned  to  the  melting  pot, 
arid-  every  effort  was  made,  by  those  who  would  stand  or 
fall  with  his  re-election  or  non-election,  to  recover  as 
many  coins  as  possible.  In  this  they  succeeded  well 
enough,  and  all  such  went  to  the  melting  pot.  The 
poorer  people  had  become  frightened  at  the  outcry  made 
against  the  Kruger  pounds,  and  were  glad  enough  to 
accept  a  British  equivalent  for  them.  Only  the  richer 
people,  who  could  afford  to  lay  by  a  pound  or  so  as 
curios,  did  not  part  with  them ;  and  it  is  from  this  class 
of  people  that  an  occasional  one  of  these  remarkable  coins 
is  likely  to  be  obtainable,  if  at  all.  What  price  would 
have  to  be  paid  for  one  of  them  it  is  difficult  to  say,  nor  is 
this  the  place  for  discussing  such  a  matter. 

But  to  return  to  the  Transvaal  coinage  itself : — The 
golden  coins  are  of  one  pound  sterling  and  a  half-pound 
sterling.  The  former  is  to  weigh  7-98805  grammes,  the 
latter  3*99402  grammes,  the  deviation  allowed  either  way 
being  0*01296  gramme  or  0*2  grain,  and  0*00648  gramme 
or  0*1  grain  respectively.  A  coin  of  a  pound  sterling  is 
to  contain  7*3244  grammes  pure  gold,  and  a  half-pound 
3*6622  grammes.  In  the  gold  coins  a  deviation  in 
the  fineness  or  quantity  of  pure  gold  is  allowed  of  0*002 
(two-thousandths)  either  way.  If  the  weight  of  a  Trans- 
vaal pound  is  compared  with  the  amount  of  pure  gold 
the  coin  is  to  contain,  as  given  above,  it  will  be  seen  that 
it  contains  more  gold  than  j-g-ths,  or  22  carats.  In  other 
words,  the  Transvaal  pound  is  to  contain  more  gold 
than  the  British  sovereign  ;  which  means,  again,  that  if 
you  bring  your  gold  to  the  Transvaal  Mint  to  be  coined 
for  you  into  pounds,  you  must  put  something  like  six- 


penceworth  of  gold  more  into  your  pound  than  you 
would  have  to  do  at  the  British  Mint.  That  is  one  loss  of 
say,  6d.  In  addition,  they  charge  for  minting  at  a  rate 
not  higher  than  3  per  centum,  whilst  at  the  British  Mint 
they  do  everything  gratis.  That  is  another  loss  of  6d.  or 
7d.,  or,  together  with  the  6d.  more  in  gold  already  men- 
tioned, a  total  loss  of  say,  one  shilling  per  pound.  It 
can  easily  be  understood  that  people  are  not  likely  to  rush 
with  their  gold  to  a  mint  like  this.  Nor  does  the  mint 
desire  it  apparently,  as  any  gold  less  than  22  carat  fine 
can  be  refused  by  them  ;  or,  when  they  have  plenty  of 
work,  they  can  postpone  minting  even  such  gold,  and 
stop  minting  altogether,  either  for  the  Government  or 
private  persons,  when  they  (the  mint)  are  of  opinion  that 
the  issue  of  golden  coin  in  the  Republic  (that  is,  the 
Transvaal)  is  excessive.  The  Government  may  (the  law 
does  not  say  that  it  must)  order  a  test  of  the  coins  issued 
by  the  mint,  whenever  they  (the  Government)  shall  think 
fit  to  do  so.  So  that  there  is  practically  no  guarantee 
that  they  shall  not  exceed  the  deviation  in  fineness, 
against  or  to  the  loss  of  anyone  bringing  gold  to  mint. 
If  golden  coins  have,  by  legitimate  circulation,  decreased 
in  value  to  more  than  0'005,  they  are  to  be  withdrawn 
from  circulation  ;  but  it  is  entirely  left  to  the  decision  of 
the  mint  whether  a  golden  coin  is  legitimately  deterior- 
ated or  not.  If  not  so  depreciated,  the  client  has  to  wait 
till  the  mint  can  apportion  the  correct  value,  which  will 
be  then  paid  out  to  him. 

As  to  silver  coins : — A  5s.  piece  is  to  weigh  28*2759 
grammes  ;  other  silver  coins  in  proportion.  Their  fine- 
ness is  to  be  |-J  fine  silver  and  T3^  alloy.  The  deviation 
in  fineness  is  an  allowance  of  0*11781  gramme  either  way 
for  a  5s.  piece  ;  and  to  other  coins  in  proportion  down  to 
ii  Is.  piece.  For  silver  coins  of  lower  value  than  a  Is,, 


it  is,  for  a  6d.  piece,  0'02  gramme,  for  a  3d.  piece,  0-003 
parts.  The  deviation  allowed  for  all  silver  coins  is  0-003 

Bronze  coins  are  to  be  struck  of  the  following  weights : 
— A  penny  of  9*44984  grammes  and  a  halfpenny  of 
5-66990  grammes.2  They  are  to  be  made  of  copper,  tin, 
and  zinc ;  but  the  proportion  of  these  metals  is  not  dis- 
closed. Perhaps  they  can  make  some  profit  out  of  them, 
as  they  do  out  of  silver  coining. 

The  law  provides  that  the  mint  is  to  be  carried  on  by 
the  National  Bank  of  the  South  African  Republic.  This 
remarkable  institution  thus  appears  to  have  the  control  of 
the  mint.  In  the  Transvaal,  however,  everything  con- 
nected with  matters  like  this  is  in  such  a  nebulous 
condition,  that  one  had  better  not  be  quite  sure  of  any- 
thing. The  mint  itself  has,  as  yet,  not  been  much  before 
the  public ;  but  the  National  Bank,  having  made  some 
bad  investments,  has  passed  many  a  bad  half-hour  in  the 
Yolksraad  and  with  the  local  press,  in  explaining,  or 
trying  to  explain,  its  status,  its  accounts,  and  more 
especially  its  auditing.  This  bank  has  a  large  note  circu- 
lation, for,  owing  to  its  privileges,  its  notes  with  the  like- 
ness of  the  re-elected  President  Kruger  are  legal  tender, 
whilst  those  of  other  perfectly  solvent  banks  are  not. 
Of  this  it  makes  good  use.  In  the  neighbouring  states  and 
colonies  the  public  accept  Transvaal  coins,  but  the  Courts 
have  ruled  them  out,  so  that  they  are  not  legal  tender  there. 

[En. — Since  1892  the  mint  at  Pretoria  has  been  in 
active  operation,  as  is  shown  by  the  following  table,  which 
was  supplied  by  H.M.  Colonial  Office  to  the  British 
Museum ;  but  at  present  the  amount  coined  in  each  metal 
year  by  year  has  not  been  stated  : — 

2  The  halfpenny  was  not  issued. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  M   M 


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From  this  table  it  will  be  seen  that  the  only  coins  minted 
at  Berlin,  where  the  mistake  in  the  arms  was  made,  were 
the  pound,  half-pound,  and  crown ;  and  also  that  the 
blunder  was  detected  so  quickly  as  to  allow  another  issue 
of  the  corrected  type  being  made  in  the  same  year  at 
Pretoria,  which  from  that  date  became  the  sole  mint  of 
the  Republic.  Crowns  are  of  one  year  only,  viz.,  1892. 
In  1898  the  coinage  had  almost  ceased,  and  the  only  de- 
nominations issued  were  the  pound  and  the  penny  ;  and  in 
1899  there  was  no  coinage  but  a  few  specimens  of  the 
pound  of  the  previous  year  (only  102  in  all)  were  im- 
pressed with  the  figures  "  99."  [See  PI.  XII.  3.]  In  the 
present  year  pounds  only  have  been  struck,  and  by  a 
recent  order  the  Transvaal  coinage  is  being  recalled  at  its 
face  value.  It  is  therefore  probable  that  within  a  few 
months  all  the  late  coinage  will  have  passed  out  of  circu- 
lation. In  consequence  this  has  been  considered  a 
favourable  opportunity  to  place  on  record  the  above 


AN  UNPUBLISHED  SILVER  COIN  OF  VERICA. — The  small  coin  of 
which  the  following  is  an  illustration  with  a  description,  makes 
another  addition  to  the  numerous  and  interesting  series  of  the 
money  of  the  British  chief,  Verica. 

Obv. — Laureate  head  to  right ;  before  \ERIC. 

Eev. — A  torque,  within  which  the  letters  OF.  (Commii 
Filius);  around,  border  of  dots. 

M.  -3.     Wt.  3-4  grs. 

This  small  but  interesting  coin  was  found  near  Challow,  in 
Berks,  and  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  J.  N.  Barnes,  of 
Lambourne.  The  reverse  type  is  quite  new,  and  the  obverse 
bears  a  head  differing  entirely  from  any  others  which  occur  on 
the  hitherto  published  coins  of  Verica.  A  glance  at  the  illus- 
tration of  the  coins  of  Verica  given  by  Sir  John  Evans  in  his 
Coins  of  the  Ancient  Britons  shows  us  that  this  chief  often 
adopted  the  types  of  Roman  coins  for  his  money.  Thus  we  have 
the  galloping  horseman,  the  shield  which  is  found  on  Repub- 
lican as  well  as  on  coins  of  Augustus,  the  double  cornucopiae,  a 
type  of  Marc  Antony,  the  Capricorn,  the  symbol  of  Augustus, 
and  several  others. 

The  representation  of  a  torque  is,  however,  a  new  type  for 
Verica  ;  but  a  precisely  similar  ornament  is  found  on  the  Repub- 
lican coins  of  L.  Manlius  Torquatus,  who,  as  quaestor,  struck 
his  money  about  B.C.  98.  In  this  case,  however,  it  forms  an 
adjunct  to  the  head  of  Roma,  which  it  encircles.  The  torque, 
however,  was  not  an  uncommon  ornament  on  British  coins,  and 
as  it  was  also  one  of  daily  use,  we  need  not  go  so  far  back  as  a 
century  B.C.  to  seek  a  reason  for  its  finding  a  place  as  a  type  of 
the  above  coin.  The  head  on  the  obverse  appears  to  be  almost 



an  absolute  copy  of  a  coin  of  Tiberius.  The  likeness  to  that 
emperor  is  so  strong  that  failing  the  inscription  pne  might  have, 
at  first  sight,  claimed  the  piece  for  Tiberius  and  not  for  Verica. 
This  last  point  may  offer  some  clue  to  the  date  of  this  chief. 
As  he  copied  the  coins  of  Marc  Antony  and  Augustus,  he  must 
have  lived  contemporary  or  subsequent  to  the  latter.  This 
representation  of  the  head  of  Tiberius  brings  us  down  to  a  later 
date,  and  is  in  favour  of  Akerman's  view  (Num.  Chron.,  xi. 
p.  155),  that  the  Verica  of  the  coins  is  the  same  individual  as 
the  Bericus  of  Dion  Cassius  (Hist.  Rom.,  lib.  Ix.  956),  who, 
being  a  fugitive  on  account  of  sedition,  instigated  Claudius  to 
send  the  expedition  to  Britain  under  Aulus  Plautius  in  A.D.  43. 
Sir  John  Evans  (Anc.  Brit.  Coins,  p.  171),  however,  from  the 
evidence  of  finds,  is  of  opinion  that  the  coins  of  Verica  are 
decidedly  more  ancient  than  those  of  Cunobeline,  who,  as  it 
appears  from  Dion  Cassius,  died  before  the  expedition  of 
Claudius.  The  smallness  of  the  coin  and  its  light  weight  offer 
nothing  new,  as  pieces  of  this  denomination  are  not  at  all  un- 
common in  the  reign  of  Verica.  On  this  point  Sir  John  Evans 
remarks  that,  "  looking  at  the  size  of  the  coins,  which  shows 
that  very  small  denominations  of  money  must  have  been 
requisite  for  the  purposes  of  trade,  and  that  there  must,  in  con- 
sequence, have  been  a  considerable  degree  of  civilisation  in  the 
part  of  the  country  where  such  a  currency  existed,  I  think 
that  most  of  these  pieces  must  be  assigned  to  the  latter  portion 
of  the  reign  of  Verica." 


through  my  Saxon  coins  recently  I  found  that  the  following 
present  some  points  of  interest,  as  they  differ,  more  or  less, 
from  any  given  either  in  Ruding,  Hawkins,  Hildebrand,  the 
British  Museum  Catalogue,  or  the  Montagu  Collection. 

1.  Obv. — flCE3flNA3:+  around  a  cross, 

Eev. — TVXTflVEH-  around  five  dots  in  form  of  a  cross. 

Probably  this  moneyer's  name  is  a  blundered  form  of  EAR- 
DVLF.  The  three  crosses  on  this  coin  are  somewhat  peculiar, 
being  intermediate  between  a  cross  pattee  and  a  cross-crosslet. 



2.  Obv.— 8351  Jia3+     Centre  indistinct. 
Rev. — KNEOW*+  around  a  cross  pommee. 

A  variety  of  the  well-known  MONNE. 


3.  Obv.—  BVEGEED  EEX~.     Bust  r.,  diademed. 

Rev, — VVLFEED  MONET7V   in  three  lines;  upper  and 
lower  portions  enclosed  in  unbroken  lunettes. 
B.  M.  Cat.,  type  A. 

Possibly  a  new  moneyer.  There  is,  however,  in  the  British 
Museum  Collection  a  coin  (No.  893)  of  the  same  type,  reading 
VVLFEED,  which  is  attributed  to  VVLFEAED,  so  that  it  may 
be  a  question  whether  WLFEED  is  a  distinct  moneyer  or  not. 


4.  Obv. — +7TELBEED  EEX.     Bust  r.,  diademed. 

jRet;.— EDELMVN)   MOraTTV  in  three  lines,  upper  and 
lower  portions  enclosed  in  unbroken  lunettes. 

B.  M.  Cat,  type  I. 

The  name  EDELMVND  appears  in  the  British  Museum 
Catalogue  as  one  of  Aelfred's  moneyers,  but  there  is  no  speci- 
men in  that  collection,  nor  was  there  one  in  the  Montagu 
Cabinet.  It  seems  therefore  desirable  to  place  this  coin  on 
record,  especially  as  neither  Ruding  nor  Hawkins  give  any  such 
name  in  their  lists. 


5.  Obv. — EADEED  EE+0  around  a  small  cross  pattee. 

Rev.— EEIZTINHE0    in   two    lines    divided    by  three 
crosses,  triangle  of  dots  above  and  below. 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  I. 

I  think  this  is  the  first  coin  of  Eadred  which  has  been  pub- 
lished of  the  York  mint. 


6.  Obv. — +EADEED  EE+  around  a  small  cross  pattee. 

Revt — VVILSIG  H_0  in  two  lines,  divided  by  a  cross 
between  two  annulets  ;  rosette  of  dots  above  and 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  I. 

The  name  VYILSIC  appears  on  the  coins  both  of  Eadwig 
and  Eadgar,  but  is  new  so  far  as  Eadred  is  concerned. 


7.  Obv. — +EADCAEEI  around  a  small  cross  pattee. 

Eev. — VVEEZTATtf  in  two  lines,  divided  by  a  cross 
between  two  annulets  ;  rosette  of  dots  above  and 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  I.,  var.  d. 

This  coin  is  the  converse  of  No.  6,  WEESTAN  being  well 
known  as  one  of  Eadred's  moneyers,  but  not  hitherto  recorded 
for  Eadgar. 

8.  Obv. — EADEAE  EEX  ;  in  field,  M.     Small  cross  pattee, 

legend  between  two  circles. 

Rev.— ELFEEDES  MON  in  two  lines,  divided  by  three 
crosses  ;  rosette  of  dots  above  and  below. 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  I.,  var.  c. 

The  only  coins  of  this  moneyer  in  the  British  Museum  Col- 
lection belong  to  type  var.  d,  and  lack  the  M  in  the  field  on  the 
obverse,  which,  though  not  uncommon  in  var.  c,  does  not  seem 
to  occur  in  the  other  classes.  This  coin  therefore  forms  a  link 
between  vars.  c  and  d. 


9.  Obv.— -+^EDELE^ED    EEX   MSDLOK       Bust    to    left, 

diademed  ;  in  front,  sceptre. 

Rev.— +^EDELPERD  M~0  PELT.  Short  cross  voided, 
CEV+  in  the  angles. 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  III.,  var.  a. 


This  well-known  moneyer  is  recorded  by  Hildebrand  as 
striking  this  type  at  Hertford  and  Sudbury,  the  British  Museum 
has  one  struck  in  London,  and  Wallingford  can  now  be  added 
to  the  list. 


10.  Obv.— +ENVT   EEX   ANGLO.      Bust  to  left,  crowned, 

within  nearly  circular  quatrefoil. 

Bey.— +FEEDP  •  INB  0  LVN.  On  a  quatrefoil,  the 
angles  much  arched,  long  cross  voided,  each  limb 
terminating  in  three  crescents. 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  VIII. 

Hildebrand  (Nos.  2343—2352)  gives  FEEDI  as  a  London 
moneyer  of  Cnut,  and  the  British  Museum  Catalogue  gives 
FEEDI,  suggesting  that  perhaps  the  full  reading  of  the  name 
may  have  been  FEEDIE.  There  can,  I  think,  now  be  no 
doubt  that  it  was  the  same  name  as  that  of  the  moneyer 
FEEDPINE,  who  worked  at  Steyning.  I  have  seen  three 
coins  like  the  above,  and  all  appear  to  have  come  from  the 
same  dies. 


11.  Obv.— +HAEDEN/T.     Bust  to  left,  diademed.     In  front, 

sceptre  held  in  left   hand.     Inscription  divided 
by  bust. 

7?^.— +PVLFPINE  ON  HVN.  Over  short  cross  voided, 
a  quadrilateral  ornament  with  pellet  at  each 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  II. 

Lot  108  in  the  Montagu  Sale,  second  part,  was  a  similar 
coin  reading  PVLFPI  ON  HVNTA,  leaving  it  in  doubt  whether 
the  full  name  should  be  PYLFPIE  or  PVLFPINE. 


12.  Obv.— +EDP:ED    EEX.      Bust  to  left,  diademed;    in 

front,  sceptre. 

fi^.— +LEOFEED  ON  LYNX  Short  cross  voided,  the 
limbs  gradually  expanding,  and  united  at  the  base 
by  two  circles. 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  V. 


This  coin  is  peculiar  in  having  a  pellet  on  the  end  of  each 
limb  of  the  cross.  I  do  not  think  that  this  variety  of  the  type 
has  been  previously  noted,  but  in  the  British  Museum  there  is 
one  (No.  934),  CODPINE  ON  LVND,  which  has  four  pellets 
in  the  same  position  ;  and  another  (No.  941),  LIFINEE  ONN 
LVNDEN,  which  has  a  pellet  on  each  of  two  opposite  limbs. 
At  present  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  any  others. 

13.  Qbv.  —  EADPAKD  REX  ANGLO.    King  seated  on  throne, 

holding  orb  and  sceptre. 

#^.—  +PVLFRIE   ON  HSTE.      Short  cross  voided,  a 
martlet  in  each  angle. 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  IX. 

In  the  British  Museum  are  coins  of  this  type  struck  by  the 
same  moneyer  at  Chichester,  Lincoln,  London,  Shaftesbury, 
and  Steyning,  to  which  Hildebrand  adds  Ilchester,  and  the 
above  coin  Hastings. 


14.  Obv.—  +HAROLD    REXAN.        Bust   to   left,    crowned. 

In  front,  sceptre. 

ON  DEO.     Across  field  and  between 
two  lines,  P7TX. 

B.  M.  Cat.,  type  I. 

A  new  moneyer,  perhaps  the  name  should  have  read  DVNINE. 

In  the  above  list,  Nos.  8,  9,  and  13  are  particularly  interest- 
ing just  now  in  connection  with  the  suggestion  lately  made  by 
Mr.  W.  J.  Andrew,  that  the  different  types  are  really  successive 
issues,  intended  to  supersede  those  already  in  circulation  ;  and 
I  cannot  but  think  that  a  good  deal  of  light  would  be  thrown 
upon  this  point  if  our  collections  could  be  arranged  first  in 
types,  and  then  in  mints  and  moneyers,  so  as  to  enable  us  to 
work  out  the  subject  on  the  same  lines  adopted  by  Fir  John 
Evans  in  his  paper  on  "  The  Short-cross  Question,"  in  1867. 

W.  C.  BOYD. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  N   N 


Money.  By  A.  R.  S.  Kennedy.  (From  Hastings'  Dictionary 
of  the  Bible,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  417 — 432.  With  two  Plates.  8vo.) 

Prof.  Kennedy's  contribution  to  the  new  Bible  Dictionary  is 
of  a  merit  so  unusual  in  articles  provided  by  English  archaeo- 
logical dictionaries,  that  it  would  be  unfair  to  let  it  pass  un- 
noticed, merely  because  it  has  not  appeared  independently. 
Although  the  writer  is  not  a  numismatist,  his  acquaintance  with 
Hebrew  literature  enables  him  to  throw  a  great  deal  of  light  on 
the  vexed  questions  of  Jewish  numismatics  ;  and  he'  has  evi- 
dently made  a  most  conscientious  study  of  all  the  numismatic 
literature  bearing  on  his  subject.  No  question  of  importance 
relating  to  the  currency  of  Palestine,  both  foreign  and  native, 
coined  and  uncoined,  from  the  earliest  time  to  the  Second 
Revolt,  is  passed  over ;  and  Mr.  Kennedy  exhibits  a  caution 
which  cannot  be  too  highly  commended  in  the  conclusions  to 
which  he  comes.  The  well-known  silver  shekels  which  used 
to  be  given  to  Simon  the  Hasmonaean  he  attributes,  in  accord- 
ance with  recent  tendency,  to  the  First  Revolt.  We  hoped 
that  these  shekels  had  now  found  a  resting-place  ;  but  M. 
Theodore  Reinach  has  quite  recently  (Rev.  des  Etudes  Gr.,  xiii., 
p.  213)  discarded  the  view  which  he  formerly  held,  and  before 
long  we  may  see  him  renovare  proelium.  Probably  the  part 
of  Mr.  Kennedy's  article  which  will  be  most  consulted  by  the 
average  reader  is  the  passage  dealing  with  the  coins  circulating 
in  Palestine  in  the  time  of  Christ.  An  interesting  question  is 
suggested  by  the  discussion  of  the  kodrantes.  There  is  no  evi- 
dence that  the  Roman  quadrans  was  in  circulation  under  the 
Empire  except  for  the  brief  period  between  the  reigns  of  Nero 
and  Trajan.  The  references  to  this  coin  would  seem  to  indi- 
cate that  the  texts  received  their  present  form,  or  that  the 
phrases  "  two  lepta  which  make  a  kodrantes  "  and  "  the  utter- 
most kodrantes"  were  inserted  in  the  texts,  during  that  period 
Mr.  Kennedy's  statement  that  the  legionary  soldier  received  a 
denarius  a  day  is  misleading.  His  pay  was  fixed  by  Caesar  at 
a  sum  amounting  to  225  denarii  a  year,  or  £  denarius  a  day. 
Only  in  terms  of  the  old  denarius  of  10  asses  could  this  be 
called  "a  denarius  a  day." 

The  two  plates  which  illustrate  Mr.  Kennedy's  article  are 
only  moderately  good.  Jewish  coins  are  such  poor  works  of 
art  that  they  require  to  be  illustrated  either  by  line-blocks  or 
by  the  very  best  collotype  process. 


It  may  be  worth  while  to  add  that  the  article  is  so  well  and 
clearly  arranged  that  the  reader  need  not  be  a  numismatist  or 
a  Hebrew  scholar  in  order  to  derive  benefit  from  it. 

G.  F.  H. 

The  Token  Money  of  the  Bank  of  England,  1797 — 1816.     By 
Maberly  Phillips,  F.S.A.     Effingham  Wilson,  Royal  Exchange. 

To  the  numismatist  and  economist  it  seems  almost  incredible 
that,  in  spite  of  the  care  which  had  been  exercised  since  the  reign 
of  Elizabeth  to  preserve  the  standard  of  our  coinage  and  to 
provide  a  sufficiency  for  general  use,  it  should  have  fallen  into 
such  a  disorganised  condition  during  the  second  half  of  the  last 
century  and  the  first  few  years  of  the   present  one.     Ruding 
tells  us,  that  at  the  accession  of  George  III  the  coinage  was 
found  to  be  in  a   very  imperfect  state.      Crown  pieces  had 
almost  wholly  disappeared ;  the  half-crowns  which  remained 
were  defaced  and  impaired,  and  by  no  means  adequate  for  the 
purposes  for  which  they  were  intended  ;  the  shillings  had  lost 
almost  every  mark  of  impression,  and  the  sixpences  were  in  a 
worse  state.     The  gold  coinage,  too,  was  rapidly  approaching 
a  similar  condition.     This  gloomy  view  seems  to  us  perhaps 
somewhat  exaggerated  ;  but  nevertheless  there  is  ho  doubt  that 
the  coinage  generally  was  getting  into  a  bad  state,  and  in  spite 
of  this  the  Government  took  so  few  measures  to  ameliorate  it, 
that  from  1760  to  1817  there  was  only  one  issue  of  what  may 
be  called  an  official  silver  coinage.     This  occurred  in  1787, 
when  shillings  and   sixpences  to  the  amount  only  of  about 
seventy  or  eighty  thousand  pounds  were  struck.     The  copper 
money  fared  but  little  better,  and  so  gave  rise  to  an  enormous 
issue  of  tradesmen's  tokens  throughout  the  country  ;  but  some 
attention  was  paid  to  the  gold,  which,  however,  suffered  much 
from  clipping  and  sweating.     Various  enactments  were  made 
forbidding  the  importation  of  debased  coins  and  others  of  light 
weight ;  but  the  demand  for  a  currency  of  some  kind  or  other 
was  so  great  that  no  heed  was  paid  to  them.     It  was  this  con- 
dition of  things  that  gave  rise  to  the  issue  of  the  token  money 
of  the  Bank  of  England,  which  is  the  main  subject  of  Mr. 
Phillips'  work.      Previous  to  the  issue  of  these  tokens   the 
Government  made  two  fruitless  attempts  to  remedy  the  dearth 
of  small  change.     The  first  was  by  allowing  the  Bank  of  Eng- 
land to  issue  notes  for  £2  and  JB1,  and  the  country  bankers 
others  of  smaller  amounts,    10s.,   5s.,  and  Is.  ;  but  these  pro- 
visions did  not  remove  the  difficulty,  as  those  who  had  change 
would  not  part  with  it.     The  next  move  was  the  supply  of 
Spanish  dollars,    half,   quarter,   and    eighth    dollars,   counter- 


stamped  with  a  small  head  of  George  III,  the  mark  then  used 
by  silversmiths.  Much  of  this  Spanish  silver  came  from  trea- 
sure-ships captured  by  the  English.  The  dollar  at  first  was 
made  current  for  4s.  6d.,  but  as  its  bullion  value  was  4s.  8d., 
a  number  soon  found  their  way  into  the  melting-pot ;  but  this 
was  remedied  by  raising  its  current  value  to  4s.  9d.  Then 
the  forger  stepped  in  and  made  his  counterfeits  in  base  metal, 
and  in  spite  of  the  change  of  the  counter-stamp,  continued  his 
nefarious  practice.  It  seems  strange  that  no  attempt  was 
made  to  melt  down  the  Spanish  coins  and  issue  a  proper  official 
coinage;  it  could  not  have  been  for  want  of  good  machinery 
at  the  Mint,  nor  of  capable  artists  to  execute  the  dies.  Instead 
of  this,  the  circulation  of  the  Spanish  coin  was  prohibited,  and 
permission  was  given  to  the  Bank  of  England  in  1804  to  issue 
dollars  of  the  current  value  of  5s.,  and  subsequently  other  pieces 
of  the  value  of  3s.  and  Is.  6d.,  and  these  for  several  years 
formed  the  bulk  of  silver  money  in  this  country.  The  only 
other  silver  in  circulation  consisted  of  very  "  thin  and  worn 
coins  which  had  escaped  the  melting-pot,  and  also  foreign 
coins,  which  were  often  so  thin  and  effaced  that  it  was  impos- 
sible to  identify  them."  In  order  to  give  a  certain  value  to 
such  pieces  they  were  often  stamped  with  the  initials  of  private 
firms,  by  which  means  a  local  circulation  was  secured.  Mr. 
Phillips  tells  us  that  it  was  under  such  conditions  that  on 
May  21st,  1816,  a  committee  appointed  by  the  Government  to 
inquire  into  the  state  of  the  coin  of  the  kingdom  advocated  a 
new  coinage  of  silver,  and  this  advice,  even  at  a  great  sacrifice, 
was  adopted,  and  the  following  year  witnessed  not  only  a 
new  issue  of  silver  on  the  old  standard  and  of  former  denomi- 
nation, but  also  a  reform  of  the  gold  money,  the  twenty- 
shilling  piece  bein<*  once  more  introduced,  bearing  the  old  name 
of  sovereign,  and  its  half.  With  this  new  issue  all  the  Bank 
tokens  and  the  much-worn  silver  soon  disappeared  from  circu- 
lation, and  the  coinage  of  this  realm  has  since  been  so  well 
regulated  that  there  has  been  no  occasion  to  revive  the  token 
money  or  again  to  resort  to  similar  methods. 

Besides  the  Bank  token  money,  Mr.  Phillips  gives  some 
account  of  the  private  silver  tokens  struck  during  this  period, 
and  of  the  use  to  which  the  Spanish  dollar  was  put  in  the  West 
Indies,  where  it  was  pierced  or  cut  up  into  parts.  The  author 
has  taken  considerable  pains  to  look  into  contemporary  records, 
both  official  and  others,  and  with  the  help  of  these  he  has  pro- 
duced a  very  readable  book,  which  otherwise  might  have  been 
a  little  technical.  The  illustrations  are  good  and  numerous, 
and  have  the  advantage  of  being  introduced  into  the  text. 

H.  G. 

Num.  Chrcm.Ser.rn  Vol.XX.Pl  VII. 


Nunv.  Ckro7v.$er. M.  Vob.XX.Pl.V/ff. 

7    /R 

mr&A ' 


9        /R 

II  /R 

II  /R 


Num>.  ChronStr.  /If.  VoL.XX.Pl,  IX'. 


Chron.Ser.lff.  Vol.YX.Pl.Xf 

THE    GREAT    SEAL   OF  EDWARD   III.  1340-1372. 
( Actu,gd,  size 

Num,.  C 



IN  1900. 

(See  Plates  XIIL,  XIV.) 

IT  will  be  seen  from  the  table  given  below  that  the  total 
number  of  Greek  coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum 
during  the  year  1900  is  915.  Most  of  these  have  been 
obtained  by  purchase  out  of  the  ordinary  Departmental 
Grant,  but  some  are  presentations  due  to  the  kindness  of 
Sir  John  Evans,  Mr.  Barclay  V.  Head,  Mr.  A.  J.  Lawson, 
Miss  K.  Radford,  Mr.  W.  T.  Ready,  and  the  Society  for  the 
Promotion  of  Hellenic  Studies.  As  in  my  thirteen  former 
papers,1 1  give  an  account  of  some  of  the  more  noteworthy 
specimens.  Among  the  acquisitions  of  the  year  are 
numerous  Lydian  coins,  but  I  have  not  referred  to  them 
here,  because  they  will  be  included  in  the  Museum  Cata- 

1  Important  Greek  acquisitions  of  the  Department  of  Coins 
and  Medals  from  the  year  1887  onwards  will  be  found  de- 
scribed by  me  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  for  1888,  p.  1  f.  ; 
1889,  p.  249  f. ;  1890,  p.  311  f. ;  1891,  p.  116  f.  ;  1892, 
p.  1  f.  ;  1893,  p.  1  f. ;  1894,  p.  1  f.  ;  1895,  p.  89  f. ;  1896, 
p.  85  f. :  1897,  p.  93  f.  ;  1898,  p.  97  f.  ;  1899,  p.  85  f.  ;  1900, 
p.  1  f.  In  preparing  this  paper  I  have  had  the  advantage  of 
consulting  the  section  on  Greek  coins  written  by  Mr.  Barclay 
Head  for  the  Parliamentary  Report  of  the  British  Museum, 
and  I  am  also  indebted  for  several  valuable  suggestions  to 
Mr.  Head  and  Mr.  G.  F.  Bill. 

VOL.    XX.   THIRD   SERIES.  O  O 



logue  of  Lydia,  which  Mr.  Head  is  now  seeing  through 
the  press.  Numerous  Phrygian,  Parthian,  and  Phoenician 
coins — the  last-named  acquired  at  the  Reichardt  sale — 
have  also  been  omitted,  as  they  will  find  their  place  in 
volumes  of  the  Greek  Catalogue  that  will  soon  be  taken 
in  hand. 

GREEK  COINS  ACQUIRED  1887 — 1900. 


Gold  and 


Bronze,  &c. 








































































Total  .  . 






1.  Obv. — Head  of  Persephone  1.,  wreathed  with  corn,  and 
wearing  earring  and  necklace  ;  around,  four  dol- 
phins ;  in  field,  under  chin,  pellet ;  border  of 

Rev. — Quadriga  1.,  driven  by  charioteer  holding  goad  and 
reins  ;  horses  galloping  ;  above,  Nike  flying  r. 
to  crown  charioteer  ;  in  exergue,  [^]YPAKO- 
^1  .  .  ;  border  of  dots. 

M.    Size  1-05.    Wt.  259-3  grs.     [PI.  XIII.  1.] 

(Purchased  at  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  May,  1900,  "  Greek 


Coins  of  a  late  Collector,"  lot  154;  previously 
in  Carfrae  Sale,  Sotheby's,  May,  1894,  lot  68.) 

A  very  rare  tetradrachm  by  Evaenetos,  important  on 
account  of  its  bearing  the  same  types  as  his  (unsigned) 
dekadrachms,  on  several  of  which  a  pellet  is  placed  beneath 
the  chin,  as  here  (Brit.  Mm.  Cat.,  Sicily,  "  Syracuse/' 
Nos.  179-184).  The  existence  of  this  tetradrachm  may 
possibly  suggest  some  modification  of  Mr.  A.  J.  Evans's 
view,2  that  the  mintage  of  tetradrachms  at  Syracuse 
ceased  about  the  time  (circ.  B.C.  406)  when  Evaenetos's 
dekadrachms  were  first  issued. 


2.  Obv. — Head   of  Persephone  1.  wreathed  with    corn  and 

wearing    earring    and    necklace ;    around,  four 
dolphins  ;  in  field  1.,  pellet  ? ;  border  of  dots. 

Rev. — Horse  walking  r. ;  in  background,  palm-tree  ;  cir- 
cular incuse. 

M.    Size  1-05.  Wt.  264-5  grs.    [PI.  XIII.  2.] 

(Presented  by  Miss  Kate   Radford,  in  accordance  with 
the  wish  of  the  late  Dr.  Radford.) 


3.  Obv. — Ass    (ithyphallic)    standing   r. ;    above,    drinking- 

vessel  (obscure)  ;3  border  of  dots. 

Rev. —  |t  A  occupying  two  of  the  four  compartments  of  an 
incuse  square  of  mill-sail  pattern. 

Si.     Size  -55.    Wt.  39  grs.    [PI.  XIII.  3.] 

This  town  was  not  represented  in  the  British  Museum 
when  the  catalogue  Macedonia  was  published.     A  tetrobol 

2  Syracusan  Medallions  (1892),  pp.  150,  151. 

3  Called  by  Von  Sallet,  a  kantharos ;  by  Imhoof-Blumer,  a 



(wt.  43*8  grs.)  similar  to  that  here  described  was  acquired 
by  the  British  Museum  in  1881,  but  its  condition  is  not 
so  good.  The  resemblance  of  these  coins  in  type,  style, 
and  weight,  to  those  of  Mende  in  Pallene  is  obvious,  and 
Von  Sallet  (Z.f.  N.  xii.,  1885,  p.  358),  describing  the 
specimen  in  the  French  collection,  supposed  it  to  have 
been  struck  at  Mende,  while  bearing  the  name  of  Kanas- 
traion.  But  Kanastraion  is  known  only  as  the  name  of  a 
promontory  of  Pallene,  and  Imhoof-Blumer's  attribution4  to 
Kampsa  or  Kapsa,  a  town  in  the  Chalcidice,  north  of  Mende, 
is  decidedly  preferable,  though  hardly  to  be  regarded  as 
beyond  all  doubt.  The  town  is  known  only  from  a  mention 
in  Herodotus  (vii.  123),  who  speaks  of  Kampsa  as  existing  at 
the  time  of  the  expedition  of  Xerxes,  and  from  a  notice  in 
Stephanus  Byz.,  who  has :  —  Ka^a  TroAfs- 
y^wpas  Kara  naAA?/i^v,  o/mopovaa  TW  Qep/j.aiuj  Ko 
6  TroAmys'  Kcn^aTos. 

The  ass  must  be  here,  as  at  Mende,  a  Dionysiac  type, 
and  the  drinking  vessel  above  it  may  be  regarded  at  this 
early  period  (circ.  B.C.  480)  as  part  of  the  main  type 
rather  than  as  a  magistrate's  symbol.  If  the  real  name 
of  the  town  is  Ka^a  it  may  possibly  be  connected  with 
the  word  KCLTTTW  (fut.  KCL^IO),  which  means  to  greedily 
gulp  down  liquids  or  eatables,  and  with  KCI^IS,  "  the  act  of 
gulping  down." 


4.  Obv. —  fl   O     Poseidon  Hippios   on   horse  r.,  holding  in 
r.  trident,  in  1.  reins. 

Rev. — Quadripartite  incuse  square,  containing  two  floral 
(?)  devices,  \  and  uncertain  object. 

M.     Size  -6.    Wt.  37-3  grs.    [PL  XIII.  4.] 
4  Monn.  gr.,  pp.  69,  70 ;  adopted  by  Head,  H.  N.,  p.  187. 


A  very  rare  variety  of  the  tetrobols  of  Potidaea,  which 
usually  have  a  female  head  on  the  reverse  (Brit.  Mm.  Cat. 
Macedonia,  p.  100).  It  is,  perhaps,  similar  to  one  pub- 
lished by  Borrell  from  his  own  collection  (Num.  Chron., 
iii.,  p.  139,  No.  2  ;  wt.  41 J  grs.).  The  Museum  coin  is 
somewhat  worn,  and  carelessly  struck,  but  it  is  certainly 
the  earliest  of  the  tetrobols,  and  was  issued,  perhaps,  circ. 
B.C.  500. 

B.C.  336—323. 

5.  Obv. — Head  of  beardless  Herakles  r.  in  lion's  skin. 

Eev. — A  A  EH  AN  APoY  Eagle  standing  r.  on  club ; 
head  turned  1. 

M.     Size  -6.     Wt.  62-5  grs.    [PI.  XIII.  5.] 

This  scarce  drachm  of  Alexander's  first  coinage  is 
similar  to  one  in  the  French  collection :  see  Imhoof- 
Blumer,  Monn.  gr.,  p.  118,  No.  23. 


6.  Obv. — Head  of  beardless  Herakles  r.  in  lion's  skin  ;  border. 

Eev. — AAEZANAPoY  Zeus  wearing  himation  seated 
1.  on  throne  with  back  ;  in  r.  hand  eagle  ;  1.  hand 
on  sceptre ;  feet  on  foot-stool ;  beneath  throne, 
A  I  ;  in  field  1.,  statue  of  naked  Herakles  stand- 
ing towards  r.  ;  his  1.  arm  rests  on  his  club, 
which  is  placed  on  rock  ;  the  lion's  skin  hangs 
from  club ;  his  r.  hand  is  placed  behind  his 
back  :  border  of  dots. 

M.     Size  1-1.   Wt.  262-4  grs.    [PI.  XIII.  6.] 

(Purchased  at  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  May,   1900,  "  Greek 
Coins  of  a  late  Collector,"  lot  208.) 


This  tetradrachm  is  almost  identical  with  the  specimen 
first  published  by  the  late  Sir  Edward  Bunbury  in  Num. 
Chron.,  1883,  p.  7  f.,5  but  is  struck  from  different  dies. 
It  is  of  Miiller's  Class  iv.  (B.C.  300-280),  and  is  attributed 
by  Bunbury  to  Sicyon  (cp.  Miiller,  No.  875). 

The  Herakles  symbol,  as  Bunbury  has  already  noted, 
closely  resembles  the  well-known  Farnese  Hercules  in  the 
Naples  Museum.  This  statue  is  a  product  of  the  Neo- 
Attic  school,  and  is  signed  by  Glykon  the  Athenian,  a 
sculptor  who  probably  flourished  towards  the  end  of  the 
first  century  B.C.  The  motive  of  the  statue  has  been 
usually  traced  to  a  Resting  Herakles  by  Lysippus,  but 
for  the  general  treatment,  and  especially  for  the  exaggera- 
tion of  the  muscular  forms,  Glycon,  and  not  Lysippus, 
must  be  held  responsible.6 


7.  Obv.—/\  BA  HPI  TEn/V  Griffin  with  rounded 
wing  seated  1.  ;  right  fore-paw  raised ;  border  of 

Rev. — Quadripartite  square,  around  which,  EPI/VYM- 
4>OAJQPO ;  the  whole  in  shallow  incuse 

M.    Size  1-05.   Wt.  227'2  grs.   [PI.  XIII.  7.] 

Yon  Sallet  (Z.f.  N.,  viii.,  1881,  p.  105),  who  published 
a  somewhat  less  perfect  specimen  of  this  tetradrachm  in  the 
possession  of  M.  Lambros,  first  suggested  the  identification 
of  the  magistrate  with  Nymphodoros,  a  well-known  citizen 

5  Cp.  Bunbury,  Sale  CataL,  Part  L,  lot  766. 

6  On  the  statue,  see  A.    S.  Murray,  ii.,  pp.  350-352  ;  Collig- 
non,  ii.,  p.  425  f.  ;  634  ;  Ernest  Gardner,  pp.  501-503 ;  Bau- 
meister,  Denkmaler,  s.v.  "  Glykon.? 


of  Abdera,  who  became  the  proxenos  of  the  Athenians  at 
Abdera,  and  in  B.C.  430  brought  about  for  them  an 
alliance  with  Sitalkes  the  King  of  Thrace,  who  had  married 
his  sister.7  This  identification  is  extremely  probable, 
though  Von  Ballet's  supposition  that  Nymphodoros  was 
"  regent "  of  Abdera  seems  to  go  rather  beyond  the 

The  father  of  Nymphodoros  was  named  Pythes,  and  it 
may  be  noted  that  a  magistrate  Pythes — EPI  PYOEfl, 
— is  named  on  a  coin  of  Abdera  in  the  Berlin  Museum 
(Von  Sallet,  Beschreibung,  i.,  p.  109,  No.  89).  As  the 
coin  is  decidedly  later  than  the  tetradrachm  of  Nympho- 
doros, the  Pythes  mentioned  cannot  be  the  father  of 
Nymphodoros,  though  he  may  possibly  be  his  son  bearing 
the  grandfather's  name.  There  seems,  however,  some 
doubt  as  to  the  reading  PYQE.Q,  for  in  the  index  to  the 
Beschreibung ,  p.  346,  the  name  is  given  as  PYGEfl  .  . 
i.e.  two  letters  are  supposed  to  be  missing  from  the  end 
of  the  name. 

A  tetradrachm  of  Abdera,  published  by  Greenwell  from 
his  collection  (Num.  Chron.,  1897,  p.  273,  No.  I;8  pi. 
xiii.  1),  with  the  inscription  EPIPY0I  /V/VEfl,  bears 
much  resemblance  to  the  Nymphodoros  tetradrachm.  In 
each  case  the  town-name  (which  rarely  appears  on  the 
earlier  coins  of  Abdera)  is  inscribed  on  the  obverse. 


8.  Obv. — Griffin  with  rounded  wing  (feathers  not  indicated) 
seated  1.  ;  right  fore-paw  raised. 

Rev. — Lion's  scalp  within  incuse  square. 

M.     Size  -5.   Wt.  23-8  grs.    [PI.  XIII.  8.] 

7  Hdtus.,  vii.,  137;  Thuc.,  ii.,  29. 

*  In  this  description,./or  seated  r.  read  seated  1. 


I  may  take  this  opportunity  of  remarking  that  the 
usual  (though  not  quite  invariable)  direction  of  the  griffin 
on  the  coins  of  Abdera  is  to  the  left,  while  on  the  coins  of 
Teos  the  monster  is  turned  to  the  right.  This  distinction 
was  probably  not  due  to  an  accident,  but  to  a  desire  to 
distinguish  two  similar  coinages.  A  like  distinction  was 
made  in  the  case  of  the  obverse  types  of  the  electrum 
Hectae  of  Lesbos  and  Phocaea.9 


9.  Obv. — Apollo,  wearing  himatkm  over  lower  limbs,  seated 
1.  on  omphalos  ;  in  r.  hand  bow  resting  on 
ground  ;  1.  hand  placed  on  omphalos  ;  counter- 
mark, star  of  eight  rays. 

Rev. — OAAH^     Anchor  inverted;    in  field   1.,    A;  in 
field  r.,  crayfish;  circular  incuse. 

IS*   (brass,    covered    with    black    patina). 
Size  -7.     [PI.  XIII.  9.] 

10.  Obv.—  <|>AVCTINA    C6BACTH     Bust  of  Faustina 
jun.  r. 

Rev.— ATTOAAfl  N    I    HTEHN     Flaming  altar  con- 
6NTTONT  sisting   of  two 


M.     Size  -8.     [PI.  XIII.  10.] 

These  coins  were  purchased  from  a  dealer  last  year, 
and  are  evidently  the  identical  pieces  published,  from 
impressions,  by  Svoronos  in  Journ.  internat.  ii.,  1899,  p. 
85  (cp.  Tacchella,  Rev.  Num.,  1898,  p.  212,  No.  11). 
Svoronos  supplies  the  information  that  they  were  found 
at  Sozoupolis,  the  ancient  Apollonia  Pontica.10 

9  Brit.  MHK.  Cat.,  JVoa.s,  &c.,  p.  Ixvii. 

10  On  the  judicious  transference  of  the  autonomous  coins  of 
Apollonia  ad  Rhyndacum  in  Mysia  to  Apollonia  Pontica,  see 


The  Apollo  on  the  bronze  coins  of  the  type  of  No.  9 
has  been  described  by  all  previous  writers  as  naked  ;  on 
this  specimen,  at  any  rate,  the  himation  is  clearly  seen. 
The -presence  of  drapery,  to  some  extent,  differentiates 
this  type  from  the  "  Apollo  on  the  omphalos  "  familiar  on 
the  coins  of  the  Seleucid  Kings.  A  well-known  colossal 
statue  of  Apollo  by  Kalamis  existed  at  Apollonia.  Dr. 
Pick  (Jahrbuch  Arch.  Inst.,  xiii.,  1898,  p.  168)  would 
recognise  a  reproduction  of  this  statue,  not  on  coins  of 
the  seated  type,  but  on  those  with  a  standing  Apollo. 

The  star  countermark  on  the  obverse  of  No.  9  may  per- 
haps have  some  connection  with  the  star  that  appears  so 
often  as  a  countermark  on  the  coins  of  Panticapaeum ; 
see,  e.g.,  Burachkov,  Coins  of  Greek  Colonies,  Southern 
Russia,  PL  XIX.  57  ;  XX.  75-78 ;  XXI.  118  ;  XXIII.  190. 

The  form  of  the  altar  on  No.  10  is  unusual  on  coins. 
Perhaps  a  colossal  altar  is  intended,  like  that  on  the  coins 
of  Amasia  in  Pontus,  which  is  sometimes  represented  as 
consisting  of  two  stages :  Brit.  Mm.  Cat.,  Pontus,  p.  10, 
No.  31 ;  p.  11,  No.  32  ;  PI.  II.  2 ;  p.  xvii.  In  the  case 
of  Amasia,  however,  the  upper  stage,  on  which  a  sacrificial 
victim  is  seen,  is  explained  by  Puchstein,11  as  the  Trvpa, 
i.e.,  a  structure  imitating  masonry,  but  composed  of  beams 
of  wood  which  perished  together  with  the  victim  when 
the  fiery  sacrifice  took  place.  On  our  coin,  each  stage 
seems  to  be  of  masonry  and  is  ornamented  with  a  cornice. 

A  black-figured  vase  in  the  British  Museum  of  the 
Peloponnesian  ("  Corintho-Attic")  class,  representing  the 

Tacchella  in  Rev.  Num.,  1898,  p.  210;  ib.,  p.  219  (Pick); 
Journ.  internal,  de  Num.,  1898,  p.  14  (Imhoof-Blumer) ;  -1899, 
p.  85  (Svoronos). 

11  Jahrbuch  des  arch.  Inst.,  xi.,  1896  (Berlin,  1897),  p.  57; 
on  the  funeral  pyre,  Daremberg  and  Saglio,  Diet.,  ii.,  p.  1394. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  P    P 


sacrifice  of  Polyxena,  shows  in  the  centre  of  the  scene  "  a 
mound-shaped  object  with  a  flat  top,"  from  which  fire 
issues  (Walters  in  Journ.  Nell.  Stud.,  xviii.  (1898),  p.  284, 
PL  XV) .  It  has  been  questioned  whether  this  is  a  tomb 
or  an  altar,  but  it  would  certainly  seem  to  be  an  altar 
with  its  burning  pyre. 


11.  Obv. — Circular  shield  adorned  with  ox's  hoof  within  circle 

of  dots ;  above  shield,  letters  [OP  ?]  ;  the  whole 
within  border  of  dots. 

Rev. — A     A     Bust  of  bearded  Asklepios   r.,  laureate  ; 

I       P         in  front,  serpent  with  head  1. ;  part  of 

the  himation  is  seen  on  the  naked  bust. 

M.    Size  -5.    Wt.  17-6  grs.   [PI.  XIII.  11.] 

A  specimen  of  this  coin  was  wrongly  attributed  by 
Longperier  (Rev.  Num.,  1843,  p.  422,  PL  XYI.  5)  to 
Pharcadon.12  Another  is  in  the  Imhoof-Blumer  collection. 
A  similar  obverse  (without  letters  ?)  occurs  in  Brit.  Mus. 
Cat.,  Thessaly,  "  Larissa,"  No.  46.13  A  bust  of  Asklepios 
appears  on  a  bronze  coin  of  Larissa  (Num.  Chron.,  1892, 
p.  8,  No.  17),  and  he  is  seen  feeding  the  serpent  on  a 
silver  coin  (Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Thess.,  "  Larissa,''  No.  45), 
struck  about  the  same  period  (circ.  B.C.  400)  as  our  coin. 


12.  Obv. — Lion's  head  1. 

Rev.— OITAI    UN     Beardless    Herakles  standing  fa- 
cing ;  wears  wreath  ;  in  r.  hand,  club  resting  on 

12  The  mistake  was  corrected  by  Imhoof,  Mon.  Gr.,  p.   277, 
note  69. 

13  In  the   Catalogue  the   device  on  the  shield  was  called  a 
horse's  hoof,  but  the  preservation  of  the  coin  is  very  bad. 


stones  ;  lion's  skin  thrown  over  1.  arm  ;  1.  hand 


M.     Size  -9.   Wt.  119  grs.    [PI.  XIII.  12.] 

This  coin  is,  I  believe,  unpublished,  though  I  understand 
that  another  specimen  belonged  to  the  late  Baron  L.  de 
Hirsch.  The  denomination  is  higher  than  any  hitherto 
known  in  the  Oetaean  coinage. 

Herakles  appears  on  the  earliest  coins  of  the  Oetaei, 
circ.  B.C.  400,  when  he  is  represented  in  a  somewhat 
unusual  way — completely  naked,  holding  his  club  in  both 
hands  transversely,  and  wreathed  (Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Thess., 
PI.  VII.  9).  The  figure  is  finely  rendered,  in  the  style 
of  Polykleitos.  The  same  figure,  clumsily  reproduced,  is 
still  found  on  the  coins  of  the  latest  period,  circ.  B.C. 
196-146  (ib.  PL  VII.  13).  Our  coin  may  be  assigned 
approximately  to  B.C.  190  or  a  little  earlier,  about  which 
period  we  hear  of  the  KOIVOV  TWV  Olraiecav.15  The  Hera- 
kles is  now  of  a  more  commonplace  type,  but  his  wreath 
has  survived  from  the  earlier  representation.  The  leaves 
of  the  wreath  both  here  and  on  the  earliest  coins  are 
jagged ;  it  is  hard  to  determine  whether  vine,  oak,  or 
wild  celery  (aeXivov,  apium  graveolens]  is  intended.  A 
vine-wreath  is  worn  by  Herakles  as  Bibax  and  in  Dionysiac 
scenes  of  revelry.  The  connection  of  the  o€\ivov  with 
him  is  well  known.  The  pyre  of  Herakles  on  Mount 
Oeta  was,  according  to  one  account,  formed  of  oak  and 

It  is  possible  that  the  Herakles  represented  on  the  coins 

14  The  hand  is  imperfectly  rendered;  it  may  be  meant  to 
hold  an  apple  or  a  phiale. 

15  Lebas-Waddington,   Inscr.,  in.,  2,  No.  1730   a ;  cp.  Bull, 
eorr.  hell.,  1881,  p.  141  f.  ;  x.,  p.  362. 


is  the  local  Herakles  who  was  worshipped  by  the  Oetaei 

under  the  name  of  Ko^yom'wj/,  "  locust-scarer,"  because  he 

had  freed  them  from  locusts  :  KOL  >yap  CLTTO  TWV  Tt 

ou?   ol  OlroLoi  KopvoTTds  \eyovvi,  Kopvo7rlwva 

Trap9  cKeli/ois ' H/ra/fXea  aTraXXa-y?}?  cLKpL^wv  yjapiv  (Strabo, 

xiii.,  p.  613).     But  we  have  no  information  as  to  how  he 

was  represented  in  art. 

B.C.  350-300. 

13.  Obv. — Pegasos  with  pointed  wing  flying  r. 

Rev. — A  A  Y  Head  of  Athena  r.  wearing,  over  leather 
cap,  Corinthian  helmet  without  crest ;  behind, 

JR.  Size -95.   Wt.  129-2  grs.    [PL  XIII.  14.] 

Similar  to  Imhoof,  Num.  Zeit.,  x.,  p.  48,  No.  5.  The 
staters  described  in  the  Brit.  Hus.  Cat.,  Corinth,  p.  114, 
have  the  name  of  the  town  written  at  full  length.16 


14.  Obv. — OYPP[E]     Head  of   Athena  r.,  wearing  crested 


Rev. —  ZENO    within  wreath  of  laurel. 

M.     Size  -5.    Wt.  20-5  grs.  [PI.  XIII.  13.] 

A  similar  coin  but  of  a  higher  denomination  (size  17 
mm.  ;  wt.,  2'92  grm.),  is  in  the  French  collection  (Imhoof, 
Num.  Zeit.,  x.,  p.  176,  No.  28).  The  magistrate's  name 
Xenomenes  occurs  during  the  same  period  (i.e.,  after  circ. 

16  For  other  coins  of  Alyzia,  see  Imhoof,  op.  cit.,  p.  46  f. ; 
Lobbecke  in  Z.  f.  N.,  xv.,  p.  40. 


B.C.  167)  on  the  silver  coins  of  Thyrrheium  with  the 
head  of  Achelous  (Imhoof,  op.  cit.,  p.  176,  Nos.  26,  27).17 
It  has  been  suggested  that  this  magistrate  was  the 
ancestor  of  the  Xenomenes  who  entertained  Cicero  at 
Thyrrheium  in  B.C.  51  and  50.18 


1 5.  Obv. — Tortoise  with  structure  of  the  shall  shown  divided 
into  thirteen  plates. 

Rev.— Incuse  square  of  mill-sail  pattern,  i.e.,  divided  into 
eight  triangular  compartments  alternately  raised 
and  depressed. 

M.     Size  -8.   Wt.  179'9  grs.   [PI.  XIII.  16.] 

This  stater  is  a  very  rare  variety  of  the  ordinary  coins 
of  Aegina.  The  form  of  the  incuse  square  proves  that 
it  belongs  to  the  first  period  of  the  coinage,  B.C.  700-550.19 
During  this  period,  and,  indeed,  until  circ.  B.C.  480,  the 
shell  of  the  tortoise  is  marked  only  by  a  row  of  dots. 
Greenwell  (Num.  Chron.,  1890,  p.  15,  PI.  II.  10),  in 
publishing  a  similar  specimen,20  remarked  that  there 
"  appears  to  be  an  attempt  to  represent  the  carapace  in 
a  naturalistic  manner/'  as  on  the  later  coins  of  Aegina, 
B.C.  480-431.  This  method  of  representation  did  not, 
however,  long  prevail,  for  on  the  coins  of  the  second 
period  of  Aeginetan  coinage,  circ.  B.C.  550-480  (those 

17  Also  Montagu  Sale  (Part  I.),  1896,  lot  342,  now  in  British 

18  Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  282;  cp.  Imhoof,  op.  cit.,  p.  177. 

19  Cp.  Head,  B.  M.  Cat.,  Attica,  &c.,  p.  126  ff. 

J0  The  reverse  is  of  a  form  that  is  perhaps  rather  earlier  than 
that  of  our  coin.  Another  specimen  is  in  the  Imhoof-Blumer 
Collection.  (See  Imhoof  and  Keller,  Tier  und  Pflanzenbilder, 
PL  VI.  25.) 


with  the  incuse  divided  into  five  compartments  by  broad 
bands),  the  tortoise  has  the  old  form — a  smooth  shell  with 
a  single  row  of  dots. 


16.  Obv.— Head  of  Pegasos  1.  [  ?  beneath,  <?]. 
Rev. — Trident ;  circular  incuse. 

JR.     Size -3.    Wt.  3-7  grs.     [PI.  XIII.  15.] 

A  hemi-obol,  B.C.  431-338.  The  obols  (Brit.  Mus.  Cat. 
Corinth,  p.  21)  have  the  same  reverse  but  a  complete 
Pegasos  on  obverse. 


17.  Obv. — Head  of  bearded   Zeus   Homagyrios  r. ;  hair  long, 

wreathed  with  laurel. 

Rev. — ^v  within  wreath  of  laurel ;  circular  incuse. 

JR.     Size  -6.     Wt.  41-5  grs.   [PI.  XIV.  1.] 

This  coin  may  be  regarded  as  the  prototype  of  the 
coins  of  the  League.  The  head  is  of  unusually  good 
style  and  the  monogram,  through  being  represented  by 
broad  lines  in  high  relief,  has  a  much  better  decorative 
effect  than  on  the  later  issues.21  The  coin  is  certainly 
not  later  than  the  re-organization  of  the  League  in  B.C. 
280.  Mr.  Head  is  even  inclined  to  place  it  in  the  first 
half  of  the  fourth  century.  This  attribution — so  far  as 
our  present  evidence  goes — would  leave  the  coin  in  a  rather 

21  For  other  coins  of  the  early  period  of  the  League,  see 
Weil  in  Z.  f.  N.,  ix.  (1882),  pp.  240,  241  ;  Imhoof-Blumer, 
Monn.  gr.,  pp.  156,  157;  Clerk,  CataL,  Achaean  League 
(1895),  p.  1 ;  PI.  I.  1-8. 


isolated  position,  and  it  is  perhaps  better  to  assign  it, 
provisionally,  to  circ.  B.C.  280.  So  far  as  the  style  of  the 
obverse  is  concerned,  however,  there  would  be  no  difficulty 
in  assigning  it  to  the  fourth  century.  The  treatment  of 
the  head  of  Zeus  recalls,  e.g.,  the  Zeus  on  the  coins  of 
Alexander  of  Epirus,  B.C.  342-326. 22 


18.  Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  1.,  laur.  ;  hair  long. 
Rev. — A    H     Palm-tree,  on  which  swan  1. 

M.     Size  -6.     Wt.  47  grs.     [PI  XIV.  2.] 

The  reverse  type  is  well  known  from  the  bronze  coins28 
of  Delos  (Brit.  Mm.  Cat.,  Crete,  &c.,  "  Delos,"  No.  3 ;  cp. 
"  Delos,"  No.  1  ;  p.  xlvi),  circ.  B.C.  200-87.  Silver  coins 
of  the  island,  and  especially  the  drachm  denomination,  are 
rare.  This  specimen  is  perhaps  of  the  type  of  the 
IpayjjLtY]  A/7\/a  mentioned  in  the  list  of  dedications  in  the 
temple  of  the  Delian  Apollo  (list  of  Demares,  B.C.  200- 
180). 24  In  the  second  and  first  century  (to  circ.  B.C.  80), 
Delos  was  a  trading  centre  of  some  importance.25 


19.  Obv. — KAAX     Bull    standing   1.    on    ear   of    corn ;    in 

front,  Cfr;26 

82  Gardner,  Cat.,  Thessaly,  &c.,  PI.  XX.  1,  8,  4. 

23  XaX/cot  eTrt^wptot,   ^aA/cos    ATJA.IOS.    Bull.    corr.   hell.,   vi., 
p.  133. 

24  Homolle,  Bull.  corr.  hell.,  vi.,  p.  49,  line  191  ;  P.  Gard- 
ner, Journ.  Hell.  Stud.,  1883,  p.  245. 

25  Jebb  in  J.  H.  S.,  i.,  32  f. 

6  This  monogram  occurs  on  a  drachm,  Brit.  Mus.  Cat., 
Pontus,  p.  125,  No.  16,  and  on  a  well-preserved  specimen  pur- 
chased by  the  Museum  at  the  Montagu  Sale  in  1896. 


Rev. — Incuse  square  of  four  compartments  containing 
dots  ;  the  whole  in  circular  incuse. 

M.    Size  1.   Wt.  230-8  grs.    [PL  XIV.  3.] 

The  reverse  is  somewhat  unusual,  but  the  genuineness 
of  the  coin  is  beyond  question.  Tetradrachms  of  this 
period  (circ.  B.C.  350-280),  formerly  scarce,  have  during 
the  last  few  years  become  fairly  common,  owing  appa- 
rently to  finds  in  northern  Asia  Minor. 


20.  Obv.— AVKAIAAV  PHKOMOA    Bust  of  Commodus 

r.,  laur.  ;  beardless ;  wears    paludamentum  and 

figure  (Orispina  ?  in  the  character  of  Homonoia) 
wearing  chiton,  peplos  and  kalathos,  standing  1. ; 
in  1.,  cornucopiae  ;  r.  holding  phiale  over  lighted 

M.    Size  1-25.     [PL  XIV,  5  rev.] 

The  head  of  the  sacrificing  figure  seems  to  me  to  re- 
semble the  wife  of  Commodus,27  who  on  her  Roman  bronze 
coins  is  represented  as  a  seated  Concordia  holding  patera 
and  cornucopiae. 

The  local  strategos,*Pov(j)os,  appears  also  on  the  coins  of 
Sept.  Severus  and  Caracalla.28 


21.  Obv. — Head   of  bearded  Priapus  r.,  wreathed  with  ivy; 

border  of  dots. 

"  The  head  of  Crispina  appears  as  the  obverse  of  one  of  the 
coins  of  Attaea  in  Imhoof-Blumer,  Monn.  gr.,  p.  394,  No.  64. 

28  Waser  in  Revue  Suisse,  vii.  p.  323  ;  Babelon,  Invent.  Wad~ 
dington,  No.  5748. 


r.  ;  in  exergue,  TTPO  MHO  I  UN  OZ 

Apollo  Citharoedus  standing  r.  ;  in  r.,  plectrum  ;  in  1., 
lyre;  in  field  1.,|&P;  in  field  r.,  female  figure 
(Hekate  ?)  wearing  chiton  and  kalathos,  standing, 
holding  torch  in  each  hand. 

M.   Size  1-2.  Wt.  248*3  grs.    [PL  XIV.  4.] 

(Purchased  at  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  May,  1900,  '•'  Greek 
Coins  of  a  late  Collector,"  lot  327.) 

A  similar  tetradrachm  is  in  the  Waddington  Collection 
(Babelon,  Invent.,  No.  885).  29 


22.  Cistophorus  of  the  usual  types ;  on  rev.  above  bow-case, 

circular  shield  ;  in  field  1.  i^  ;  in  field  r.,  long 

M.    Size  1-1.     Wt.  192-5. 

The  date  of  this  specimen  is  B.C.  123,  for  I A  =  year  11 
in  the  series  of  dated  cistophori  struck  at,  Ephesus  B.C.  133 
to  B.C.  67.  This  coin  partly  fills  the  gap  between  years 
4<  10  "  and  "  13,"  of  which  cistophori  are  already  known. 
See  Head,  Coins  of  Ephesus,  p.  66. 

SATRAP  OP  IONIA  AND  LYDIA,  D.  334  B.C.30 

23.  Obv. — Head  of  Spithridates  1.,  bearded,   wears  Persian 

head-dress  tied  beneath  chin. 

19  Cp.  Num  Chron.  1900,  p.  17,  No.  21.  The  tetradrachms 
of  this  class  furnish  the  names  of  four  different  magistrates, 
each  with  the  patronymic. 

50  On  Spithridates,  see  Babelon,  Melanges  Numismatiques,  ii. 
p.  161  f.  (cp.  Rev.  Num.,  1892,  p.  277,  &c.). 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  Q    Q 


,   Rev. — Forepart     of      galloping      horse,     r.  ;      beneath 


M.     Size  -6.    Wt.  44-7  grs.     [PI.  XIV.  6.] 

This  is  similar  to  the  rare  tetrobol  in  the  Waddington 
Collection  (Babelon,  Invent.  No.  1364,  PL  III.  4).  Two 
reverse  types  are  known  of  the  coins  of  this  satrap :  I. 
Forepart  of  winged  horse.  Tetrobols.  Paris  (Babelon, 
Invent.  Waddington,  No.  1366,  PL  III.  6)  ;  Berlin  (Von 
Rauch  Coll.  ;  cp.  Sallet,  N.  Z.  iii.  p.  424) ;  British 
Museum  (Cat.  Ionia,  p.  327,  No.  18).31  II.  Forepart  of 
galloping  horse.  Tetrobols.  Paris  (Invent.  Waddington, 
No.  1364,  PL  III.  4);  British  Museum  (No.  23  supra). 
Bronze.  Paris  (two  specimens,  one  of  which  =  Invent. 
Waddington,  No.  1365,  PL  III.  5)  ;  Berlin  (N.  Z.  iii.  p. 
424);  British  Museum  (Cat.  Ionia,  p.  327,  No.  19).32 
The  coins  of  these  two  types  have  been  assigned  to  Lamp- 
sacus  and  Cyme,  respectively,  but,  as  M.  Babelon  has 
remarked,  there  is  no  complete  proof  that  they  were  struck 


24.  Obv.— AVKMAV   ANTHNINO    CC6B    Head  of 
Caracalla  r.,  bearded  ;  laur. 

31  The  Brit.  Mus.  coin  was  first   published  in  Num.  Chron., 
1888,  pp.  17,  18.     My  statement  that  it  was  "  probably  from 
the  same   die  "  as   the  Von  Rauch   (Berlin)  specimen,  requires 
correction.     The   obverse   of   the   coin  shows  the  head  of  the 
satrap  on  the  obverse  with  a  full  beard  ;  on  the  Paris  and  Berlin 
specimens  the  beard  is  partially  concealed  by  the  cap,  which  is, 
in  these  two  instances,  tied  under  the  chin. 

32  The   description  of  the  reverse  in  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Ionia, 
should  probably  be  corrected  by  comparison  with  Invent.  Wad- 
divgton,  No.  1365. 


Rev.-T\e?  r  AII1N;  in  ex.,  06MIC  Female 
figure  in  chiton  and  peplos  seated  1.  ;  in  1.  palm- 
branch  ;  in  extended  r.  wreath,  within  which 

M.     Size  1.     [PI,  XIV.  7  rev.] 

The  seated  figure  cannot  be  identified  by  any  attributes 
as  either  the  Artemis  or  the  Tyche  of  Perga.  Probably 
it  is  the  goddess  presiding  over  the  games  (0e'/xf?).33  The 
same  wreath,  with  peculiar  projections,  is  seen  on  the 
coins  of  Aspendus  (Hill,  Cat.  Lycia,  &c.,  PL  XXII.,  8) 
also  in  connection  with  the  fle/iiy.  It  was  probably 
one  of  the  prizes  awarded  at  games  of  this  class.  TO  is 
apparently  a  date  =  370  :  on  the  coins  of  Aspendus  we 
find  06MIAOC  TZ0  (369);  TOB  (372)  ;  TOE  (375)  : 
see  Hill,  op.  cit.  p.  Ixxiv. 


25.  067.—  KOPNHAIACAAflNIN     AC€      Bust    of 
Salonina  r.  ;  in  front,  |. 

Rev.—  CIAHTHN  A  NEHKO  PHN  Two  purses 
and  prize-urn  containing  two  palm-branches  on 
agonistic  table,  between  the  legs  of  which, 


2B.     Size  1*2.      [PI.  XIV.  12  rev.] 

AHP6A  would  appear  to  indicate  that  the  prizes  for 
the  games  were  the  gift  of  Salonina  or  her  husband. 
More  or  less  parallel  inscriptions  may  be  found  on  coins 
of  Tarsus  :—  AHP6A  CITOV  AITO  €TV  TAPCH 
(Egyptian  corn  presented  to  Tarsus  by  the  Emperor 

33  On  the   Gem?   in    Cilicia,    &c.,    cp.    Num.    Chrnn.,    1898, 
p.  119,  No.  36. 


Caracalla)  ;  AHPGA  AAGZANAPOV  (i.e.  Severus 
Alexander).34  The  inscriptions  AHP6A,  TTYPAMOC 

at  Aegeae  and  Mopsus  in  Cilicia  apparently  record  the 
gift  of  a  bridge  over  the  river  Pyramos.35  The  inscrip- 
tion T€  I  MAI  (ri^al),  on  coins  of  the  Kings  of  Bosporus, 
accompanying  various  objects  sent  as  presents  by  the 
Roman  Emperors,36  may  also  be  compared. 


26.  Obv.—  \Vn   AAV5     Bust  of  Julia  Domna  r. 

Eev.—C  .  IVLIAV6  FOLBASE  Tyche  draped  and 
wearing  kalathos,  standing  1.  ;  r.  hand  on  rud- 
der ;  1.  holds  cornucopiae.37 

M.     Size  1.     [PI.  XIV.  13  rev.] 


27.  Obv.—  AVT  KAIMANTT  OPAIANOC6  Bust 
of  Gordian  III  r.,  laur.,  wearing  paludamentum 
and  cuirass. 

Rev.—  KOAVBPA  C[C]€nN  Tyche,  draped  and 
wearing  kalathos,  standing  1.  ;  r.  hand  on  rud- 
der ;  1.  holds  cornucopiae. 

M.     Size  -9. 

34  On  the  Tarsian  inscriptions  of  this  class,  see  Rostowzew 
in  Num.  Chron.,  1900,  p.  96,  and  reff.  to  Hill  and  Babelon. 

36  Cp.  Hill,    Cat.,   Lycaonia,    &c.,   p.  cxii.,   and  p.  cxv. ;  cp. 
A.QP6AI    mentioned   ib.t  p.   cxii/;  Waddington,  Bull.  corr. 
hell.,  vii.,  p.  289. 

se  "Wrothj  Cat.,  Pontus,  p.  xxxviii. 

37  For  another  coin  of  J.   Domna,  see  Babelon,  Invert.  Wad- 
dington, No.  3759. 



28.  Obv.— AVTKAITTOAirAAAIH    N   O  CCG    Bust 

of   Gallienus   r.,   laur.,    wearing   palud amentum 
and  cuirass  ;  in  front,  I  A. 

Rev.— AA6PT6I  TflN  Zeus,  wearing  himation 
over  lower  limbs,  seated  1.  on  throne  (without 
back) ;  1.  hand  on  long  sceptre ;  r.  hand  out- 
stretched to  eagle  at  his  feet.38 

M.     Size  1-15. 


29.  06v.— AAPIANOC    KAICAP      Head   of    Hadrian 

r.,  laur. 

Rev. — TIT  I  OTTO  A  IT  N  Zeus,  wearing  himation 
over  lower  limbs,  seated  1.  on  throne  (without 
back) ;  r.  hand  on  long  sceptre ;  in  1.  hand, 
cornucopiae  ;  at  feet,  eagle. 

M.     Size  1-1.     [PI.  XIV.  10  rev.] 

(Purchased  at  the  Reichardt  Sale,    Sotheby's,   March, 
1899,  lot  342.) 

This  is  a  variety  of  the  coin  in  the  French  collection 
published  by  Waddington  in  Rev.  Num.  1883,  p.  37, 
No.  I.39 

B.C.  306-281. 

30.   Obv. — Head    of    beardless    Herakles   r.    in   lion's    skin ; 

38  Cp.   a  similar  type  of  Trebonianus   Gallus,  Mion.,  sup., 
vii.,  p.  225,  No.  283.     On  Laertes,  Hill,  B.  M.  Cat.,  Lycaonia, 
p.  xxxiv. 

39  For   other   coins    of  Titiopolis,    see    Hill,    B.    M.    Cat., 
Lycaonia,  p.   231 ;  p.  Ix. ;  Babelon,  Invent.   Waddington,  Nos. 
4740,  4741. 


Rev. — ZEAEYKoY  Zeus,  wearing  himation  over 
lower  limbs,  seated  1.  on  throne  (without  back) ; 
in  r.,  eagle  ;  1.  on  long  sceptre  ;  beneath,  ($)  (?) ; 
[in  front,  anchor  and  monogram  ?]  ;  border. 

M.    Size  -35.   Wt.  10-1  grs.    [PI.  XIV.  9.] 

(Purchased  at  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  May,  1900,  "  Greek 
Coins  of  a  late  Collector,"  lot  417.  The  hemi- 
drachm  in  the  same  lot  was  also  acquired  by  the 
British  Museum.) 

An  apparently  unpublished  denomination — the  obol — 
of  the  first  coinage  of  Seleucus  I  with  the  types  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great.  A  drachm  and  hemi-drachm  of  these 
types  are  described  in  Babelon,  Hois  de  Syrie,  p.  2,  Nos. 
4  and  5. 

B.C.   145-142. 

31 1   QbVi — Head  of  young  Antiochus  VI.   r.   wearing  radiate 
diadem ;  fillet  border. 

j{ev> — BAZIAEHS     The    Dioscuri    1.    on    horseback, 

ANTIoXoY  wearing   chlamydes    and  pilei 

ETTI<l>ANoYZ         surmounted  with  stars  ;  lances 

AloNYZoY  couched;  in  field    1.    thyrsos 

and  HHP  =  year  168  =  B.C. 

145-4  ;  in  field  r.,  TRY  and 

]fl[  ;  whole  in  wreath  of  laurel, 

ivy,  lilies,  and  corn. 

M.    Size  1-8.    Wt.  248'8  grs.    [PL  XIV  H.] 

Compare  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Syria,  p.  63,  No.  1  ;  Babelon, 
Hois  de  Syrie,  p.  128,  No.  988. 


32.  Obv.— MAV...   -UN  I     NOCCGB     Head  of  Cara- 
calla  r.,  bearded  ;  laur. 


Rev.—  KAICAPIATTANIAC  Lagobolon  and  syrinx  ; 
beneath,  CIA  =  year  214  =  A.D.  211  (Era, 
B.C.  3). 

M.     Size  -9.     [PI.  XIV.  14  rev.] 

(Purchased  at  the   Raichardt  Sale,   Sotheby's,  March, 
1899,  lot  303.) 

An  unpublished  coin.      The  reverse  refers  to  the  god 
Pan,  who  had  a  famous  grotto  at  Caesarea  Panias.40 


33.  Obv.— AYKTPA    I  A41     AAPIANOCC      Head    of 
Hadrian  r.  laur. 

^y._AP[T6]MITYXH  rCPACUJN  Bust  of 
Artemis  r.  ;  at  shoulder,  quiver ;  before  her, 

M.     Size  -75.     [PL  XIV.  8  rev.] 

(Purchased  at  the  Reichardt  Sale,  Sotheby's,  March, 
1899,  lot  313,  with  two  other  coins  of  Hadrian 
and  one  coin  of  Commodus.) 

The  coins  of  this  town  (now  Jerash)  were  not  repre- 
sented in  the  British  Museum  when  the  Cat.,  Galatia,  &c. 
(cp.  p.  Ixxxviii.)  was  published.42 

40  The  types  relating  to  Pan  are  discussed  in  my  Cat., 
Cralatia,  &c.,  p.  Ixxxi.  f. 

1  These  letters  (I  A)  are  placed  beneath  the  head. 

**  On  the  coins  inscribed  AN.  TU).  TIP.  XP  &c.,  referred 
to  Cat.,  Galatia,  p.  Ixxxix.  (after  Imhoof),  see  Perdrizet  in  the 
Revue  Biblique  for  July,  1900,  "  Lettre  au  R.  P.  Sejourne," 
§  9.  'Ai/no^eict  ^  Trpos  Xpi/o-opoa,  ^  irporcpov  Tepacra.  Cp. 
Drouin  in  Rev.  Num.,  1900,  p.  487. 



34.   Obv.— Bust  of  Berenice   II  r.,  wearing  diadem,  veil,  and 
necklace  ;  border  of  dots. 

with  regal  diadem  attached  ;  on  each  side,  pileus 
wreathed  ;  border  of  dots. 

M.     Size  1.    Wt.  157  grs.    [PI.  XIV.  15.] 

(Purchased  at  Sale  at  Sotheby's,  May,   1900,  "  Greek 
Coins  of  a  late  Collector,"  lot  477.) 

This  appears  to  be  a  new  denomination  of  the  coins  of 
Berenice  II,  struck  (according  to  Svoronos)  B.C.  246 — 
221.  Two  specimens  with  similar  types  (two  pilei  on 
reverse),  but  of  higher  denominations,  are  figured  in 
Svoronos's  excellent  article  on  the  coins  of  this  queen 
(Journ.  int.  i.  1898,  PL  O,43  Nos.  1  and  2  ;  p.  227). 


43  On  coins  of  Berenice  II  see  also  Babelon,  Melanges  nvmis- 
matiques,  ii.,  p.  1  f.  ;  cp.  Mowat,  Rev.  Num.,  1893,  p.  27.  On 
statues  of  the  queen,  Svoronos,  op.  cit.,  p.  228 ;  Dutilh,  ib.t 
p.  433. 



(Voir  Planches  XV,  XVI.) 

LA  description  des  emissions  monetaires  de  1' atelier  de 
Siscia  pendant  la  pe*riode  Constantinienne  doit  etre  com- 
mencee  un  pen  avant  Tavenement  de  Constantin  le  Grand 
a  York  en  Bretagne  le  25  Juillet  306. 

En  effet  ce  fut  le  ler  Mai  305  qu'eut  lieu  1'eievation  de 
Severe  II  et  de  Maximin  Daja  au  rang  de  Cesar,1  tandis 
que  Constance  I  et  Galere  e*taient  reconnus  Augustes  et 
que  Diocletien  et  Maxiraien  se  retiraient  du  gouverne- 
ment  de  Pempire  en  gardant  le  titre  de  Senior es  A ugusti.2 

Or  la  premiere  emission  dont  la  description  va  suivre 
commen9a  a  etre  frappe*e  le  ler  Mai  305  et  cessa  de  1'etre 
le  11  Novembre  308.  Elle  comprend  en  effet  des  mon- 
naies  de  Severe  II  et  de  Maximin  Cesars,  de  Constance  I 
et  de  Galere  Augustes,  eleves  tous  a  leurs  dignite's  nou- 
velles  le  ler  Mai  305 ;  ainsi  que  celles  de  Maximien 
Hercule  et  Diocletien  designes  depuis  la  meme  date 

1  Lenain  de  Tillemont,  Hist,  des  Empereurs,  tome  iv.,  p.  52. 

2  Eckhel  a  dej&  indique  ce  titre  de  Senior es  Augusti  comme 
porte  sur  les  monnaies  par  Diocletien  et  Maximien  apres  leur 
abdication.     Eckhel,  t.  viii.,  14,  24. 

VOL.   XX.   THIRD    SERIES.  R  E 


comme  Seniores  Augusti.  Elle  presents  aussi  des  mon- 
naies  de  Constantin  Cesar  et  de  Severe  Auguste  qui  furent 
promus  a  ces  dignites  apres  le  25  Juillet  306.3  Mais  elle 
ne  contient  aucune  monnaie  de  Licinius  et  cessa  en  con- 
sequence de  paraitre  avant  le  11  Novembre  308. 

La  Pannonie  ou  se  trouvait  Patelier  de  Siscia  fut  attri- 
bute a  Severe  II  le  ler  Mai  305  4  et  lui  appartint  jusqu'a 
sa  mort  survenue  en  Avril  ou  en  Mai  307 .5  Elle  fit 
ensuite  partie  du  domaine  de  Galere,  chef  du  quadruple 
gouvernement  imperial  (tetrarchie)  jusqu'au  11  Novembre 
308,  date  a  laquelle  il  Tattribua  a  Licinius  en  creant  ce 
dernier  Auguste.6 


Frappde  depuis  le  ler  Mai  305  jusqu'au  11  Novembre  308. 
Les  monnaies  de  bronze  de  cette  emission  sont  de  deux 
sortes.      Ce  sont : 

1.  De  grandes  pieces  (Folles)  ;    ay  ant  de  25  a  30  milli- 
metres de  diametre;    pesant   de   8  grammes  95  c.  a    10 
grammes  50  c. ;  en  moyenne  environ  10  grammes. 

2.  De  petites  pieces (Centenionales)  ayant  des  diametres 
de  18  a  19  millimetres,  des  poids  variant  de  1  gr.  60  a 
2  gr.  30,  d'une  moyenne  plus  elevee  que  celle  du  Cen- 
tenionalis  que  Ton  trouve  a  la  fin  du  regne  de  Constantin 
et  qui  est  de  1  gramme  75  c.7 

3  Lactantius:    De    Mort.     Pers.,    caput    xxv.      Constantin 
ne  porta  sur  les  monnaies  le  titre  Cesar  qu'a  partir  de  cette 
epoque.     II  fut  proclame  Imperator  par  ses  troupes  aussitot 
apres  la  mort  de  Constance  et   reconnu  ensuite  Cesar  par 

4  J.  Maurice,  Z' Atelier  d'Antioche,  Num.  Chron.,  1899,  p.  236. 

6  Anonymus  Valesii,  iv.,  9. 

f  Lactantius,  De  Mort.  Pers.,  c.  xxix. 

7  Je  suis  pour    Ja  classification  des  especes  de    bronze  le 


Avec  les  signes  du  revers  et  exergues  suivants  — 

Ivi  |vi  |  vi8 


On  trouve  — 

Au  revers.—  La  legende  CONCOEDIA  IMPEEII  ;  et 
comme  type  la  Concorde  debout  a  gauche, 
coiffee  du  modius,  appuyee  sur  un  sceptre  et 
soutenant  sa  robe. 

Au  droit.  I.—  GAL.  VAL.  MAXIMINYS  NOB.  C. 
Avec  sa  tete  lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  7  ;  FE. 
8781  [PL  XV.,  No.  1],  8782  ;  8  gr.  90  ;  25 
millimetres  do  diametre  et  12  gr.  30  ;  28  m.m.  ; 
BE.  MVS. 

2.  SEVEEVS  NOB.  CAES.  Avec  sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  Cohen,  4;  FE.  8731;  9  gr.  90;  26 

Le  Colonel  Voetter  pense  que  peut-etre  on  rencontre  la 
lettre  d'officine  A.9 

travail  de  0.  Seeck  (Die  Munzpolitik  Diocletian*  ,  Zeitschrift  f. 
Numismatik,  t.  xvii.,  p.  36  et  seq.}. 

L'  identification  du  follis  de  1'  epoque  qui  nous  occupe  avec 
la  pecunia  majorina  des  lois  du  code  Theodosien  (notamment 
lib.  ix.,  tit.  23,  lex.  2),  a  partir  de  1'annee  395,  permet 
d'attribuer  le  nom  de  Centenionalis  a  la  plus  petite  espece 
de  bronze  de  cette  epoque  qui  correspond  a  celle  de  la  fin  du 
regne  de  Constantin.  [Cf.  Mommsen,  Hist,  de  la  Monnaie 
romaine.  Trad,  de  Blacas,  Paris,  1873,  tome  iii.,  pp.  105  et  164. 

Les  folles  qui  vont  etre  decrits  sont  de  la  meme  sorte  que 
ceux  que  Diocletien  fit  frapper  depuis  1'annee  300  (cf.  Fried. 
Kenner,  Die  alt.  Prdgungen  der  Mimzstdtte  Nicomedia,  Numism. 
Zeitschrift,  1894-95,  p.  5). 

8  L'exergue  SIS  designe  1'atelier  de  Siscia,  et  les  lettres 
grecques  A,  B,  F,  les  trois  oflicines  de  cette  emission  ;  mais  le 
chiffre  VI.  place  dans  le  champ  est  inexplique. 

9  La  collection  du  Colonel  0.  Voetter,  a  Vienne,  est  la  plus 
importante  en  monnaies  de  bronze  de  cette  epoque.    C'est  a  son 


3.  FLA.    VAL.    SEVEEVS    NOB.    C.      Meme    tete. 

Piece  inedite.    BE.  MVS. ;  Voetter.10 

4.  FL.    VAL.    SEYEEVS     NOB.    C.       Meme    tete. 

H.  MVS.  V. ;  BE.  MVS.  Piece  decrite  par  M. 
Gnecchi  (Rim&ta  Italiana  di  Numismatica,  fasci. 
iii.,  1891). 

5.  FL.   VAL.   CONSTANTINVS   NOB.    C.      Avec  sa- 

tete  lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  67  ;  H.  MVS.  V. ; 
10  gr.  50;  26  m.m. 

On  frappa  a  la  meme  epoque  les  pieces  des  Augustes 
(Seniores)  Maximien  Hercule  et  Diocletien. 

AVGG.  La  Providence  debout  a  gauche,  tenant 
un  rameau  leve  et  un  sceptre,  en  face  d'une 
femme  qui  la  regarde  et  leve  la  droite. 

AU  droit.—V.  N.  MAXIMIANO  BAEATISSIMO  (tie) 
SEN.  AVG.  Son  buste  laure  a  droite,  a  mi- 
corps,  avec  le  manteau  imperial,  tenant  une 
branche  de  laurier  et  un  livre  ou  la  mappa. 
Cohen,  490  ;  FE.  8231  ;  8  gr.  95  ;  29  m.m. 

La  piece  de  Diocletien ;  Cohen,  422  ;  se  presente  cer- 
tainement  avec  le  meme  exergue. 

Au  revers. — PEEPETVITAS  AVGG.  Eome  assise  a 
gauche,  tenant  un  globe  surmonte  d'une  victoire, 
a  cote  d'elle  un  bouclier. 

Audroit.  1.— FLA.  VAL.  SEVEEVS  NOB.  C.  Sa 
tete  lauree  a  droite,  piece  inedite.  Collection 
Voetter ;  27  m.m. 

obligeance  que  je  dois  d' avoir  pu  completer  un  grand  nombre 
de  series  monetaires  de  Siscia.  Je  profite  de  cette  occasion 
pour  Ten  remercier. 

10  J'indique  comme  collections,  ainsi  que  je  1'ai  fait  dans 
mes  precedentes  publications,  d'abord  les  collections  du 
Cabinet  de  France  (FE.)  et  du  British  Museum  (BE.  MVS.), 
puis  celles  des  autres  musees  (H.  MVS.  V.  =  Hof  Museum, 
Vienne ;  T.  =  Turin)  et  ensuite  seulement  les  collections  par- 


2.  FL.   VAL.  SEVEEVS   NOB.    CAES.      Meme  tete. 

Cohen,  57 ;  H.  MVS.  V, ;  27  m.m.  ;  BE.  MVS. 

3.  PL.  VAL.  SEYEEVS  NOB.  C.   Meme  tete.    Cohen, 

59 ;  BE.  MYS.  ;  Yoetter. 

4.  SEYEEYS  NOB.  CAES.     Meme  tete.     Cohen,  56  ; 

BE.  MYS.  ;  Collection  Trau  a  Yienne.11 

Au  revers.— IOYI  CONSEEYAT.  Jupiter  nu  debout 
a  gauche,  avec  le  manteau  sur  1'epaule  gauche, 
tenant  un  globe  surmonte  d'une  victoire  et  un 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.   MAXIMIANVS   P.F.    AVG.     Sa 

tete  lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  329,  de  Hercule, 
attribuable  a  Galere;  FE.  8222;  9  gr.  15;  BE. 
MYS.  [PI.  XV.,  No.  2.] 

2.  IMP.    C.    MAXIMIANYS    P.F.   AVG.12        Meme 

tete.  Cohen,  330,  de  Hercule,  attribuable  d 
Galere ;  Yoetter. 

3.  IMP.  CONSTANTIVS  P.F.  AYG.     Tete  analogue. 

Cohen,  153;  FE.  8240. 

4.  IMP.  SEYEEYS  P.F.  AYG.    Tete  analogue;  piece 

inedite.     27  m.m. ;  musee  de  Buda-Pesth. 

5.  FL.    VAL.    CONSTANTINYS    NOB.     C.       Tete 

analogue.  Cohen,  280  (H.  MYS.  V. ;  collection 
Lichtenstein) ;  Voetter.13 

ticulieres,  pour  les  pieces  qui  manquent  dans  les  musees  ou 
pour  des  pieces  rares. 

11  Les  legendes   Concordia  Imperil  et  Perpetuitas  Augg.  sont 
frappees  pour  les  Cesars  ;  lovi  Conservat.  et  Herculi    Victori 
pour  les  Augustes  et  les  Cesars. 

12  Les  prenoms,  titres  et  nom  de  Galere  etant  IMP.  CAESAE 
coup  de  ses  monnaies  portent :    Imp.    C.  Maximianus,   P.F. 

13  J'indique  par  le  nom  du  Colonel  Yoetter  que  la  piece  se 
trouve  dans  sa  collection ;  s'il  s'agit  d'un  ouvrage  j'en  donnela 






On  trouve — 

Au  revers.— HEECVLI  VICTOKI.  Avec  Hercule  nu 
debout  a  gauche,  appuye  de  la  droite  sur  sa 
massue  et  tenant  de  la  gauche  trois  pommes  et 
une  peau  de  lion  sur  le  bras. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  CONSTANTIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Sa 
tete  laui-ee  a  droite.  Cohen,  151;  FK.  8419; 
10  gr.  50.  [PL  XV.,  No.  3.] 

2.  IMP.   MAXIMIANVS   P.F.  AVG.     Tete  analogue. 

Cohen,  298,  de  Hercule,  attribuable  &  Galere 14 
(H.  MVS.  V. ;  collection  Lichtenstein) ;  et  col- 
lection Voetter. 

3.  GAL.  VAL.  MAXIMINVS  NOB.  C.    Tete  analogue ; 

piece  inedite,  variete  de  Cohen,  106  ou  Hercule 
au  revers  est  tourne  a  droite.  Voetter ;  26  m.m. 

4.  II  reste  a  trouver  une  piece  de  Severe  Cesar ;  en  effet 

cette  serje  commenQa  a  etre  f rappee  des  le  ler 
Mai  305,  ainsi  que  le  prouve  la  presence  de 
monnaies  de  Constantius  Aug. 

VI  A  VI  B  VI  T 



On  trouve — 

Au  revers.— CONCOEDIA  IMPEBIL  La  Concorde 
debout  a  gauche,  coifTee  du  modius,  appuyee 
sur  un  sceptre  et  soutenant  sa  robe. 

Au  droit.  1.— GAL.  VAL.  MAXIMTNVS  NOB.  CAES. 
Sa  tete  lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  6  ;  Voetter ; 
27  m.m. 

14  La  presence  des  monnaies  de  Maximien  Hercule  dans 
cette  emission,  monnaies  sur  lesquelles  Maximien  H.  porte 
le  titre  de  Senior  Augustus,  prouve  que  les  autres  monnaies  de 
Maximianus  ne  portant  pas  ce  titre  de  Senior  sont  des  monnaies 
de  Galere. 


2.  GAL.  YAL.  MAXIMINYS  NOB.  0.  Memo  tete; 
piece  inedite.  Voetter. 

Je  n'ai  rencontre  qu'une  seule  piece  avec  Le  signe  et 
Pexergue  suivant — 


Au  rmro.— CONCORDIA  IMPERIL  Avec  le  type 
deja  decrit. 

Audroit.—YL.  YAL.  SEYERYS.  Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  C'est  la  piece  dejgl  indiquee  plus  haut 
et  decrite  par  M.  Gnecchi.  Musee  Brera,  Milan; 
27  m.m. 

II  est  difficile  de  conclure  de  Texistence  d'une  seule 
piece  a  celle  d'une  se*rie  entiere  de  monnaies.  Toutefois 
il  est  a  remarquer  que  1'emission  suivante  presente  la 
lettre  d'officine  S  et  qu'une  serie  peut  manquer  dans  les 


Les  pieces  qui  vont  suivre  sont  de  1'espece  du  Cen- 
tenionalis.  Elles  ont  18  a  19  millimetres  de  diainetre, 
pesent  de  1  gr.  50  a  2  gr.  30. 

Avec  1' exergue 

On  trouve  — 

Au  revers.—  GENIO  POPVLI  ROMAN!.  Genie  a 
demi-nu,  debout  a  gauche,  coiffe  du  modius, 
tenant  une  patere  et  une  corne  d'abondance. 

Audroit.  1.—  EL.  YAL.  SEYERYS  NOB.  C.    Sa 

lauree  a  droite.    Cohen,  32;  FR.  13986;  2  gr. 
30;  18  m.m.      [PI.  XV.,  No.  4.] 

2.  SEYERYS    NOB.    C.      Meme    tete.      Cohen,    33; 
H.  MYS.  Y.  ;  Yoetter. 


3.  MAXIMINVS   NOB.    C.     Meme  tete.     Cohen,  84; 

H.  MYS.  Y. ;  Musee  Brera;  18  m.m.  ;  Voetter. 

4.  GAL.  VAL.  MAXIMINVS  NOB.  0.      Meme  tete. 

Cohen,  86  ;  H.  MVS.  V. ;  Voetter. 

5.  CONSTANTIVS    AVG.       Avec   sa  tete  lauree,   a 

droite  ;  piece  inedite.     Voetter. 

6.  IMP.  C.  CONSTANTIVS  P.F.  AVG.     Meme  tete. 

Cohen,  100  ;  FR.  13802  ;   1  gr.  60  ;  Voetter. 

7.  MAXIMIANVS  AVG.      Sa  tete  lauree   a  droite; 

piece  inedite.     Voetter. 

Ces  petites  pieces  sont  rares  dans  les  collections ;  je  n'en 
ai  pas  trouve  a  Peffigie  de  Constantin  Cesar.  Mais  elles 
ont  ete  frappees  depuis  Fannee  305,  ainsi  que  le  prouve  la 
presence  des  pieces  de  Constantius.15 

Les  monnaies  d'or  suivantes  peuvent  se  placer  dans  cette 
Emission  a  cause  des  legendes  qu'elles  portent  de  Maximin 
Cesar,  Maximin  n'ayant  garde  ce  titre  que  peu  de  temps  au 
debut  de  remission  qui  vient  ensuite. 

Avec  1' exergue   — — 

On  trouve — 

Au  revers.—  PKCNCIPI  IVVENTVTIS.  Avec  Maxi- 
min en  habit  militaire  debout  a  gauche,  levant 
la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  sceptre  ;  derriere  lui 
deux  enseignes  militaires. 

Au  droit.— MAXIMINVS  NOB.  C.  Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  Cohen,  144,  dit  son  buste  ;  FR.  1493  ; 
5  gr.  35  ;  19  m.m.  Monnaie  d'or  du  type  du 
60me  de  la  livre. 

15  Le  Colonel  Voetter  a  donne  un  tableau  complet  de  ces 
pieces  dans :  Erste  Christliche  Zeichen,  Numismatische  Zeit- 
tchrift,  1892,  p.  66.  La  legende  suivante,  IMP.  C.  M.  A. 
MAXIMIANVS  P.F.  AVG.,  designe  Maximien  Hercule  et 
fait  partie  d'une  emission  anterieure,  Hercule  portant  seul 
le  prenom  d'Aurelius. 


Au  revers.— OEIENS  AVGG.  Le  Soleil  radie  a  demi- 
nu,  debout  a  gauche,  levant  la  droite  et  tenant 
de  la  main  gauche  un  globe  surmonte  d'un 

.Audroit.—  MAXIMINVS    NOB.     CAES.       Sa    tete 
lauree  a  droite.     Cohen,  136,  or. 

Cette  piece  doit  se  rapporter  a  Felevation  des  Augustes, 
Constance-Chlore  et  Galere,  le  ler  Mai  305. 

Au  revers.—  YIETVS  AVGG  .  ET  CAESS.  Maximin 
marchant  a  droite,  trainant  un  barbare  derriere 
lui  et  portant  un  trophee ;  a  droite  devant  lui 
un  barbare  assis  les  mains  liees  derriere  le  dos 
et  le  regardant. 

Au  droit.  1.— MAXIMINVS  NOB.  C.  Sa  tete  lauree 
a  droite.  Cohen,  186,  or  ;  FE.  1500 ;  5  gr.  60 ; 
19  m.m. 

2.  SEVEEVS    P.F.    AVG.      Sa  tete  lauree  a    droite. 
Cohen,  68,  or ;  MM.  Kollin  et  Feuardent. 

Ces  deux  pieces  ont  du  etre  frappees  pendant  la  courte 
periode  ou  Severe  fut  Auguste,  c'est  a  dire  apres  le  25 
Juillet  306  et  avant  sa  mort  en  Avril  ou  Mai  307. 


Prappee  depuis  P elevation  de  Licinius  au  rang  d* Auguste 
le  11  Novembre  308  16  jusqu'd  la  mort  de  Galere  le  5  Mai 

En  effet  cette  emission  debute  avec  les  monnaies  de 
Licinius  le  11  Novembre  308  ;  et  d'autre  part  les  monnaies 
de  Galere  et  celles  de  Galerie  Valerie  sa  femme,  fille  de 
Diocletien,  cessent  de  paraitre  apres  cette  emission. 

16  Id&t.deFast.:  Decies(Maximiano)  etMaximiano  (Galerio), 
His  conss.  quod  est  Maxentio  et  Eomulo,  levatus  Licinius 
Carnunto  III  Id.  Nov. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD   SERIES.  S   S 


Galere,  qui  avait  cree  Licinius  Auguste,  lui  attribua  la 
province  de  Pannonie 17  ou  se  trouvait  1'atelier  de  Siscia 
et  ce  fut  des  lors  la  politique  de  Licinius,  fidele  lui- 
meme  a  celle  de  Galere  que  refleterent  les  frappes  mon£- 
taires  de  1'atelier  de  Siscia.  Aussi  ce  fut  d'abord  sous 
le  nora  de  Cesars,  seul  titre  que  leur  avait  reconnu  Galere, 
que  Constantin  et  Maximin  Daja  parurent  dans  cette  emis- 
sion ;  puis,  a  la  suite  des  reclamations  de  Maximin  Daja 
qui  survinrent  bientot,  puisqu'elles  furent  occasionnees 
par  la  nomination  de  Licinius  Auguste,  les  deux  Cesars 
furent  designes  comme  Filli  Augiistorum.18  Galere  leur 
avait  donne  a  tous  deux  ce  titre  purement  honorifique 
esperant  ainsi  les  contenter,  et  les  ateliers  qui  appar- 
tenaient  tant  a  Galere  qu'a  Licinius  leur  attribuerent  cette 
dignite,19  que  Constantin  et  Maximin  refuserent  chacun 
de  leur  cote.  Enfin  Maximin  usurpa  de  lui-meme  le 
titre  d' Auguste  et  le  fit  savoir  a  Galere;  aussi  ce  dernier, 
ayant  la  main  forcee,  attribua  le  meme  rang  d' Auguste 
a  Constantin  et  a  Maximin  en  Avril  ou  Mai  309.20 

17  L'ltalie,  la  Pannonie,  la  Rhetie  appartenaient  a  Severe 
qni  les  tenait  lui-meme  d'Hercule.     Cf.  Lenain  de  Tillemont, 
Hist,  des  Empereurs,  t.  iv.,  125  ;    Anonymus  Valesii,  iv.  9,  dit 
"Huic  Severo  Pannoniae    et   Italiae   Urbes  et  Africae  con- 
tigerunt."     Lactantiua,  De  Mort.  Pers.,  cxxix.,  dit  de  la  con- 
ference de  Carnuntum  :   "  Aderat  Diocles  a  genero  nuper  acci- 
tus  ut,  quod  ante  non  fecerat,  preesente  illo  imperium  Licinio 
daret  substitute  in  Severi  loco."  Mais  1'Italie  avait  ete  usurpee 
par  Maxence. 

18  Lactantius,  De  Mort.  Pers.,  cxxxii.,  "  Nuncupate   igitur 
Licinio  imperatore,  Maximinus  iratus   nee  Caesarem  se  nee 
tertio    loco    nominari    volebat.       Victus    contumacia    tollit 
Caesarum  nomen  et  se  Liciniumque  Augustos  appellat,  Maxi- 
minum  et  Constantinum  filios  Augustorum." 

19  Tel  fut  le   cas  de  ceux  de  Siscia  et  de  Thessalonica.     Les 
ateliers  appartenant  a  Constantin  et  a  Maximin  respectivement 
refuserent  d'emettre  des  monnaies  avec  cette  appellation  pour 
leur  souverain. 

20  Lactantius,    De  Mort.  Pers.,    cxxxii.,    dit   que   Maximin 


L'atelier  de  Siscia  frappa  des  lors  des  monnaies  *  aux 
effigies  des  quatre  Augustes,  Galere,  Licinius,  Maximin 
et  Constantin.  Ce  sont  ces  frappes  qui  terminent  cette 
emission.  Les  monnaies  de  bronze  (folles)  qui  la  com- 
posent  oscillent  entre  les  poids  de  7  gr.  80  c.  et  de 
6  gr.  10  c.  Ce  ne  sont  plus  des  folles  analogues  a 
ceux  de  Diocletien  comme  dans  1'emission  precedente. 
Mais  un  premier  abaissement  du  poids  de  ces  monnaies 
a  eu  lieu  lors  de  la  conference  de  Carnuntum  au  debut  de 
cette  emission,  et  correspond  a  peu  pres  sinon  complete- 
ment  a  celui  qui  eut  lieu  dans  les  etats  de  Maximin  Daja 
vers  la  meme  epoque.21 

Avec  les  signes,  lettres  d'offieines  et  exergues — 
u|A.  u|B  u  F  u|A  u|8  u|S 


On  trouve — 

Au  revers.— GENIO  AVGVSTI.  Genie  a  demi-nu, 
debout  a  gauche,  ooiffe  du  modius,  tenant  une 
patere  d'ou  la  liqueur  se  repand  et  une  corne 

Au  droit.  1.— MAXIMIN VS  NOB.  CAES.  Sa  tete 
lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  22  ;  FE.  8788 ;  7  gr. 
10  ;  25  m.m. 

2.  Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  la  piece  analogue  de  Constantin 


3.  IMP.  LIC.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.     Sa  tete  lauree 

a  droite.      Cohen,  26;   EK.  9018-19-20  ;  6  gr. 
35;  24  m.m. 

et    Constantin    furent    reconnus   Augustes    par    Galere    en 
meme  temps.     J'ai   determine   1' epoque  de  cette  reconnais- 
sance dans  mon  etude  sur  1'atelier  d'Antioche  (Numismatic 
Chronicle,  1899,  p.  218). 
21  Id.,  page  217. 


4.  MAXIMINYS  FIL.  AYGG.   Tete  analogue.  Cohen, 

24 ;  BE.  MVS.  ;  H.  MYS.  Y. ;  Yoetter. 

5.  CONSTANTINYS    FIL.   AYGG.     Tete    analogue. 

Cohen,    179;    FE.   9082;    6    gr.  44;  26   m.m. 
[PL  XV.,  No.  5.]    Yoetter. 

6.  IMP.    MAXIMINYS   P.F.  AYG.     Tete   analogue. 

Cohen,  26 ;  FE.  8792  ;  6  gr.  75 ;  25  m.m.  ; 
BE.  MYS. 

7.  IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.F.  AYG.     Tete  analogue. 

Cohen,  175  ;  FE.  9083-84  ;  7  gr.  25  ;  24  m.m. ; 
9-085,  6  gr.  -07;  26  m.m.;  BE.  MYS. 

8.  IMP.  MAXIMIANYS  P.F.  AYG.    Tete  analogue. 

No.  133  de  Hercule  dans  Cohen;  doit  etre 
attribue  a  Galere.  FE.  8895-96;  6  gr.  90; 
26  m.m.  ;  8897-98  ;  7  gr.  80;  24  m.m. 

An  revers.— GENIO  CAESAEIS.  Avec  le  meme  type 
du  revers  que  celui  du  Genio  Augusti. 

Au  droit.  1.  —  MAXIMINYS  NOB.  CAES.  Sa  tete 
lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  37.  Yoetter. 

2.  Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  la  piece  analogue  de  Constantin 


3.  CONSTANTINYS  FIL.  AVGG.     Sa  tete  lauree  a 

droite.  Cohen,  186  (H.  MYS.  Y. ;  coUection 
Liechtenstein)  ;  6  gr.  40  ;  26  m.m.  ;  Yoetter. 

4.  Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  la  piece  analogue  de  Maximinus  fil. 


5.  IMP.  LIC.  LICIN1YS  P.F.  AYG.     Sa  tete  lauree  * 

droite  ;  piece  inedite  ;  26  m.m  ;  Yoetter. 

6.  IMP.  MAXIMIANYS  P.F.  AYG.    Tete  analogue. 

Cohen  135  de  Hercule;  attribuable  a  Galere. 
Yoetter;  FE. 

Au  revers.  —  YENEEI  YICTEICI.  Yenus  debout  a 
gauche,  tenant  une  pomme  dans  la  main  droite 
levee  et  soutenant  son  voile. 

Au  droit.— GAL.  YALEEIA  AYG.  Son  buste  drape  a 
droite,  tantot  avec  un  diademe,  tantot  avec  un 
bandeau  sur  les  cheveux  ;  parfois  avec  un  crois- 
sant pose  soit  sur  les  cheveux,  soit  devant  le 


manteau.  Le  colonel  Voetter  possede  toutes 
les  varietes  de  cette  moimaie.  FB-.  8716  ; 
8719.  [PI.  XV.  No.  6]  ;  8720. 

Les  pieces  de  Galeria  Valeria  sont  frappees  au  cours 
de  cette  emission  en  meme  temps  que  celles  de  Galere 
(Maximianus)  et  cessent  de  1'etre  en  meme  temps.  II  en 
est  de  meme  a  Antioche.22 

Des  deux  cotes  la  mort  de  Galere  est  suivie  d'un  abaisse- 
ment  du  poids  des  monnaies  de  bronze  et  Ton  ne  trouve 
plus  de  pieces  de  Galeria  Valeria  parmi  les  monnaies  de 
bronze  de  poids  re'duit.  On  trouve  dans  ce  fait  la  con- 
firmation des  recits  de  Lactance,23  d'apres  lesquels  Vale'rie 
avait  voulu  d'abord  abandonner  1'heritage  de  Galere  a 
Licinius,  mais  ne  Favait  pas  fait  et  s'etait  refugiee  dans  les 
e*tats  de  Maximin  croyant  devoir  etre  plus  en  surete 
aupres  de  ce  dernier,  qui  la  persecuta  pour  d'autres  raisons 
que  Licinius.  Valerie  fut  done  condamne'e  presque  en 
meme  temps  a  1'exil  par  les  deux  empereurs  et  ses  mon- 
naies cesserent  d'etre  f  rappe'es  a  Siscia  comme  a  Antioche. 


Cette  emission  fut  f  rappee  depuis  le  5  Mai  311  et  cessa  de 
Tetre  au  courant  de  I'annee  312. 

En  effet  elle  commenca  de  paraitre  apres  la  mort 
de  Galere  le  5  Mai  311,  car  le  nom  de  cet  empereur 
n'est  inscrit  sur  ses  monnaies  qu'avec  Fepitliete  Divus 
(Galerius)  dans  la  legende  :  DIVO  GAL.  VAL.  MAXI- 
MIANO.  Elle  se  termina  au  courant  de  Tannee  312 ; 
car  1'emission  suivante,  qui  ne  presente  plus  de  monnaies 
de  Divus  Galerius,  en  contient  encore  de  Maximin  Daja 

22  J.  Maurice,  loc.  cit.,  p.  223. 

23  Lactantius,  De  Mort.  Pers.,  c.  xxxix.  et  Lenain  de  Tille- 
mont,  Hist,  des  Emp.  iv,  p.  117. 


qui  n'ont  pu  etre  f rappees  que  jusqu'au  debut  de  la 
guerre  entre  Licinius  et  Maximin  en  Mars  ou  Avril  313.24 

Cette  emission  comprend  deux  sortes  de  monnaies  de 
bronze  ou  FOLLES*  Les  plus  lourds  de  ces  FOLLES  pesent 
de  5  grammes  a  7  grammes  55  c. ;  et  ont  d«  25  a  26  mil- 
limetres de  diametre ;  les  plus  legers  pesent  de  4  a  5 
grammes  et  ont  de  23  a  24  millimetres  de  diametre.  Get 
abaissement  des  poids  des  folles  eut  lieu  au  cours  de  remis- 
sion et  il  semble  qu'il  y  eut  a  peu  pres  synchronisme  entre 
cet  abaissement  des  poids  a  Siscia  dans  les  etats  de 
Licinius  et  a  Antioche  dans  ceux  de  Maximin  Daja.25 

II  dut  se  produire  au  cours  et  sans  doute  dans  la  seconde 
moitie  de  1'annee  311. 

14  Licinius  f ut  rappele  de  la  conference  de  Milan  a  la  fin  de 
f  evrier  par  1'invasion  de  ses  etats  par  Maximin ;  on  dut  sus- 
pend re  la  frappe  des  monnaies  de  Maximin  dans  ses  ateliers 
au  mois  de  Mars.  Sur  la  declaration  de  guerre  voir :  Lactantius, 
De  Nort.  Pers.  xlv.,  Anonymus  Valesii,  v.,  13. 

25  J'ai  deja  demontre  plus  haut  que  le  meme  synchronisme 
avait  eu  lieu  pour  le  ler  abaissement  du  poids  des  FOLLES  lors 
de  la  conference  de  Carnuntum  en  Novembre  308  (voir  mon 
travail  sur  1'atelier  d' Antioche,  Numismatic  Chronicle,  1899, 
p.  226,  pour  1'abaissement  du  poids  des  monnaies  en  311). 

On  peut  reconnaitre  dans  ces  abaissements  simultanes  du 
poids  des  monnaies,  dans  ce  parallelisme  entre  les  emis- 
sions des  memes  especes  monetaires  a  Siscia  et  a  Antioche, 
une  preuve  des  nombreux  echanges  commerciaux  qui  avaient 
lieu  entre  ces  deux  parties  de  1' empire.  II  en  est  pour  les 
monnaies  d'or  de  meme  que  pour  les  monnaies  de  bronze. 

J'ai  eu  1'occasion  de  demontrer  un  fait  semblable  pour  les 
emissions  des  ateliers  de  Tarragone  et  de  Home.  Apres  la 
prise  de  Rome  par  Maxence  le  28  Octobre,  306,  Rome  frap- 
pa  des  monnaies  de  bronze  de  meme  poids  que  celles  de  Tarra- 
gone et  lorsque  Constantin  reconnut  le  pouvoir  de  Maxence 
en  307,  il  fit  f  rapper  a  Tarragone  des  monnaies  analogues  a 
celles  que  Maxence  emettait  et  de  meme  poids. 

L'activite  des  echanges  commerciaux  entre  Rome  et  Tarra- 
gone d'une  part,  entre  Siscia  et  1'Orient  d'autre  part,  est 
attested  paries  textes,  qui  prouvent  que  les  approvisionnements 


Avec  les  lettres  d'officines  et  les  exergues — 

|A  [B          |r  IA  |e          |S 


On  trouve — • 

I.  Au  revers.  —  IOVI  CONSERVATOR!  Jupiter  nu, 
debout  a  gauche,  le  manteau  sur  1'epaule  gauche, 
tenant  le  foudre  de  la  droite  et  appuye  sur  an 
sceptre.  A  ses  pieds  a  gauche  un  aigle  tenant 
une  couronne  en  son  bee. 

Au  droit.  1.— IMP.  LIC.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Sa 
t6te  lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  83  ;  FR.  9039  ; 
6gr.  10;  BR.  MVS. 

2.  IMP.  MAXIMINYS  P.F.  AVG.     Sa  tete  lauree  a 

droite.     Cohen,   110;    FR.  8874-76;    25   m.m.. 
BR.  MVS. 

3.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.     Sa  tete  lauree 

a  droite.     Cohen,    286;    FR.  9113;  7   gr.  55  ; 
25  m.m.     BR.  MVS. 

4.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.    Meme  tete.    Cohen, 

287  ;  Voetter. 

de  Rome  se  faisaient  en  grande  partie  en  Espagne  sous  Con- 
stantin  (cf.  Cod.  Theodosianus,  lib.  xiii.  tit.  v.,  de  Naviculariis, 
lex  iv.,  du  8  Mars,  324  ;  et  plus  tard  Symmachi  epist.  lib.  10, 
epist.  50  ;  cf.  0.  Seeck,  Hon.  Hist.  Germanica  Antiquissima, 
xxxvii.,  p.  309;  Cassiodore  Tar.  5,  35);  et  les  nombreuses 
lois  qui  prouvent  que  Constantinople  s'approvisionna  surtout 
en  Egypte  (cf.  E.  Gebhardt,  Verpflegungswesen  von  Rom 
und  Constantinopel  in  der  Spaterenkais^rzeit,  Dorpat,  1881). 
Or  a  1'epoque  qui  nous  occupe  Licinius  etait  entre  en  possession 
de  Byzance  et  de  tout  ce  qui  est  en  dec^i  de  la  Propontide  du 
cote  de  1'Europe  ;  et  Galere  avait  possede  auparavant  les 
memes  contrees.  (Cf.  Lenain  de  Tillemont,  1.  c.  iv.,  p.  117  ; 
Lact.  D.  M.  P.,  cxxxvi.)  II  n'est  done  pas  etonnant  que  les 
monnaies  des  ateliers  de  Licinius  tels  que  Siscia  aient  ete 
frappees  de  meme  poids  que  celles  de  Maximin  qui  possedait 
1' Orient  et  1' Egypte  afin  de  faciliter  1'activite  des  e changes 
commerciaux  entre  les  etats  des  deux  empereurs. 


II.  Au  mw*.— FOETI  FOETVNAE.  Avec  la  Fortune  de- 
bout  a  gauche,  tenant  un  gouvernail^pose  sur  un 
globe  et  une  corne  d'abondance.  A  c6te  d'elle 
a  droite  un  croissant  et  une  etoile. 

Au  drott.—DIVO  GAL.  VAL.  MAXIMIANO.  Son 
buste  voile  a  droite.  Cohen,  30  de  G-alere. 
FE.  8476;  4  gr.  10;  24  m.m.  [PL  XV.,  No.  7.] 

Les  memes  pieces  se  rencontrent  avec  la  lettre  H  dans 
le  champ  du  revers.  L'on  a  en  consequence  la  seconde 
partie  suivante  de  cette  premiere  serie. 

Avec  les  lettres  et  exergues — 



B                F 
H                H 






SIS             SIS 

IS             SIS              SIS 


trouve  — 

Les  pieces  suivantes  qui  viennent  d'etre  decrites. 

1.  Le  No.  286  de  Oonstantin  I.  dans  Cohen.    BE.  MVS. 

2.  Le  No.  83   de  Licinius.    FE.  9040-41-42 ;  7    gr.  34 ; 

26  m.m;  BE.  MVS.     [PI.  XV.  No.  8.] 

3.  Le  No.    110  de  Maximin.     FE.   8871;    8875;  BE. 


Le  lettre  H  dans  le  champ  du  revers  des  monnaies  doit 
£tre  ici  la  premiere  du  nom  de  Hercule.26  L'on  a  vu,  en 
effet,  plus  haut,  que  Licinius  avait  re9u  des  mains  de 
Galere  Pheritage  de  Severe,  qui  avait  peri  dans  sa  guerre 
centre  Maxence.  Or  Severe  lui-meme  avait  recu  la 
pourpre  des  mains  de  Hercule  le  premier  Mai  305,  a 
Milan.27  II  en  resulte  que  Licinius  possedait  la  descendance 

26  Cf.  E.  Mowat,  Combinaisons  secretes  de  Lettres  dans  les 
Marques  monetaires  de  V Empire  Romain ;  page  22  du  tirage 
a  part,  Revue  Numismatique,  1897. 

37  Eutrop.,  Breviariumhist.  Rom.  ix.,  27.     Lactant.,  De  Mort 
Per*,  cxviii.     Lenain  de  Tillemont,  t.  iv.,  p.  52. 


directe  de  Hercule  et  que  Patelier  de  Siscia  etait  passe 
des  domaines  de  ce  dernier  empereur  dans  les  siens. 

La  monnaie  commemorative  de  Galere,  Cohen  No.  30, 
fut  frappee  egalement  avec  les  pieces  de  la  seconde  partie 
de  cette  serie  (collection  Yoetter). 

Avec  les  signes,  lettres  et  exergues — 

fi|A  fl|B  Q|T  fl|A  QlG  QIS 


On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.—IOVL  CONSEEVATOEI.  Avec  Jupiter 
nu,  debout  &  gauche,  le  manteau  sur  1'epaule 
gauche,  tenant  le  foudre  et  appuye  sur  un 

Audroit.l.—IKP.  LIC.    LICINIYS    P.P.  AYG.    La 

tete  lauree  a  droite.     Piece  inedite.     BE.  MVS. 
avec  I'officme  S,  qui  est  rare  ;  Yoetter. 

2.  IMP.  MAXIMINYS    P.F.    AYG.      Tete  analogue. 

Cohen,  112  ;  FK.  8870  a  73  ;  4  gr.  70  ;  24  m.m. ; 
BE.  MYS.    [PL  XV.,  No.  9.] 

3.  IMP.     CONSTANTINYS    P.F.   A7G.      Tete  ana- 

logue.     Cohen,   284;     FE.    9111;    5    gr.   5; 
23  m.m.     BE.  MYS. ;  4  gr.  53  ;  23  m.m. 

Les  poids  de  cette  serie  sont  en  general  moins  eleves 
que  ceux  de  la  serie  precedente. 

Leurs  legendes  et  leurs  exergues  classent  egalement 
dans  cette  emission  les  pieces  d'or  suivantes. 

Avec  le  signe  et  F  exergue  suivants — 



VOL.    XX.     THIRD    SERIES.  T  T 



On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.—IOVI    CONSEEYATOEI    AYG.     Jupiter 

nu  debout  a  gauche,  le  manteau  sur  1'epaule 
gauche,  tenant  le  foudre  et  un  sceptre ;  a  ses 
pieds  a  gauche  un  aigle  tenant  une  couronne 
en  son  bee. 

Au  droit.— LICINIVS  P.F.  AYG.  Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  H.  MVS.  Y.  25550  ;  5  gr.  35  ;  21  m.m. 
Cette  piece  differe  du  No.  89  de  Cohen  par  le 

II.  Au  revers.— IOYI  CONSEEYATOEI.     Jupiter  nu  de- 

bout  a  gauche,  le  manteau  sur  1'epaule  gauche, 
tenant  une  victoire  sur  un  globe  et  un  sceptre ; 
a  ses  pieds  a  gauche  un  aigle  tenant  une 
couronne  en  son  bee. 

Au  droit.— LICINIVS  P.F.  AYG.  Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  BE.  MYS. 

Ces  pieces  d'or  sont  de  Tespece  du  60me  de  la  livre  d'or 
qui  frequemment  est  indiquee  sur  les  monnaies  par  le 
chiffre  grec  2  ;  aussi  Missong  dans  Die  Vorldufer  der 
Werthzahl  OB  auf  romischen  Goldmunzen,  Zeitschrifi  f. 
Numismatik,  vii.,  1880,  a-t-il  cru  pouvoir  voir  un  rapport 
entre  les  deux  signes  grecs  2  et  X  latin.  Mais  il  semble 
que  ce  doit  etre  le  chiffre  des  YOTA  X  de  Licinius  que 
1'on  frappait  alors. 


Cette  emission  fut  f  rappee  au  cours  de  I'annee  312  et 
jtisqu'au  debut  de  la  guerre  entre  Maximin  et  Licinius  en 
Mars  ou  Avril  313.  En  effet  elle  contient  des  monnaies 
de  Maximin  qui  n'ont  pu  etre  frappees  qu'anterieurement 
a  cette  date.  Elle  se  distingue  de  remission  precedente 


parce  que  Fatelier  fonctionne  avec  une  officine  de  moins.28 
Les  folles  de  cette  emission  ne  pesent  plus  que  de  3 
gr.  50  c.  a  4  gr.  70  c.  ;  elles  ont  en  moyenne  22  m.ra.  de 

Avec  les  lettres  et  exergues — 

IA  IB  |r  |A  |e 

SIS      SIS      SIS      SIS      SIS 

On  trouve — 

Jupiter  nu ;  debout  a  gauche,  le  manteau  sur 
1'epaule  gauche,  tenant  une  victoire  sur  un 
globe  et  s'appuyant  sur  un  sceptre ;  a  ses  pieds 
a  gauche  un  aigle  tenant  une  couronne  en 
son  bee.29 

Au  droit.  l.-IMP.  LIC.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.     Son 

buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  123  ;  FE. 
9064  ;  4  gr.  55  ;  25  m.m. ;  BE.  MVS.  ; 
egalement  avec  son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a 
droite;  FE.  14239;  3  gr.  60;  24  m.m., 
14240-41 ;  BE.  MVS. ;  Yoetter. 

2.  Meme  legende,  avec  sa  tdte  lauree  a  droite.     Cohen, 

126  ;  FE.  14230  ;  3  gr.  50;  22  m.m.,  14231  ; 
BE.  MVS. 

3.  IMP.  MAXIMINVS  P.F.  AVG.      Son  buste  laure 

et  drape  a  droite.  Variete  inedite.  BE.  MVS. ; 

4.  Meme  legende  avec  son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Cohen,  127;  FE.  14047,  14048;  3  gr.  80; 
23  m.m. ;  14049.  [PI.  XV.,  No.  10.] 

28  L'importance   de   la   collection   du   Colonel   0.   Voetter 
permet  de  s'assurer  de  ce  fait. 

29  Elle  correspond  absolument  a  une  emission  d'Antioche 
qui  presente  la  m£me  legende  du  revers  (J.  Maurice,  Numis- 
matic Chronicle,  1899,  p.  227). 


5.  IMP.    CONSTANTINVS    P.F.     AVG.      Son  buste 

laure  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  312  ;  BE.  MVS. ; 
FE.  14732-33  ;  3  gr.  55  ;  22  m.m. ;  avec 
son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  BE.  MVS. ; 
H.  MYS.  V.;  FE.  14734;  3  gr.  70  ;  22  m.m. ; 

6.  Meme  legende ;  sa  tete  lauree  a  droite,  piece  inedite. 

BE.  MVS.  ;  4  gr.  62  ;  22  m.m.  ;  Voetter. 

C'est  dans  cette  emission  qu'il  faut  placer  la  piece  d'or 
suivante  avec  1'exergue — 


Au  revers. — PEOFECTIO  AVGGr.  Licinius  a  cheval  a 
droite  tenant  une  haste. 

Au  droit.—mP.  LIC.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Sa  fete 
lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  143  ;  FE.  1435  ;  5  gr. 
40  ;  19  m.m.  ;  or. 

Cette  piece  doit  se  rapporter  a  un  evenement  tres  im- 
portant survenu  en  1'annee  313.  C'est  la  rencontre  de 
Licinius  et  de  Constantin  a  Milan  en  fevrier  313,  ou  fut 
rendu  1'edit  de  Milan  qui  etablissait  la  liberte  reli- 
gieuse  dans  Tempire  ; 30  et  ou  Licinius  epousa  Constantia, 
soeur  de  Constantin.  Ce  depart  (Profectio) 31  des  Au- 
gustes  eut  lieu  lorsque  Constantin  fut  rappele  dans  les 
Gaules  et  Licinius  en  Illyrie  par  des  guerres  menacantes. 

30  Eusebii,  Historia  ecclesiastica,  lib.    10,   c.  5  ;    Lenain   de 
Tillemont,  t.  iv.,  p.  146. 

31  J'ai  decrit  dans  1? Atelier  monetaire  de  Londres,  Numis- 
matic Chronicle,  1900,   p.    122,  une  piece  de  bronze  a  1'effigie 
de  Constantin  datee  par  ses  signes   d' emission  de  la  meme 
epoque  et  portant  la  legende  ADVENTVS  AVGG-.  NN.,  qui 
doit  s'appliquer  a  cette  meme  entrevue  des  deux  empereurs, 
lesquels  ne  se  rencontrerent  officiellement  qu'a  Milan. 


La  piece   d'or  suivante    avec  le  meme   exergue  que   la 
precedente  se  place  a  cote  d'elle  par  ses  legendes. 

Au  revers.— SECVKITAS    AVGG.      Licinius  dans    un 
quadrige  au  pas  a  droite. 

Audroit.— IMP.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Sa  tete 
lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  156 ;  H.  MVS.  V., 
25649  ;  5  gr.  40  ;  20  m.m. 

Ces  deux  pieces  sont  de  Pespece  du  60me  de  la  livre 
d'or  qui  etait  couramment  frappee  dans  les  etats  de 
Licinius  en  313,  tandis  que  dans  les  etats  de  Constantin 
le  SOLIDUS  etait  deja  plus  frequemment  emis  ;  des  pieces 
du  type  du  60me  sortaient  encore  des  ateliers  de  Constantin 
pour  etre  echangees  centre  celles  de  Licinius. 


Cette  emission  ne  contient  que  des  monnaies  de  Con- 
stantin le  Grand  et  de  Licinius.  Elle  est  done  posterieure 
a  la  guerre  entre  Licinius  et  Maximin  qui  fut  suime  de  la 
mort  de  ce  dernier  en  Juin  313.32  Elle  se  termine  avant 
V elevation  des  Cesars,  Crispus,  Licinius  II  et  Constantin  II, 
qui  eut  lieu  le  ler  Mars  317,33  car  elle  ne  contient  pas  de 
monnaies  des  Cesars.  Entre  ces  deux  epoques,  Avril 
ou  Juin  313  et  le  ler  Mars  317,  Patelier  de  Siscia 
passa  des  etats  de  Licinius  dans  ceux  de  Constantin, 
par  suite  de  la  guerre  qui  eut  lieu  entre  ces  deux  em- 
pereurs  a  la  fin  de  Pannee  314.34  Cette  guerre  inter- 

32  J.  Maurice,    E  Atelier  monetaire  de  Rome,  Revue  Numis- 
matique,  1899,  p.  461. 

33  Id.,  E  Atelier  monetaire  de  Londres,  Numismatic   Chronicle, 
1900,  p.  134. 

34  Lenain  de  Tillemont,  t.  iv.,  p.  1 62  ;  Zosimi  historiae,  lib. 
ii.,  cap.  20. 


rompit  a  Siscia  les  emissions  monetaires.  En  effet,  tandis 
que  Ton  frappait  dans  les  ateliers  situes  dans  les  etats 
de  Constantin  a  Rome,  a  Tarragone,  a  Loudres,  des  mon- 
naies  d'un  certain  type  avec  la  legende  Soli  Invicto  Comiti 
Aug.  N.  a  la  seule  effigie  de  Tempereur  dont  ils  de- 
pendaient, 35  la  contre-partie  avait  lieu  a  Thessalonica 
qui  appartenait  a  Licinius,  ou  des  monnaies  d'un  type 
analogue  paraissaient  avec  la  legende  Tom  Conservatori 
Aug.,  f rappees  au  nom  et  a  1'effigie  de  Licinius  seul.36 

Si  Tatelier  de  Siscia,  situe  dans  les  etats  de  Licinius  lors 
de  la  declaration  de  guerre,  etait  reste  ouvert  pendant  les 
hostilites,  il  eut  emis  des  monnaies  analogues  a  celles  de 
Thessalonica  dont  il  vient  d'etre  question.  Mais  au  con- 
traire  on  ne  trouve  que  des  series  paralleles  de  pieces  de 
Constantin  et  de  Licinius  sorties  vers  cette  epoque  de 
1'atelier  de  Siscia.  Get  atelier  fut  done  ferme  pendant  la 
guerre ;  et  ce  fait  jette  un  jour  nouveau  sur  la  campagne 
de  Constantin.  Get  empereur  venant  d'ltalie,  livrant  sa 
premiere  bataille  a  Cibales,  dut  faire  suivre  a  son  armee  la 
grande  voie  qui  venant  d'Aquilee  traversait  la  Pannonie  37 
en  passant  par  Noviodunum  et  Siscia,  dont  Fatelier  se  trouva 
ferme  par  le  passage  des  troupes  ennemies  des  le  debut 
des  hostilites,  ce  qui  explique  la  suspension  des  frappes  de 
cet  atelier  pendant  la  guerre.  Constantin  apres  sa  victoire 
de  Cibales  jeta  un  pont  sur  la  Save38  et  la  traversant,  pour- 
suivit  Licinius  en  Thrace,  ou  eut  lieu  la  derniere  bataille 

35  J.  Maurice,  Revue  Numismatique,  1899,  p.  467,  et  1900, 
p.  287. 

s6  La  collection  du  colonel  Yoetter  fournit  a  cet  egard  un 
ensemble  de  pieces  des  plus  importants. 

37  Eutrope  (lib.  x.,  cap.  5)  parle  de  combats  preliminaires 
en  Pannonie. 

38  Zosimi  historiae,  lib.  ii.,  caput  xix. 


de  cette  guerre  (in  campo  Mardiense)  39  entre  Philippo- 
polis  et  Hadrianopolis.40 

II  ne  s'approcha  pas  de  la  Macedoine  ou  1'atelier  de 
Thessalonica,  situe  au  sud  de  la  province,  tres  loin  du 
theatre  de  la  guerre,  n'emit  que  des  monnaies  de  Licinius 
jusqu'au  moment  du  traite  de  paix  qui  le  livra  a  Con- 

II  resulte  de  ces  explications  qu'il  faut  changer,  ainsi 
que  1'a  deja  fait  remarquer  0.  Seeck,41  dans  le  texte  de 
1'Anonymus  Yalesii,  v.,  17  (Misit  (Licinius)  legatos  ad 
Constantinum  apud  Philippwri),  le  mot  de  Philippum  en 
Philippopolis,  ou  Constantin  se  trouvait  avant  la  bataille 
de  Mardie. 

L'emission  dont  la  description  va  suivre  se  divise  en 
deux  parties  qui  presentent  a  Siscia  les  memes  series 
monetaires.  Mais  la  premiere  partie  de  remission  fut 
f  rap  pee  avant  la  guerre  de  314,  qui  debuta  en  Septembre 
de  cette  annee  ; 42  tandis  que  la  seconde  partie  est  pos- 
terieure  a  cette  guerre  et  ne  peut  etre  datee  d'une  facon 
certaine  que  du  ler  Janvier  315,  jour  de  la  prise  en  com- 
mun  du  consulat  par  Licinius  et  Constantin,  ev£nement 
qui  temoigne  officiellement  de  leur  reconciliation. 

Les  monnaies  de  bronze  frappees  avant  et  apres  la 
fermeture  de  1'atelier  pendant  la  guerre  sont  les  memes, 
seulement  le  poids  de  ces  pieces  dut  etre  uniformement 
abaisse  apres  la  guerre,  Patelier  de  Siscia  se  trouvant  des 

39  Anonymus  Valesii,  v.,  17. 

40  Zos.  hist.,  ii.,  xix. ;  0.  Seeck  a  etabli  ce  point  dans  Ge- 
schichte  des  Unter gangs  der  antihen  Welt,  Berlin,  1897,  p.  161  ; 
AnmerUungen,  p.  503. 

41  0.  Seeck,  meme  passage. 

42  J.  Maurice,  IS  Atelier  de  Tarragone,  Revue  Numismatique, 
1900,  p.  285. 


lors  dans  les  etats  de  Constantin,  ou  etait  emis  le  denier 
de  bronze  du  poids  moyen  de  3  gr.  50  c.  II  serait 
inutile  de  repeter  deux  fois  la  description  des  meme  pieces 
frappees  aux  deux  epoques  successives,  Ton  peut  con- 
siderer  comme  composant  la  seconde  partie  de  remission  les 
pieces  de  Faspect  et  du  poids  moyen  du  denier  de  bronze. 

Avec  les  lettres  d'officines  et  exergues — 

IA  IB  r  A  ie 


On  trouve — 

Au  revers.—  IOYI  CONSEEYATOEI ;  avec  Jupiter  nu, 
debout  &  gauche,  le  manteau  sur  1'epaule 
gauche,  tenant  une  victoire  sur  un  globe  et 
appuye  sur  un  sceptre;  a  ses  pieds  a  gauche 
un  aigle  tenant  une  couronne  en  son  bee. 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.  CONSTANTINYS  P.P.  AYG.  Sa 
tete  lauree  a  droite  ;  piece  inexactement  decrite 
dans  Cohen,  289 ;  PE.  14695  ;  BE.  MYS. ;  H. 
MYS.  V.  [PI.  XV.,  No.  11.] 

2.  Meme  legende.    Son  buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite  ; 

piece  inedite ;  Voetter. 

3.  IMP.    CONSTANTINYS   AYG.    ^Sa  tete  lauree  a 

droite  ;  piece  inexactement  decrite  dans  Cohen, 
288;  PE.  14692;  3  gr.  60;  21  m.m. ;  id., 

4.  IMP.  LIC.  LICINIYS  P.P.  AYG.      Sa  tete  lauree 

a  droite.  Cohen,  67 ;  PE.  14141 ;  Musee 
Brera;  20  m.m. ;  Yoetter.  [PI.  XV.,  No.  12.] 

5.  Meme  legende.     Son   buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite. 

Cohen,  67.     Yoetter. 

6.  IMP.    LICINIYS    P.   P.    AYG.     Sa  t&e  lauree  4 

droite.  Cohen,  73;  PE.  14229;  3  gr.  45 ;  21 
m.m.;  14137;  3  gr.  10;  20  m.m.  ;  BE.  MYS.; 
H.  MYS.  Y. 


Les  Nos-  1,  2  et  3  de  Constantin  ont  ete  frappes  pa- 
rallelement  avec  Nos-  4,  5  et  6  de  Licinius.  Les  types 
et  les  legendes  au  droit  de  ces  pieces  sont  analogues. 

La  .piece  d'or  suivante  rentre  dans  cette  serie  par  sa 
lettre  dans  le  champ  et  son  exergue. 



Au  revers.  —  10  VI  CONSEEVATOEL  Jupiter  nu, 
debout  a  gauche,  le  manteau  sur  Tepaule  gauche, 
tenant  un  globe  et  un  sceptre ;  a  ses  pieds  d 
droite  un  aigle  tenant  une  couronne  en  son  bee. 

Au  droit.  —  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AYG.  Sa  tete 
lauree  d  droite.  Cohen,  281  ;  FR.  1525  ;  4  gr. 
97  ;  18  m.m. 

On  peut  egalement  ranger  dans  cette  serie  par  son 
exergue  —=  la  piece  d'or  suivante. 

Aurevers.— VIETVS  EXEECITVS  GALL.  Mars  nu, 
le  manteau  flottant,  marchant  a  droite,  portant 
un  trophee  et  une  haste  transversale,  entre  deux 
vaincus  assis  d  ses  pieds. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVGK  Sa  tete 
lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  702;  FE.  1551 ;  4  gr. 
37;  19  m.m.  Solidus. 

L'atelier  devait  etre,  qnand  fut  frappee  cette  piece, 
dans  les  mains  de  Constantin  en  315.  Le  SOLIDUS  etait 
alors  emis  dans  les  etats  de  Constantin.  La  legende  du 
revers  prend  un  sens  si  Ton  tient  compte  de  ce  que  cette 
piece  parut  a  la  suite  de  la  victoire  remportee  par  Con- 
stantin sur  Licinius,  victoire  due  sans  doute  en  grande 
partie  aux  legions  des  Gaules.  Le  N0>  703  de  Cohen  est 
une  piece  pareille  a  celle  qui  vient  d'etre  decrite,  mais  sans 
captifs  aux  pieds  de  Mars;  FK.  1552;  4  gr.  75;  18  m.m. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  U  U 


Avec  les  lettres  d'efficines  et  exergues — 

I  A  ]B  |r  i  A  re 

SIS  •  •  SIS  •  •  SIS  •  •  SIS  •  •  SIS 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  rwers.—IQYL  CONSEEVATOEI.  Cette  legends 
accompagnee  du  meme  type  du  revers  que  dans 
la  serie  precedente. 

Au  droit.  1,— IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVGK  Sa 
tete  lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  289.  C'est  le  No. 
1  de  la  serie  precedente;  FK.  14696-14698; 
3  gr.  72  ;  21  m.m.  ;  BE.  MVS. ;  H.  MVS.  V. 

2.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.    Meme  tete.    Cohen, 

288.      C'est  le  No.  3  de  la  serie  precedente ; 

3.  IMP.  LIC.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.     Sa  tete  lauree 

a  droite.     Cohen,  67.     C'est  le  No.  4  de  la  serie 
precedente;  FE.  14144;  BE.  MVS. 

La  piece  d'argent  suivante   fait  partie  de  cette  serie 
a  raison  de  son  revers. 

I  A 

On  trouve-— 

II.  Au  revers.—  10  VI  CONSEEVATOEI.  Jupiter  a  demi- 
nu,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  victoire  sur  un 
globe  et  appuye  sur  un  sceptre,  a  ses  pieds  a 
gauche  un  aigle  tenant  une  couronne  en  son  bee. 

Au  droit.—  IMP.  LIC.  LICINIVS  P.F.  AVG.  Sa  tete 
lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  65  ;  FE.  medaillon,  124. 
C'est  la  piece  du  96me  a  la  livre  ;  pese  3  gr.  65  ; 
21  m.m. 



Cette  emission  fut  frappee  entre  le  ler  Mars  317  et  le 
debut, de  320. 

En  effet  elle  est  caracterisee  par  Fapparition  des 
monnaies  des  Cesars,  Crispus,  Constantin  II  et  Licinius  II, 
dont  1' elevation  a  ce  rang  eut  lieu  le  lerMars  317.43  D'autre 
part  on  ne  trouve  sur  les  series  monetaires  de  cette 
emission  ni  les  YOTA  Y  des  Cesars  ni  les  VOTA  XV  et 
XX  des  Augustes,  dont  la  frappe  commence  au  d£but 
de  320.44 

Les  legendes  des  monnaies  de  cette  emission  a  Siscia — 
Soli  Invicto  Comiti  pour  Constantin,  lovi  Conservatori 
pour  Licinius,  Principia  luventutis  et  Claritas  Reipul- 
licae  pour  les  Cesars — ont  e*te  frappees  en  meme  temps  a 
Rome  et  dans  la  plupart  des  ateliers  de  1'empire.  En 
meme  temps  que  ces  legendes,  Fon  frappait,  egalement 
ainsi  que  j'ai  deja  euToccasion  de  lefaire  remarquer  dans 
une  etude  sur  Patelier  de  Londres,  la  legende  Victoriae 
Laetae  Princ.  Per  p.  Les  monnaies  de  bronze  qui  vont 
etre  decrites  sont  de  Tespece  du  denier  de  bronze  cree  par 
Constantin  en  314  et  315  et  dont  le  poids  moyen  est  de 
3  grammes  50  c.,  le  diametre  de  19  a  20  m.m. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

ASIS        BSIS        rsis       ASIS        esis 

43  J.  Maurice,  I? Atelier  monetaire  de  Londres,  Num.  Chron., 
1900,  pp.  134,  135. 

44  Id.,  L> Atelier  monetaire  de  Rome,  Revue  Numismatique,  1899, 
p.  476. 


I.  Au  revers.—  SOLI  INYICTO  COMITL  Le  Soleil 
radie  a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a 
gauche,  levant  la  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AVGK  Son  buste 
laure  et  drape  a  droite,  egalement  avec  le  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  530 ;  Voetter. 

2.  CONSTANTINVS  IYN.  NOB.  CAES.  Son  buste 
laure  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  1 84  ;  FE.  15813 ; 
3  gr.  25  ;  20  m.m.  [PI.  XV.,  No.  13.] 

II.  Au  revers.  —  10  VI  CONSEEVATOEI.  Jupiter  nu 
debout  a  gauche,  tenant  une  victoire  sur  un 
globe  et  un  sceptre;  a  ses  pieds  a  gauche  un 
aigle  tenant  une  couronne  en  son  bee. 

Audroit.— IMP.    LIC.    LICINIVS    P.F.    AVG.      Sa 

tete  lauree  a  droite.     Cohen,  67  ;  FE.  14138  ; 

III.  Au  revers.— PEINCIPIA  IVVENTVTIS.  Le  prince 
casque,  en  habit  militaire,  debout  a  droite, 
appuye  sur  un  bouclier  et  tenant  une  haste 

Au  droit.  1.— CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.  Son  buste  laure 
et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  105  ;  Voetter. 

2.  CEISPVS  NOB.    CAESAE.     Meme  buste.     Cohen, 

106;  FE.  15467;  3  gr.  25  ;  20  m.m.     [PI.  XVI., 
No.  1.] 

3.  LICINIVS  IVN.    NOB.   CAES.      Buste  analogue. 

Piece  inedite.    Voetter. 

IV.  Au  revers.— CLAEITAS  EEIPVBLICAE.  Le  Soleil 
radio,  a  demi-nu,  debout  de  face,  regardant  a 
gauche,  levant  la  droite  et  tenant  un  globe. 

Au  droit.  —  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  CAES. 
Son  buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  50  ; 
FE.  15637  ;  3  gr.  50 ;  20  m.m. ;  Voetter. 

Les  pieces  qui  vont  suivre  avec  les  legendes  Victoriae 
et  Viet.  Laetae  Princ.  Perp.  ont  etc  frappees  de  320  &  324 ; 
en  effet  on  les  trouve  dans  toutes  les  series  de  remission 


qui  parut    de  320  a  324.     J'ai  demontre  toutefois  dans 
mon  etude  sur  Tatelier  de  Londres  qu'elles  furent  egale- 
ment  frappees  de  317  £  320.45 
On  trouve — 

V.  Au  revere.— VICTOEIAE  LAETAE    PEINC.  PEEP., 

et  comme  type,  deux  victoires  debout  posant 
un  bouclier  sur  un  autel ;  celle  qui  est  a  gauche 
a  ecrit  VOT.  P.E.  sur  le  bouclier. 

Au  droit.   1.— IMP.   CONSTANTINVS  AVG.      Son 

buste  cuirasse  a  droite  avec  le  casque  laure. 
Cohen,  636  ;  FE.  15051  ;  au  revers  avec  un 
point  sur  1'autel  H ;  BE.  MVS. 

2.  Meme  legende.      Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse"    a 

gauche,  tenant  une  haste  et  un  bouclier.  Sur  le 
casque  a  cimier  des  etoiles.  Cohen,  637;  FE. 
15056.  [PI.  XVI.,  No.  2.] 

3.  Meme  legende.      Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse   a 

gauche,  tenant  une  haste  seulement.  Cohen, 
638;  Voetter. 

4.  IMP.   CONSTANTINVS    P.F.    AVG.      Son  buste 

cuirasse  a  droite  avec  le  casque  laure.  Cohen, 
639;  FE.  15076;  sur  1'autel  au  revers  ^, 
15081;  3  gr.  2;  18  m.m. ;  rien  sur  1'autel; 

5.  IVL.   CEISPVS  NOB.  CAESAE.     Son  buste  laure 

et  cuirasse  a  gauche  avec  un  sceptre  ou  une 
haste  et  un  bouclier  ;  avec  la  lettre  IJ]  sur  1'autel 
au  revers.  Inedite.  Voetter. 

6.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  CAES.     Son  buste 

laure,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  222  ; 
FE.  15823  ;  3  gr.  25  ;  19  m.m. ;  BE.  MVS. 

7.  LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  CAES.     Son  buste  laure  et 

drape,  ou  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  54  ; 
FE.  14427.  R  sur  1'autel  au  revers.  BE. 

45  J.  Maurice,  IS  Atelier  monetaire  de  Londres,  Num.  Chron., 
1900,  p.  138. 


VI.  Au  revers.—VICT.  LAETAE  PEINC  .  PEEP.  Deux 

victoires  debout,  posant  sur  un  autel  un  bouclier, 
sur  lequel  celle  qui  est  placee  a  gauche  a  ecrit 
VOT.  P.E. 

Audroit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS -AVGK  Son  buste 
casque  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  569 ;  FE. 
15033,  15037;  T. ;  BE.  MVS.;  Voetter.  Avec 
El  et  HJ46  a  la  face  anterieure  de  1' autel  ou 

2.  IMP.   CONSTANTINVS    P.F.    AVGK      Son  buste 

casque  et  cuirasse  a  droite  avec  le  casque  laure. 
Cohen,  572  ;  FE.  15042. 

3.  IMP.   LICINIYS    AVG.      Sa  tete  lauree  a  droite. 

Cohen,  170;  FE.  14314;  devant  1'autel  ||J  ou 
GJ ;  BE.  MVS.  [PI.  XVI.,  No.  3.] 

4.  IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  C.     Son  buste  laure  et  drape 

a  droite.     Cohen,  140;  T. 

Je  n'ai  pas  vu  les  pieces  des  autres  Cesars. 

Avec  les  signes  et  lettres  d' exergues — 

ASIS        BSIS         rsis        ASIS        esis 

On  trouve : 

I.  Au  revers—  SOLI  INVICTO   COMITI.     Avec    le  type 
decrit  plus  haut. 

Au  droit.—TKP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son 
buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  536;  FE. 
14932;  2gr.  95;  18  m.m. ;  14933. 

46  L'explication  de  ces  lettres  n'a  pas  encore  ete  donnee. 
II  me  semble  qu'elles  constituent  sans  auctm  doute  1'exergue 
de  Siscia  que  forment  les  lettres  S — I — S,  qui  se  trouvent  sur 
plusieurs  pieces  qui  forment  un  sigle  et  qui  terminent  des 
points  •  • 


II.  Au  revers.  —  CLABITAS    KEIPVBLICAE.     Avec  le 
type  decrit  plus  haut  avec  cette  legende. 

Au  droit.-IM.-p.  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Piece  inedite. 

La  piece  d'or  suivante  se  classe  dans  cette  emission 
par  la  legende  et  son  exergue  r-^r ;  les  lettres  d'officines 
n'etaient  generalement  pas  frappees  sur  les  monnaies  d'or. 

Au  revers.  —  SOLI  INVICTO  COMITI.  Le  Soleil 
radie  a  demi-nu  debout  a  gauche,  levant  la 
droite  et  tenant  de  la  main  gauche  un  globe  et 
un  f  ouet ;  a  ses  pieds  un  captif  assis,  les  mains 
liees  derriere  le  dos. 

Au  droit.-IM.-p.  CONSTANTINVS  MAX.  AVG.  Sa 
tete  radiee  a  droite.  Cohen,  517,  or;  collection 
de  M.  de  Quelen ;  Cohen. 

C'est  la  premiere  apparition  du  titre  de  Maximus 
Augustus  de  Constantin,  ainsi  que  du  type  de  la  tete 
radiee  sur  les  monnaies  de  Siscia. 


Frappee  depuis  P  apparition  sur  les  monnaies  des  Vota 
XV  de  Constantin  et  des  Vota  V  des  Cesarsy  c'est  a  dire 
depuis  le  debut  de  l\anme  320,47  jusqu'd  Selection  de 
Constantius  II  Ctsar  le  8  Novemlre  324.  On  ne  trouve 
pas  en  effet  de  pieces  a  1'effigie  de  ce  prince  dans  cette 
emission,  qui  comprend  huit  series  de  monnaies  avec  des 

47  Cf.  J.  Maurice,  IS  Atelier  monetaire  de  Home,  Revue 
Numumatique,  1899,  p.  476  et  seq.  Les  Yota  V  des  Cesars  ont 
ete  frappes  en  meme  temps  que  les  Vota  XV  de  Constantin, 
c'est  a  dire  des  1'annee  320,  et  Panniversaire  de  1' elevation  des 
Cesars  tombe  le  ler  Mars. 


exergues  differents.     Les  trois  dernieres  series  avec  les 


pas  de  monnaies  des  Licinius  pere  et  fils.  Si  ce  fait 
est  certain,  ainsi  que  je  le  pense,  il  en  resulte  qu'elles 
ont  ete  emises  pendant  la  guerre  entre  Constantin 
et  Licinius,  qui  dechira  Pempire  pendant  la  seconde 
moitie  de  1'annee  324  et  se  termina  par  la  defaite  et  la 
reddition  de  Licinius  dechu  de  son  rang  d'empereur.48 
L'atelier  de  Siscia,  se  trouvanfc  dans  les  etats  de  Constantin, 
suspendit  la  frappe  des  monnaies  de  ses  adversaires, 
mais  continua  celle  de  plusieurs  series  de  pieces  de  Con- 
stantin et  de  ses  fils  jusqu'a  P  elevation  de  Constantius  II 
C£sar,  qui  marque  le  debut  d'une  autre  emission  au  8 
Novembre  324. 

Avec  les  exergues  suivants — 

ASIS        BSIS         rsis        ASIS        esis 

On  doit  classer  ici  d'abord  toutes  les  monnaies  avec  les 
legendes  du  revers  : 


48  La  premiere  bataille,  celle  d'Andrinople,  est  du  3  Juillet 
324.  Licinius  passe  le  Bosphore.  Constantin  le  poursuit  et 
le  bat  une  seconde  fois  a  Chalcedoine  le  18  Septembre  324 
(0.  Seeck,  Geschichte  des  Unter gangs  der  antiken  W^elt.  Berlin, 
1897,  pages  178  et  181). 


qui  ont  ete  decrites  dans  remission  precedente ; 49  ensuite 
on  trouve  : 

III^Au  revers.—  D.N.  LICINI  AYGYSTI.  Autour  d'une 
couronnede  laurier  dans  laquelle  on  lit  VOT.XX. 

Au  droit.— IMP.  LIOINIVS  AVG.      Sa  tete  lauree  & 
droite.     Cohen,  15  ;  FE.  14097. 

IV.  Au  revers.— D.  N.  LICINI  MAX.  AVG.  Avec  le 
meme  type. 

Au  droit.— IMP.  LICINIYS  AYG.    Meme  tete.    Cohen, 
18;  Voetter. 

V.  Au  revers.  —  LICINI  AYGYSTI.       Autour  des  mots 
YOTIS  XX,  en  trois  lignes  dans  le  champ. 

Au  droit.— IMP.  LICINIYS  AYG.    Meme  tete.    Cohen, 
136  ;  FE.  14249;  2  gr.  95  ;   19  m.m. 

YI.  Au  revers.  —  D.  N.  CONSTANTINI  MAX.  AYG. 
Autour  d'une  couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle 
on  lit  YOT.  XX. 

Au  droit.—  CONSTANTINYS  AVG.     Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.      Cohen,  123;   Voetter;   avec  1' exergue 

eis  8eulement- 

VII.  Au  revers.  —  CAESAEVM  NOSTEOKVM.  Autour 
d'une  couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle  on  lit 
VOT.  V. 

Au  droit.  1.— IVL.  CEISPYS  NOB.  C.     Sa  tete  lauree 
a  droite'.     Cohen,  34  ;  FE.  15387  ;   BE.  MVS. ; 


49  II  etait  inutile  de  reproduire  ici  cette  liste  de  pieces  qui 
est  exactement  la  meme  que  dans  1'emission  precedente.  De 
meme  pour  les  series  qui  suivent  je  renvoie  aux  descriptions  de 
remission  precedente.  Lorsque  les  pieces  indiquees  auront 
deja  ete  decrites  dans  cet  article,  je  n'indiquerai  plus  que  leurs 
Nos.  dans  Cohen,  si  elles  y  figment. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  X  X 


2.  CONSTANTINVS  IYN.  NOB.   C.     Sa  tete  lauree 

a  droite.     Cohen,  31  ;  FE.  15595  ;  BE.  MVS. ; 

3.  LICINIYS  IVN.  NOB.  C.    Sa  tete  lauree  a  droite. 

Cohen,  5  ;  FE.  14347 ;  BE.  MVS. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

ASIS  •       BSIS  •       rsis  •       ASIS  •       esis  • 

On  trouve — 

I.  An  revers.—  VICTOEIAE  LAETAE    PEINC.   PEEP. 
Avec  le  type  deja  decrit. 

Audroit.  1.— IMP.   CONSTANTINVS  AVG.     Cohen, 
636  ;  Voetter. 

2.  Meme  legende.  Cohen,  637  ;  FE.  15055-56  ;  Voetter. 

3.  Meme  piece,   mais  avec  le  monogramme   ^  sur  le 

casque.     Voetter.51     [PI.  XVI.,  No.  4.] 

Le  monogramme  n'apparait  sur  les  monnaies  de  Tar- 
ragone,  Thessalonica,  Aquilee  et  Treves,  qu'avec  la 
legende  Virtus  Exercit.  et  les  VOT.  XX  des  Augustes52 
de  320  a  324. 

On  le  trouve  a  Siscia  avec  la  legende  Victorias  Laetae 
Princ.  Perp.,  qui  parut  des  Tannee  317. 

50  Parfois  un  point   se   trouve   egalement  entre  la  lettre 
d'officine  et  le  sigle  de  1'atelier,  SIS. 

51  Publie  dans  0.  Voetter,  Erste  ChristUche  Zeichen  a.  R. 
Miinzen,  Num.  Zeitschrift,  1892,  p.  68. 

53  J.    Maurice,    L } Atelier    monetaire    de     Tarragone,    Revue 
Numismatique,  1900,  p.  300. 


II  n'en  faudrait  pas  conclure  que  le  monogramme  fut 
frappe  des  1'annee  317  a  Siscia.  En  effet  la  meme  serie 
monetaire  qui  contient  cette  legende  fut  emise  egalement 
de  320  a  324  et  presente  les  YOT.  XX  des  Augustes  avec  la 
legende  Virtus  Exercit.  II  y  a  done  tout  lieu  d'admettre 
que  le  monogramme  parut  a  Siscia  en  meine  temps  que 
dans  les  autres  ateliers,  c'est  a  dire  des  1'annee  320.  J'ai 
demontre  dans  mon  etude  de  Fatelier  de  Tarragone  que 
1' apparition  du  monogramme  coincidait  avec  une  accen- 
tuation nouvelle  de  la  politique  religieuse  de  Constantin.63 

3.  Meme  piece  avec  1'empereur  a  cheval  represente  sur 

le  bouclier.  Coll.  Voetter.  Madden  indique 
dans  ' '  Christian  Emblems  on  Coins  of  Constan- 
tine  I"  1'existence  du  monogramme  sur  cette 
piece  d'apres  plusieurs  sources.54 

4.  Meme  legende.    Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse  a  gauche 

avec  un  casque  a  cimier,  orne  de  points  et 
d'etoiles.  Cohen,  638  ;  Voetter. 

5.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.     Cohen,  639 

FK.  15068  ;  3  gr.  13  ;  20  m.m.  ;  15069  ;  15083 
Voetter,  avec  J*J  |TJ  |s|  sur  1'autel  au  revers 
egalement  |^- 

6.  IMP.    LIC.    LICINIVS    P.F.   AVG.       Son    buste 

laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  173  ;  Voetter; 
Musee  Brer  a. 

7.  IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.   CAES.     Son  buste  laure  et 

drape  a  droite.     Piece  inedite.     Voetter  [•]. 

8.  CEISPVS  NOB.   CAESAE.    Son  buste  laure,  drape 

et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  148;  FE.  15510- 

53  Id.,  p.  299. 

54  Num.  Chron.,  1877,  pp.  46,  47.    Parmis  <jes  sources,  Gar- 
rucci,  Numism.  Const.,  et  Baronius,   Annales,  sont  pen  sures. 
Tanini  dans   le   supplement  a  Banduri,  Numism. 

est  plus  digne  de  confiance. 


9.  LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  CAES.  Son  buste  laure, 
drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  54  ;  FE. 

10.  CONSTANTINVS     IVN.     NOB.    CAES.       Buste 
analogue.     Cohen,  222;  FE.  15823;  Yoetter. 

II.  Au  revers.— VICT.   LAETAE  PEINC.   PEEP.      Avec 
le  type  deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINYS  AVGK  Cohen,  569; 
deja  decrit ;  Yoetter. 

2.  IMP.   LICINIVS  AVGK     Cohen,  170;  deja  decrit; 

BE.  MVS.  ;  H.  MVS.  V. ;  Yoetter. 

3.  IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  C.     Son  buste  laure  et  drape 

a  droite.     Cohen,  140;  Yoetter;  d'apres  Cohen, 
[3  et  fsl  sur  1'autel. 

4.  CONSTANTINVS  IYN.  NOB.  0.  Son  buste  laure 
et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  192,  dit  N.  C.  par 
erreur  ;  collection  M.  Lalaune  a  Bordeaux. 

III.  Au  revers.—  YIETYS   EXEECIT.      Cohen,    693  ; 

decrit  ;     II.     MVS.    V.  ;     presente    au    revers 
S    F 


Madden55  indique  le  monogramme  sur  cette  piece 
d'apres  Garrucci.  Je  ne  repeterai  pas,  pour  les  series  qui 
vont  suivre,  les  descriptions  des  monnaies  qui  reapparais- 
sent  dans  chaque  serie,  j'indiquerai  simplement  les  Nos. 
de  Cohen. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

•  ASIS  •     •  BSIS  •     •  rsis  •      •  ASIS  •     •  esis  • 

55  Madden,  foe.  cit.,  Num.  Chron.,  1877,  p.  53,  d'apres 
Garrucci,  Num.  Const.,  2me  edit.,  p.  240  ;  egalement  Revue 
Numismatique,  1860,  p.  85. 


Parfois  Ton  trouve  un  point  entre  la  lettre  d'officine  et 
1'exergue : 

I.  Au  revers.—  YICTOEIAE    LAETAE  PEINC.    PEEP. 
Avec  le  type  deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.   1.— IMP.   CONSTANTINVS  AVG.     Cohen, 
636 ;  BE.  MYS. 

2.  Cohen,  637;  BE.  MYS.;  Yoetter. 

3.  Cohen,  638  ;  Yoetter. 

4.  IMP.   CONSTANTINYS   P.    AVG.      Cohen,    639 ; 


II.  Au  revers.— YICT.   LAETAE  PEINC.  PEEP.     Meme 
type  du  revers. 

Au  droit.  1. -CONSTANTINYS    AYG.      Cohen,   569; 
FE.  15035;  BE.  MVS. 

2.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  cuirasse  a  gauche  avec  un 

casque  &  cimier  et  orne  d'etoiles,  tenant  une 
haste  et  un  bouclier.  Cohen,  570  ;  FE.  15036  ; 
3  gr.  10;  18  m.m. ;  Yoetter. 

3.  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS    P.F.  AYG.     Cohen,  572 ; 

FE.  15041;  egalement  a  1' exergue,  -p — Lyg  ; 
BE.  MYS. 

4.  IMP.    LICINIYS  AYG.     Cohen,  170;  FE.  14313, 

sur  1'autel  |H ;    BE.  MYS. ;  Yoetter. 

5.  IMP.   LIC.   LICINIVS   P.F.  AYG.      Cohen,  173; 

FE.  14315,  sur  1'autel  Q. 

6.  CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  NOB.  C.     Son  buste  laure" 

et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  1 92,  rectifie  plus  haut ; 
Yoetter ;  sur  1'autel  [»j  et  [sj 

7.  CONSTANTINYS     IYN.     NOB.    CAES.      M£me 

buste.  Cohen,  191 ;  FE.  15817  ;  3  gr.  60  ;  18 

8.  IYL.  CEISPYS.  NOB.  C.      Cohen,  140,  deja  decrit ; 

Yoetter.  - 


9.  LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.  Son  buste  laure  et  drape 
a  droite.  Cohen  51 ;  FE.  14314  ;  Voetter.  Au 
revers  sur  1'autel  171  et  HJ. 

10.  LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  CAES.     Meme  buste.   Piece 
inedite.      Voetter.     Au  revers  sur  1'autel  171 

III.  Au  revers.— CAESAEVM  NOSTEOEVM.      Autour   de 

.  VOTiS  .  V  .  dans  le  champ. 

Au  droit.  1.— LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  CAES.     Sa  tete 
lauree  a  droite.     Piece  inedite.     Voetter. 

2.  IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.    Tete  analogue.  Piece 

inedite.     Voetter. 

3.  CONSTANTINVS   IVN.   NOB.   CAES.     Tete  ana- 

logue.    Cohen,  35  ;  Voetter. 

IV.  Au  r evers.  —  LICINI    AVGVSTI.      Autour    des  mots 

VOTIS  XX,  en  trois  lignes  dans  le  champ. 

Au  droit.— IMP.   LICINIVS    AVG.     Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.     Cohen,  136;  Voetter. 

V.  Au  revers.— CONSTANTINI    AVGVSTI.      Autour  des 
mots  VOTIS  XX,  en  trois  lignes  dans  le  champ. 

Au  dm*.— CONSTANTINVS    AVG.     Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.    Cohen,  86  ;  BE.  MVS. ;  Voetter. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

ASIS*      BSIS*      rsis*      ASIS*      esis* 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— VICTOEIAE    LAETAE    PEINC.    PEEP. 

Avec  le  type  deja  decrit. 

Les  lettres  Q  ou  js]  se  trouvent  frequemment  sur 
les  autels  dans  toute  cette  serie ;  je  ne  les  indique  que 
pour  les  pieces  sur  lesquelles  je  les  ai  vues. 


An  droit.  1.—  IMP.  CONSTANTINVS  AVGK  Cohen, 
636;  FE.  15062  ;  BE.  MVS. 

2.  Meme  legende.    Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Variete  inedite  de  Cohen,  636  ;  Voetter. 

3.  Meme  legende.      Cohen,  637  ;    FE.  15054  ;    sur  le 

bouclier  on  voit  un  cavalier  (1'empereur  au 
galop)  ;  avec  le  monogramme  sur  le  casque  >)<  ; 
piece  deja  indiquee  par  Madden.56  fPl.  XVI., 
No.  5.] 

4.  Meme  legende.     Cohen,  638  ;  Voetter. 

II.  Au  revers.—  VICT.    LAETAE    PRINC.   PEEP.     Avec 
le  type  deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.  1.—  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Cohen,  569  ; 
FE.  15033-34  ;  Voetter;  sur  1'autel  au  revers 
parfois  QJ  ou  |SJ. 

2.  Meme  legende.    Cohen,  570;  deja  decrit  ;  FE.  15035; 
19  m.m.  ;  Voetter  ;  parfois  sur  1'autel  au  revers, 

3.  Meme    legende    et     meme    type,    mais   tenant  une 

haste  sans  bouclier.      Variete  de  Cohen,  570  ; 

4.  IMP.    LICINIVS  AVG.     Cohen,  170;   BE.  MVS. 

5.  IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  C.    Cohen,  140;  BE.  MVS.  ; 


6.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.    Son  buste  laure 

et  drape  a  droite.    Piece  inedite.    Voetter. 

7.  LICINIVS    IVN.     NOB.     C.       Cohen,    51  ;    FE. 

14424;  T.  ;  BE.  MVS. 

56  Madden,  Christian  Emblems  on  Coins  of  Comtantine  /,  Num. 
Chron.,  1877,  p.  47.  II  y  a  deux  formes  du  monogramme  frap- 
pees  sur  ces  monnaies  :  1°  la  forme  ci-dessus  %  represented 
egalement  dans  Madden,  loc.  cit.  pi.  I,  No.  1  ,  qui  semble  vouloir 
exprimer  I(rycrovs),  X(PUTTOS)  ;  cf.  Madden,  loc.  cit.  p.  301  ; 
ensuite  la  forme  >fc  composee  du  X  et  du  P  qui  est  le  mono- 
gramme  Constantinien  a  proprement  parler  et  que  le  Colonel 
Voetter  a  deja  publie  et  represente  dans  la  Numism.  Zeit- 
schrift,  1892,  tafel  II,  Nos.  73,  75;  voir  plus  haut  pi.  XVI, 
No.  4. 


III.  Au  revers.  —  CAESAEVM    NOSTKOKVM.      r  Autour 

d'une  couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle  on  lit 
VOT.  Y. 

Audroit.  1.— IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  0.  Cohen  34; 
BE.  MVS. ;  FR.  15388-90  ;  3  gr.  10  ;  19  m.m. ; 

2.  CONSTANTINVS    IVN.    NOB.    C.       Cohen,    31  ; 

BE.  MVS. ;  FE.  15596-97  ;  3  gr. ;  18  m.m. 

3.  LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.     Cohen,  5 ;   BE.  MVS.  ; 

FE.  14376;  3  gr.  60;  19  m.m.  ;  14349. 

IV.  Au  revers.  —  CAESAEVM    NOSTEOEVM.       Autour 

d'une  couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle  on  lit 
VOT.  X. 

Audroit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.  Sa 
tete  lauree  a  droite.  Cohen,  38  ;  BE.  MVS. ; 

2.  IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  C.  Sa  tete  lauree  a  droite. 
Cohen,  44 ;  H.  MVS.  V. ;  FE.  15409  ;  Voetter. 

V.  Au  revers.  —  D.  N.  CONSTANTINI  MAX.  AVGK 
Autour  d'une  couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle 
on  lit  VOT.  XX. 

Au  dm*.— CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Sa  tete  lauree  £ 
droite.  Cohen,  123  ;  BE.  MVS.;  FE.  15532-33; 

VI.  Au  revers.— D.  N.  LICINI  AVGVSTL  Autour  d'une 
couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle  on  lit  VOT. 

Au  droit.—m~P.  LICINIVS  AVG-.  Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  Cohen,  15  ;  BE,  MVS. ;  T. ;  Voetter. 

On  trouve  au  revers  avec  les  lettres  et  signes  suivants 
la  legende  VIETVS  EXEECIT. 

SF  SF  S|F  S  I  F  S     F 




SI  F 

HL,  IK 


ASIS*        BSIS*        rsis*        ASIS*        esis* 

J'ai  donne  dans  les  Memoires  des  Antiquaires  de 
France*1  les  raisons  pour  lesquelles  il  etait  possible 
que  la  lettre  F  dans  le  champ  du  revers  des  monnaies 
put  s'interpreter  comme  la  premiere  de  Fadjectif  Flavia- 
nus  tire  du  gentilice  Flavins  des  empereurs  ;  la  lettre  S 
indiquant  un  adjectif  comme  Securitas  (Flaviana).  — 
Quant  au  signe  HJ  j'en  proposerai  1'explication  sui- 
vante.  Ce  n'est  pas  la  lettre  H  a  cause  du  signe  L 
qui  y  est  ajoute.  D'ailleurs  on  n'y  pourrait  plus  voir  la 
premiere  lettre  du  nom  de  'HpaicXr]?,  car  Maximien  Her- 
cule  est  mort  depuis  longtemps  et  Constantin  et  ses  fils 
ne  se  reclament  nullement  de  sa  descendance  a  Fepoque 
ou  nous  sommes  arrives.  II  semble  qu'il  s'agisse  ici 
d'un  chiffre  grec  et  que  ce  chiffre  doive  s'appliquer  au  poids 
de  la  monnaie.  On  peut  remarquer  en  effet  que  le  chiffre 
X  du  denier,  frequent  sur  les  pieces  sorties  des  ateliers 
d'Occident,  ne  se  retrouve  pas  sur  les  deniers  de  Siscia. 
D'autre  part  les  chiffres  les  plus  frequents  dans  la 
numeration  du  poids  des  monnaies  a  cette  epoque  sont 
2,  4,  8,  16.  L'un  de  ces  chiffres  se  trouve  etre  precise- 
ment  le  H.  Or  nous  savons  par  les  Metrologicorum  Scrip- 
torum  Reliquiae  que  le  Cbrjvaptov)  Constant  inianum  pese 
quatre  scripula  et  que  1'obole  ('0^0X09),  poids  Romain  de 
cette  epoque  et  plus  petite  unite  monetaire  Athenienne  est 
lamoitie  du  scripulum.58  II  yen  a  done  8  dans  un  denier 

67  Memoires  des  Antiquaires  de  France,  1900,  p.  99. 

58  Hultsch,  Metrologicorum  Scriptorum  Reliquiae,  Prolegomena 
in  Scriptores  Graecos,  t.  i.,  pp.  98,  99  ;  Index,  t.  ii., 
Prolegomena  in  Scriptores  Romanos,  t.  ii.,  p.  131. 

TOL.    XX.    THIRD   SERIES.  Y  Y 


de  bronze  comme  ceux  que  nous  etudions.  Le  chiffre 
H  =  8  se  trouve  des  lors  Justine  sur  les  monnaies  de 
Siscia.  Mais  il  y  faut  aj  outer  le  signe  ^  applique  au 
jambage  droit  de  H;  on  peut  y  voir  simplement  le  signe  de 
1' unite  ou  de  Tobole  qui  est  —  ;  dans  lequel  cas  le  crochet 
est  une  deformation  ou  une  accentuation  de  1'extremite  de 
la  barre  transversale  ;  des  deformations  analogues  se  sont 
produites  sur  les  memes  pieces  avec  Virtus  Exercit.f®  qui 
ont  fait  voir  une  croix  sur  Tetendard  du  revers  ou  elle 
n'existe  pas.  Quant  a  1'utilite*  du  chiffire  grec,  il  suffit 
pour  la  prouver  de  remarquer  que  ces  monnaies  avaient 
surtout  cours  en  Orient  et  que  les  emissions  de  Siscia  sont 
surtout  paralleles  a  celles  d' Antioche 60  et  d'Alexandrie. 

On  trouve — 

VII.  Au  revers.— VIETVS  EXEEOIT.  Avec  un  Standard 
au  pied  duquel  sont  deux  captifs,  celui  de 
droite  retournant  la  tete,  celui  de  gauche  ayant 
les  mains  liees  derriere  le  dos. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Son  buste  casque 
et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  693;  FR.  15104; 
3  gr.  45;  20  m.m.  ;  15123;  BE.  MVS.  ;  T. 
[PI,  XVI.,  No.  6.] 

2.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Voetter.  Cohen,  689,  donne  un  revers  different. 

3.  IMP.  LICINIVS  AVGK  Son  buste  casque  et  cuirasse 

a  droite.     Cohen,   188;  FE.    14329   et   14331; 
BE.  MVS. 

4.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Inedite.    Voetter. 

5.  Meme  piece  avec  le  monogramme  ^  dans  le  champ 

a  gauche.     Voetter. 

59  Madden  rapporte  les  temoignages  des  anciens  auteurs 
a  cet  egard  dans  Christian  Enihlems  on  Coins  of  Constantine  I ; 
Num.  Chron.,  1877,  p.  257  et  seq. 

60  Voir  plus  haut  pour  Antioche. 


YELL  Meme  revers  mais  avec  VOT.  X  sur  1'etendard. 

A*  droit.  1.— IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  gauche  tenant  une  haste  et 
un  bouclier.  Cohen,  166;  FE.  15521;  3  gr. 
15;  19m.m.  ;  15522,  15523-24;  BB.  MVS.; 
H.  MVS.  V. 

2.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  drape  a  droite. 

Piece  inedite.     Voetter. 

3.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.    Son  buste  laure 

et  cuirasse  a  gauche  tenant  un  globe  surmonte 
d'uce  victoire  et  un  sceptre.  Cohen,  246; 
FE.  15837,  15840  ;  BE.  MVS.  ;  T.  [¥1.  XVI,, 
No.  7.] 

4.  LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  CAES.     Son  buste  laure  a 

gauche  avec  le  manteau  imperial,  a  mi-corps, 
tenant  un  globe  surmonte  d'une  victoire.  Cohen, 
62  ;  FE.  14433  ;  BE.  MVS. 

5.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure,  drape  et  cuirasse  a 

gauche  sans  globe  ni  victoire.  Piece  inedite. 
FE.  14434.  Voetter. 

IX.  Meme  revers  mais  avec  VOT.  XX  sur  1'etendard,  comme 
sur  les  monnaies  des  Augustes.  Ce  sont  en 
effet  les  vota  des  Augustes  qui  sont  frappes  sur 
les  pieces  des  Cesars. 

Au  droit.  1.— LICINIVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.  Son  buste 
laure  et  cuirasse  a  gauche  tenant  un  globe  sur- 
monte d'une  victoire.  Cohen,  64 ;  le  mono- 
gramme  au  revers  ^ ;  Voetter. 

2.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.    Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse 

a  gauche  tenant  une  haste  et  un  bouclier. 
Cohen,  169.  Col.  Voetter.  Quelquefois  dans 
le  champ  le  monogramme ;  Cohen. 

3.  IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  CAES.    Son  buste  laure  et 

cuirasse  a  droite.    Piece  inedite.     H.  MVS.  V. 

Constantin  fit  frapper  les  signes  chretiens  comme  le 
monogramme,  sur  les  monnaies  des  Licinius  dans  ses 
ateliers  de  Siscia,  de  Thessalonica,  etc.,  de  meme  que 
Licinius  fit  encore  inscrire  les  l^gendes  paiennes  sur  les 


monnaies  a  1'effigie  de  Constantin  pendant  cette  periods  de 

320  a  324  ou  ces  empereurs  regnerent  ensemble  et  en  paix. 

On  pent  placer  dans  cette  eerie  a  cause  de  son  exergue 

et  du  YOT.  XX  qu'elle  porte  la  piece  d'or  suivante  — 


X.  Au  revers.— GAVPIVM  POPVLI  EOMANI.  Autour 
d'une  couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle  on  lit : 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINVS  P.F.  AVG.  Son  buste 
diademe  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  160,  rectifie ; 
BE.  MVS. 

Le  SOLIDUS  presente  deja  le  dia  metre  plus  grand,  22 
millimetres,  qui  distingue  les  piece  s  des  dernieres  annees 
du  regne  de  Constantin. 

Avec  les  lettres  d'officines,  exergues,  etc. — 





On  trouve — 

I.  Aurevers.—  VIBTVS  EXEECIT.      Avec  le  type  deja 
decrit  et  VOT.  XX  sur  1'etendard. 

Au  droit.  l.—CONSTANTINYS  AVG.      Cohen,  693; 
BE.  MVS. ;  FE.  15111.     [PI.  XVI.,  No,  8.] 

2.  IMP.  LICINIVS  AVG.      Cohen,  188;  deja  decrit; 

BE.  MVS. 

3.  Meme  legende.     Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 

Voetter ;  deja  decrit. 

61  Avec  une  roue  a  1' exergue.  Je  ne  compte  de  series  dans 
1'emission  presente  qu'autant  qu'il  y  a  d' exergues  differents, 
les  lettres  dans  le  champ  et  le  signe  ou  chiffre  HJ  pouvant 
donner  lieu  a  des  combinaisons  diverses  dans  une  meme 


II.  Meme  revers,  mais  avec  VOT.  X  sur  1'etendard. 

Au  droit.   1.— IVL.   CEISPVS  NOB.   CAES.     Cohen, 
166  ;  FE.  15522 ;  BE.  MYS. ;  H.  MYS.  V. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS    IVN.   NOB.   C.       Cohen,   246 ; 

FE.  15838-39  ;  3  gr.  20;  19  m.m. 

3.  Variete  de  cette  piece  ou  le  buste  ne  tient  pas  de 

sceptre.     BE.  MYS. 

4.  LICINIYS   IYN.  NOB.    CAES.     Cohen,  62 ;   BE. 


Avec  les  exergues — 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au    revers.— CAESAEYM      NOSTEOEYM.       Autour 

d'une  couronne    de    laurier  dans  laquelle  on 
lit  YOT.  X. 

Au  droit.  1.— IYL.  CEISPYS  NOB.  C.  Cohen,  44; 
FE.  15408;  3  gr.  55;  18  m.m.  [PI.  XVI., 
No.  9]  a  15413  ;  BE.  MYS. ;  T. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS    IYN.    NOB.    C.       Cohen,    38 ; 

15613;  15616-17-18;  BE.  MYS. 

3.  CONSTANTINYS  AYG.      Sa  tete  lauree  a  droite. 

Cohen,  34;  FE.  14490-91. 

II.  Au  revers.—  D.  N.  CONSTANTINI  MAX.  AYG.   Autour 

d'une  couronne  de  laurier  dans  laquelle  on  lit 
YOT.  XX. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  AYG.  Cohen,  123  ;  FE. 
14534 ;  BE.  MYS. 

Cette  serie  ainsi  que  les  deux  suivantes  ne  contient,  a 
ma  connaissance,  aucune  piece  des  deux  Licinius  pere 
et  fils.  De  plus  on  n'y  trouve  que  les  YOTA  X  des  Cesars 


et  non  leurs  VOTA  V.  Si  ces  faits  sont  confirmed,  il  en 
resulte  que  ces  trois  dernieres  series,  qui  contiennent 
de  moins  nombreuses  sortes  de  monnaies  que  les  prece- 
dentes,  ont  ete  frappees  pendant  la  guerre  entre  Constantin 
et  Licinius. 


Avec  les  exergues  suivants  qui  presentent  le  rameau 
et  le  foudre. 

BSIS/**        TSIS^        ASIS^ 

On  trouve  — 

I.  Au  revers.—  CAESAEYM    NOSTEOEYM.      VOT.    X 
avec  le  type  decrit. 

Au  droit.  1.  —  Constantin  jeune.  Cohen,  38;  FE.  15615 
et  BE.  MVS.  avec  le  rameau  ;  collection  Yoetter 
et  FE.  15612,  pieces  avec  le  foudre. 

2.  Crispus.  Cohen,  44  ;  collection  Voetter  avec  le 
rameau  ;  H.  MYS.  Y.  et  Yoetter,  pieces  avec  le 
foudre.  [PL  XVI.,  No.  10.] 

II.  Au    revers.—V.   N.    CONSTANTINI    MAX.    AYG. 
YOT.  XX  avec  le  type  deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.  —  Constantin  le  Grand.  Cohen,  123;  deja 
decrit  ;  BE.  MYS.  et  Yoetter,  pieces  avec  le 
rameau  ;  FE.  14535  et  Yoetter,  pieces  avec  le 


De  petites  pieces  du  type  du  Centenionalis  commemora- 
tives  des  trois  empereurs  Claude  le  Gothique,  Constance 


Chlore  pere  de  Constantin  I  et  Maximien  Hercule  pere  de 
la  seconde  femme  de  Constantin,  Fausta,  furent  frappees 
dans  tous  les  ateliers  de  1' empire  situes  dans  les  etats  de 
Constantin  entre  les  deux  guerres  qui  eurent  lieu  entre  ce 
dernier  et  Licinius,  c'est  a  dire  de  314  et  324.62  Mais  il 
est  difficile  de  savoir  a  quelles  annees  se  rapportent  ces 
frappes  au  cours  de  cette  longue  periode.  Hettner  et  le 
Colonel  Yoetter  les  ont  attributes  a  1'annee  323.63  Le 
Colonel  Yoetter  y  voit  une  sorte  de  position  hostile  prise 
par  Constantin  en  face  de  Licinius  en  etablissant  sa 
descendance  de  Claude  le  Gothique  avant  la  guerre  de 
324.  Des  analogies  d 'exergues  avec  les  autres  series 
monetaires  des  emissions  en  cours  en  1'annee  323  mi- 
litent  egalement  en  faveur  de  cette  date,  dont  la  deter- 
mination n'est  toutefois  pas  absolument  certaine.  Nean- 
moins  les  exergues  frappes  a  Aquilee  AQS  et  •  AQP  *  et 
a  Thessalonique  TSA  et  •  TS  •  A  •  semblent  fixer  cette 
date.64  Ce  qui  n'est  pas  douteux  c'est  1'intention  de 
Constantin  de  s'attribuer  la  descendance  de  Maximien 
Hercule  par  sa  femme  et  de  Claude  le  Gothique  par 
son  pere.65 

62  Le  Colonel  Yoetter  1'a  demontre  dans  son  travail  Ahnen- 
miinzen  Kaisers  Constantins  des  grossen,  paru  dans  les  Mitthei- 
lungen  des    Clubs   der    Miinz-  und   Medaillenfreunde    in   Wien, 

63  T.  Hettner,  Romische  Munzschatzfunde  in  den  Rheinlanden, 
Westd.   Zeitschrift  fur    Geschichte  u.    Kunst,   in  Trier,    1887, 
Jahrg.  vi.,  p.  119.     Yoetter,  loc.  cit. 

64  J.  Maurice,   L1  atelier  monetaire  de  Rome,   Revue  Numis- 
matique,  1899,  p.  471. 

65  Un  important  travail  de  Klebs,  Das  dynastische  Element 
in  der  Geschichtschreibung  der  Rom.  Kaiserzeit,  paru  dans  la 
Hist.   Zeitochrift    von    Sybel,    Miinchen,     1889,     tome    xxv., 
demontre  que  la  descendance  de  Claude  le  Gothique  fut  deja 
revendiquee  par  Constance  Chlore  pere  de  Constantin,  ainsi 


Voici  pour  Siscia  ces  pieces  que  le  Colonel  Yoetter  a 
reunies  pour  tous  les  ateliers  de  Pempire. 


On  trouve — 


L'empereur  assis  a  gauche  sur  une  chaise  curule, 
levant  la  main  droite  et  tenant  un  sceptre. 

Son  buste  laure  et  voile  a  droite.  Cohen,  253  ; 
Centenionalis ;  Voetter. 

2.  DIYO  CLAYDIO  OPTIMO.  IMP.    Buste  analogue. 

Cohen,  245  ;  Yoetter. 

3.  DIYO  MAXIMIANO   SEN.   FOET.   IMP.     Buste 

analogue  ;  piece  inedite.    Yoetter;   FE.  13647; 
1  gr.  70 ;  0-017  m.m.     [PI.  XVL,  No.  11.] 

II.  Au  revers.—  EEQYIES    OPTIMOE.    MEEIT.      Meme 

tete  voilee  a  droite.  Cohen,  250  ;  Yoetter. 


Cette  emission  fut  frappee  depim  le  8  Novembre  324  jus- 
qu  au  milieu  de  Pannee  326.  En  effet  elle  contient  dans  toutes 
ses  series,  des  monnaies  de  Constantius,  qui  fut  elu  Ce'sar 
le  8  Novembre  324  et  d'autres  de  Crispus  et  de  Fausta, 

qu'en  temoigne  la  genealogie  de  la  maison  de  Constance 
etablie  par  Trebellius  Pollio  au  commencement  du  regne  de 
Constance  Cesar.  Le  Panegyrique  <V Ewnknd  VII,  cap.  xiii, 
prononcee  en  presence  de  Constantin  lors  de  ses  quinquen- 
nalia  en  Juillet  311,  lui  prete  ostensiblement  la  descendance 
de  Claude  le  Gothique.  Cf.  0.  Seeck,  Geschichte  des  Unter- 
gangs  der  antihen  Welt,  Berlin,  1897,  pp.  108  et  109. 


qui  perirent  le  premier  a  la  fin  de  Fete  de  326,  et  rim- 
peratrice  Fausta  peu  de  temps  apres  Crispus.66  De  plus 
une  courte  emission  fut  frappee  en  meme  temps  ou  apres 
celle-ei  et  avant  la  mort  de  Crispus,  dont  elle  renferme 
encore  des  medailles.  Les  monnaies  de  bronze  de  cette 
courte  emission  sont  reduites  au  poids  moyen  de  2 
grammes  50  centigrammes,  tandis  que  celles  de  remission 
presenteront  encore  le  poids  originel  du  denier  de  bronze 
de  Constantin,  3  grammes  50  centigrammes.  II  ne  fut 
pourtant  pas  cree  de  nouvelle  espece  monetaire  a  cette 
epoque,  les  textes  n'en  font  aucune  mention ;  on  reduisit 
settlement  le  poids  des  deniers  de  bronze  comme  on  avait 
plusieurs  fois  reduit  celui  des  folles.67  C'etait  une  con- 
sequence des  besoins  du  tresor  a  cette  epoque  que  les 
especes  monetaires  fussent  tou jours  reduites  de  poids, 
apres  avoir  eu  cours  un  certain  temps.  On  frappa  done 
encore  avant  la  mort  de  Crispus,  que  Ton  peut  fixer  a  la 
fin  d'Aout  326,68  une  courte  emission,  composee  de 

66  J.  Maurice,  IS  Atelier  monetaire  d'Antioche,  Num.  Chron., 
1899,  p.  237. 

67  II  n'y  a  pour  s'en  convaincre  qu'a  examiner  toutes  les 
emissions  f rappees  de  306  a  317. 

68  Eien    n'est    venu    infirmer  le    temoignage  'de    Zosime 
(Hist,  ii.,  29)  qui  dit  que  ce  fut  pendant  le  sejour  de  Con- 
stantin a  Eonie  que  perit  Crispus.     Mais  j'ai  demontre  dans 
mon  etude  de  T  atelier  d'Antioche  que  ce  fut  a  la  fin  de  ce 
sejour.     Or  la  premiere  indication  de  1'eloignement  de  Con- 
stantin de  Eome  est  une  loi  du  Code  Theodosien,   1.  xvi., 
tit.  v.,  lex  2,  qui  le  montre  a  Spolete  le  25   Septembre,  326 
(cf.  0.   Seeck,  d.  Zeitfolge  d.    Gesetze  Constantins :    Zeitschrift 
/.  Rechtsgetchichte,  1889,  p.  236).     C'est  done  a  la  fin  d'Aout 
ou  au  debut  de  Septembre  qu'il  faut  placer  la  date  de  la  mort 
de  Crispus.     Celle  de  Fausta  suivit  de  pres  (Victor,  Epitome, 
41,    11  ;  Zosime,  11,   29).      0.  Seeck  donne  la  concordance 
entre  la  Vita  Sancti  Artemii  (Acta  Sanctorum)  et  I Epitome 
de  Victor  (cf.  0.  Seeck,   Die    Verwandtenmorde   Constantins  d. 
Grossen,  Zeitschrift f.  Wissenschaft.  Theologie,  1890,  p.  67). 

VOL.    XX.   THIRD    SERIES.  Z  Z 


deniers  de  poids  reduits,  mais  remission  presente  fut  sus- 
pendue  peut-etre  vers  le  mois  de  Juin  326. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

•  ASIS  •      •  BSIS  •      •  rsis  •      •  ASIS  •      •  esis  • 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— PEOYIDENTIAE  AYGG.  Une  porte  de 
camp  surmontee  de  deux  tours  ;  au  dessus  une 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  AYG-.  Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.  Cohen,  454  ;  BE.  MYS.  ;  FE.  14790, 
14792  ;  Yoetter.  Officines  A— B— F. 

II.  Au  revers.— PEOYIDENTIAE  CAESS.    Avec  le  meme 


Au  droit.  1.— IYL.  CEISPYS  NOB.  C.  Sa  tete  lauree 
a  droite.  Cohen,  120;  BE.  MYS.;  Yoetter. 
Officines  A  et  e. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  NOB.  C.    Sa  tete  lauree  a 

droite.  Cohen,  163;  BE.  MYS.;  Yoetter. 
Officine  6. 

3.  FL.  IYL.  CONSTANTIYS  NOB.  C.  Son  buste  laure, 

drape  et  cuirasse  a  gauche.  Cohen,  167;  FE. 
16232;  BE.  MYS.;  T.  ;  Yoetter.  Officines  A 
et  G. 

III.  Au  revers.— SECYEITAS  EEIPYBLICE.    La  Securite 

voilee,  debout  a  gauche,  tenant  un  rameau 
baisse  et  soutenant  sa  robe. 

Au  droit.— FL.  HELENA  AYGYSTA.  Son  buste 
coiffe  en  cheveux  et  avec  le  diademe  et  drape 
a  droite,  portant  un  collier  de  perles.  Cohen, 
12  et  13  ;  FE.  13865-67.  Musee  Brera.  Officines 

r— e.    [PL  xvi.,  NO.  12.] 


IV.  Au  revers.—  SPES  EEIPVBLTCAE.  L'imperatrice 
debout  a  gauche  tenant  deux  enfants  dans  ses 

MAX.  FAVSTA  AVG.  Son  buste 
coiffe  en  cheveux  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  1  5  ; 
FE.  15326-15328;  3  gr.  40;  18  m.m.  ;  BE. 
MVS.  ;  Voetter.  Officines  A—  B—  A. 

Les  legendes  Providentiae  Augg.  et  Securitas  Reipub- 
lice  n'ont  etc*  frappees  a  Siscia  sur  les  monnaies  de 
Constantin  et  de  Helene  qu'apres  la  guerre  de  324  et 
Felevation  de  Constance  II  Cesar  quand  Ton  emit  les 
monnaies  de  ce  dernier  prince  et  celles  de  Fausta 

Avec  les  exergues  — 

ASIS        BSIS        rsis        ASIS        esis 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— PEOVIDENTIAE  AYGG.    Porte  de  camp 
surmontee  de  deux  tours ;  au  dessus  une  etoile. 

Au  droit.  —  CONSTANTINVS   AYG.       Cohen,    454; 

II.  Au  revers.—  PEOVIDENTIAE  CAESS.   Avec  le  meme 

69  Les  enfants  ne  representent  pas  ceux  de  Fausta,  mais 
sont  seulement  1'embleme  de  la  fecondite  de  1'imperatrice  et 
de  1'esperance  de  1' empire.  En  effet  Constant  I,  ne  en  320  ou 
-322,  aurait  bien  ete  un  jeune  enfant  de  324  a  326,  mais  Con- 
stantius  II,  ne  en  317,  aurait  eu  7  ans  en  324  et  9  ans  en  326. 
II  est  impossible  qu'on  1'ait  encore  represerite  a  cette  epoque 
comme  un  enfant  porte  dans  les  bras  de  sa  mere. 


Audroit.  1.— IVL.  CEISPVS  NOB.  0.     Cohen,  120; 

2.  CONSTANTINVS   IYN.    NOB.   C.       Cohen,    163; 

FE.  15764. 

3.  FL.  IVL.  CONSTANTIVS  NOB.  C.     Cohen,  167; 


III.  Au  revers.— SECVEITAS  KEIPVBLICE.    Avec  le  type 
deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.—J?L.   HELENA  AYGVSTA.      Cohen,  12  et 
13;  FE.  13867. 

IV.  Au  revers.— SPES  EEIPVBLICAE.  Avec  le  type  deja 

Audroit.—  FLAV.    MAX.    FAVSTA    AVG.      Cohen, 
15;  BE.MVS. 

Les  Vota  XX  de  Constantin  le  Grand  et  les  Vota  X 
des  Cesars  qui  out  deja  etc  f rappees  de  320  a  324  se 
montrent  encore  dans  cette  emission  dans  les  series 
suivantes.  Ces  Vota  ne  furent  en  effet  accomplis  (soluta) 
qu'en  326  ; 70  a  partir  de  cette  date  Constantin  ne  comp- 
tera  plus  que  ses  Vota  XXX,  qui  sont  deja  f  rappees 
anterieurement  par  anticipation. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

ASISQ          BSISQ          FSISQ          ASISQ          6SISQ 

7°  En  effet  Constantin  ne  fut  proclame  Imperatcr  par  ses 
troupes  que  le  25  Juillet  306. 

Voir  sur  la  frappe  des  Vota  par  anticipation  mon  article 
eur  1' atelier  de  Eome;  Revue  Numismatiaue,  1899,  p.  476  et 


On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— D.  N.  CONSTANTINI  MAX.  AVG.  Autour 
d'une  couronne  de  laurier,  dans  laquelle  on  lit 
VOT.  XX. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINV8   AVG.      Sa  tete  lauree  a 
droite.     Cohen,  123  ;  FE.  14531  ;  Voetter. 

II.  Au  revers.— CAESAEYM  NOSTEOEVM.  Autour  d'une 
couronne  de  laurier,  dans  laquelle  on  lit 
VOT.  X. 

Au  droit.  1.— IVL.    CEISPVS    NOB.    C.      Sa    tete 
lauree  a  droite.     Cohen,  44  ;  Voetter. 

2.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.    Tete  analogue; 
Cohen,  38  ;  Voetter.71 

III.  Au  revers.— PEOVIDENTIAE  AVGG.    Avec  le  type 
deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINVS  AVG.     Cohen,  454. 

IV.  Au  revers.— PEOVIDENTIAE  CAESS.  Avec  le  type 
deja  decrit. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.  Cohen, 
163;  Voetter. 

2.  FL.  IVL.  CONSTANTIVS  NOB.  C.     Cohen,  167; 


3.  Je  n'ai  pas  vu  la  piece  de  Crispus  ;  Cohen,  120;  qui 

existe  certainement  dans  cette  serie. 

V.  Au  revers.— SECVEITAS    EEIPVBLICE.     Type  deja 

71  Je  n'ai  pas  trouve  de  piece  analogue  de  Constantius ; 
peut  etre  n'a-t-on  pas  frappe  les  Vota  sur  ses  monnaies  a  cette 
epoque,  ce  prince  n'ayant  ete  Cesar  qu'en  Novembre  324. 
On  aurait  pu  inscrire  sur  ses  monnaies  les  Vota  X  de  ses 
coregents.  Mais  il  n'y  a  pas  de  regie  fixe  a  cet  egard :  par- 
fois  les  empereurs  portent  les  chiifres  des  Vota  de  leurs 
coregents  ;  parfois  ils  ne  les  portent  pas. 


Au  droit.—F'L.  HELENA  AVGVSTA.      Cohen,  12  et 
13;  Yoetter. 

VI.  Au  revers.— SPES  EEIPVPLICAE.     Type  deja  decrit. 

Audroit.-FLA.~V.  MAX.  FAVSTA  AYG.    Cohen,  15; 

Avec  les  exergues — 


On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— D.  N.  CONSTANTINI  MAX.  AYG.    Cou- 
ronne  de  laurier,  YOT.  XX. 

Au  droiL— CONSTANTINYS  AYG.     Cohen,  123. 

II.  Au  revers.— CAESAEYM  NOSTEOEYM.   Couronne  de 
laurier,  YOT.  X. 

Audroit.  1.— IYL.  CEISPYS  NOB.  C.      Cohen,   44; 
BE.  MYS. ;  H.  MYS.  Y. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  NOB,  C.     Cohen,  38 ;  BE. 
MYS. ;  H.  MYS.  Y. ;  FE.  15614.  " 

III.  Au  revers.— PEOYIDENTIAE  AYGG.     Type  decrit. 

Audroit.    1.— CONSTANTINYS   AYG.      Cohen,    454; 
FE.  14788,   14791  ;  3  gr.  31  ;  18  m.m. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  MAX.  AYG.    Son  buste  diademe 
et  drape  a  droite.     Cohen,  458  ;  Yoetter. 

IY.  Au  revers.— PEOYIDENTIAE  CAESS.     Type  decrit. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  NOB.  C.   Cohen, 
163;  BE.  MYS;  FE.  15765;  Yoetter. 


2.  FL.  IVL.  CONSTANT1VS  NOB.  0.     Cohen,  167  ; 

FB.   16231;  3   gr.    50;    18  m.m.  ;  16233;  BE, 
MVS.  ;  Voetter.     [PI.  XVI.,  No.  14.] 

3.  Crispus,  No.  120  de  Cohen,  doit  se  placer  ici. 

V.  Au  revers.— SECVBITAS  EEIPVBLICE.    Type  decrit. 

Au '  droit.—  FL.   HELENA    AVGVSTA.    Cohen,   12  et 
13;  BE.  MVS.  ;  FE.  13868;  Voetter. 


Cette  emission,  f rappee  pendant  Vtte  de  326,  anterieure- 
ment  a  la  mort  de  Crispus,  comprend  un  petit  nombre  de 
pieces  de  Pespece  du  denier  de  bronze,  mais  reduites  au 
poids  de  2  grammes  50  et  quelques  pieces  de  1'espece  du 
Centenionalis.  Posterieure  probablement  a  la  huitieme 
emission,  puisque  ses  deniers  de  bronze  sont  une  reduc- 
tion de  ceux  de  cette  emission,  elle  est  au  contraire 
anterieure  a  la  mort  de  Crispus,  dont  elle  contient  des 
pieces  et  par  suite  au  depart  de  Constantin  de  Eome, 
qui  eut  lieu  au  debut  de  Septembre  apres  cette  mort. 
Le  petit  nombre  des  monnaies  de  cette  emission  fait  pre- 
sumer  qu'elle  dura  peu  de  temps. 


Les  signes  dans  le  champ  du  revers,  quand  il  y  en  a, 
sont  places  au  dessus  des  noms  d'empereurs,  1'exergue  en 

On  trouve — 

I.  Avec  ^ 

Au  revers.— CONSTANTINVS   AVG.     En  trois  lignes 
dans  le  champ. 

Au  droU.—S-ans  legende.     Tete  lauree  de  Constantin  I 
a  droite.    Cohen,  110;  Voetter. 


On  trouve — 

II.  Avec  1' exergue 


Au  revere.—  CEISPYS  CAESAE.  En  deux  lignes  dans 
le  champ. 

Au  droit.  —  Sans  legende.  Buste  de  Crispus  laure, 
drape  et  cuirasse  a  gauche.  Variete  de  Cohen 
60  ;  Voetter. 

III.  Avec  le  meme  exergue 

Au  m-*ro.—  CONSTANTIYS  CAESAE.    En  trois  lignes 
dans  le  champ. 

Au   droit.  —  Sans   legende.      Son  buste  laure,  drape  et 
cuirasse  a  gauche.     Cohen,  20  j  Yoetter. 

IV.  Avec 

Au  revers.  —  CONSTANTINYS    CAESAE.      En  trois 
lignes  dans  le  champ. 

Au  droit.  —  Sans  legende.      Son   buste   laure,   drape  et 
cuirasse  a  gauche.     Cohen,  83  ;  Yoetter. 


Pieces   de  1'espece  du  Centenionalis  avec  1'etoile  dans 
le  champ  et  1'exergue  suivant :  - 


On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— CONSTANTINYS     CAESAE.      En   trois 
lignes  dans  le  champ. 

Au  droit. — Sans  legende.  Son  buste  laure,  ou  diademe, 
drape  et  cuirasse  a  gauche.  Cohen,  86  ;  FE. 
14655  ;  1  gr.  30 ;  16  m.m.  ;  H.  MYS.  Y. 

II.  Au  revers.-  CEISPYS  CAESAE.     En  deux  lignes  dans 
le  champ. 

Au  droit.  —  Son  buste  diademe  et  cuirasse  a  droite. 
Cohen,  60 ;  FE. 


Avec  Pexergue   -     ;    on  trouve  la  piece  d'or  suivante. 


IIL  AH  revers.— CONSTANTINVS  AVG.     Victoire  marchant 
a  gauche  tenant  une  palme  et  une  couronne. 

Au  droit. — Buste    diademe  de  Constantin  I  a  droite, 
sans  legende.     Cohen,  97 ;  H.  MYS.  V. 

Une  piece  toute  semblable,  a  part  la  difference  d'exer- 
gue,  a  ete  frappee  a  Constantinople,  et  d'autres  a  Tar- 
ragone  de  324  a  326,  date  de  fermeture  de  1'a teller  de 


A  partir  du  mois  de  Septembre  326,  I'atelier  de  Siscia 
resta  longtemps  ferine.  En  effet  ses  frappes  cesserent 
avec  1'apparition  des  dernieres  pieces  de  Crispus  et  de 
Fausta  ;  et  lorsque  de  nouvelles  series  monetaires  sortirent 
de  ses  officines,  elles  contenaient  des  monnaies  de  Constans  I 
elu  Cesar  le  25  Decembre  333.  Pendant  le  temps  oil 
cet  atelier  etait  ferme,  Constantinople  avait  ete  solen- 
nellement  consacree  comme  capitale  de  P  empire  par  les 
fetes  de  1' inauguration  le  11  Mai  330  ; 72  et  depuis  cette 

72  Idat.  de  Fast. :  "  Grallicano  et  Symmacho,  His  conss.  dedi- 
cata  est  Constantinopolis  die  V  Idus  Maias,"  confirme  par  le 
Chronicon  Paschale,  Hesych.  Miles.,  Cassiodore,  qui  place  cette 
dedicace  dans  la  24  annee  de  Constantin. 

II  ne  faut  pas  confondre  1' inauguration  ou  la  dedicace  de  la 
ville  avec  1'epoque  ou  elle  regut  le  nom  de  Constantinopolis.  Le 
Colonel  0.  Yoetter  a  demontre  que  la  ville  portait  le  nom  de 
Constantinopolis  qui  etait  frappe  sur  les  exergues  des  mon- 
naies depuis  I' annee  326  (0.  Voetter,  Munzen  d. 
GO.N  o 

Kaiserinnen  Fausta  und  Helena,  Numism.  Gesellschaft  in  Wien, 
24  Nov.  1897).  J'ai  pu  meme  reporter  a  1* annee  324  ce  bap- 
teme  de  Constantinople,  mais  1'inauguration  fut  f aite  avec  une 
grande  solennite  le  1 1  Mai  330  et  ce  fut  a  partir  de  Tinaugura- 
tion  que  la  legende  Constantinopolis  fut  frappee  avec  I'efngie 
de  la  ville  au  droit  des  monnaies. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES.  3  A 



date  les  legendes  Urbs  Roma  et  Constant inopolis  etaient 
frappees  au  droit  des  monnaies,  comme  le  prouvent  les 
Emissions  de  Rome,  d' Aries,  de  Treves,73  aussi  ces  legendes 
se  montrent  dans  la  premiere  emission  qui  recommenca  a 
etre  frappee  a  Siscia  en  333.  Les  monnaies  de  bronze  de 
cette  emission  sont  des  deniers  de  la  variet£  reduite  a 
des  poids  ne  depassant  pas  2  grammes  50  c. ;  qui  avait 
deja  e"te  frappee  en  326. 

Cette  dixieme  emission  fut  done  frappee  entre  V election  de 
Constant  Cesar  le  25  Decembre  333  et  celle  de  Delmatius, 
elu  Cesar  lelS  Decembre  335,  dont  les  monnaies  riy  parais- 
sent  pas  encore. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

ASIS        BSIS        rsis        ASIS        esis 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revert.— GLOEIA  EXEECITVS.  Deux  soldats 
debout,  casques,  chacun  tenant  une  haste  et 
appuyant  sur  un  bouclier,  entre  eux  deux  en- 
seignes  militaires  surmontes  de  drapeaux  ornes 
de  couronnes. 

Au  droit.    1.— CONST ANTINVS    MAX.   AVGK     Son 
buste  diademe,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen, 

73  Cf.    1.  J.   Maurice,   L* Atelier   monetaire  de   Rome,  Revue 
Numismatique,  1899,  pp.  338  et  461  et  seq. 

2.  0.  Voetter,    JSrste     christliche    Zeichen     auf    romischen 

3.  Numis.  Zeitschrift,    1892,   tableau  de  Fatelier   d'Arles; 
T.    Hettner,    Romische    Miinzschatzfunde   in    den   Rheinlanden, 
TPestdeutsche  Zeitschrift  f.  Gesch.  u.  Kimst,  1888,  Jahrg.  vii.,  p. 


254;  FE.  14623  ;  2  gr.  40  ;  18  m.m. ;  BE.  MYS. ; 
Voetter.  Officines  A  et  B.  [PI.  XVI.,  No.  15.] 

2.  FL.  IVL.   CONSTANTIYS  NOB.   C.     Son    buste 

laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  104;  BE. 
MYS.;  FE.  16183;  2  gr.  25;  18  m.m.; 
Yoetter.  Officines  A— T— A— 6. 

3.  CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  NOB.  C.     Son  buste  laure 

et  cuirasse  a  droite.  FE.  15690;  2  gr.  15  ;  18 
m.m. ;  BE.  MYS.  Yoetter.  Officines  A  et  G. 

4.  FL.  CONSTANTIS  BEA.  C.      Son  buste  laure  et 

drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  48  de  Constant  I ;  FE. 
15967  ;  2  gr.  Officine  F. 

II.  Au  revers. — Sans  legende.  Victoire  debout  a  gauche, 
mettant  le  pied  sur  une  proue  de  vaisseau,  te- 
nant un  sceptre  transversal  et  appuyee  sur  un 

Au  droit.  —  CONSTANTINOPOLIS.  Buste  de  Con- 
stantinople ou  de  f  emme,  casque  a  gauche,  avec 
le  casque  laure  et  le  manteau  imperial,  tenant 
un  sceptre.  Cohen,  21  ;  FE.  15178 ;  2  gr.  50  ; 
18  m.m.  Yoetter.  Officines  A  et  B.  [PL  XVI., 
No.  16.] 

III.  Au  revers. — Sans  legende.  La  Louve  a  gauche  allai- 
tant  Eomulus  et  Eemus  et  les  regardant ;  au 
dessus  deux  etoiles. 

Au  droit.— YEBS  EOMA.  Buste  de  Eome  a  gauche 
avec  une  aigrette  sur  le  casque  et  le  manteau 
imperial.  Cohen,  18;  BE.  MYS.;  Yoetter. 
Omcinea  A  et  B.74 

La  piece  d'argent  suivante  de  Constant  I,  elu  Cesar  le 
25  Decembre  333,  fut  probablement  frappee  au  cours  de 

cette  emission,  avec  — 

74  J'ai  indique  les  lettres  d'omcines  pour  la  premiere  serie  de 
bte  emission,  ainsi  que  je  1'avais  deja  fait  pour  ]' emission  pre- 
•er  1' attribution  de  certaines  pieces  a  cer- 

taines  omcines. 


On  trouve — 

IY.  Au  r&vers.— YICTOEIA  CAESAEYM.  Yictoire  mar- 
cliant  a  gauche  tenant  une  eonronne  et  une 

Au  droit.—F~L.  CONSTANS  NOB.  CAES.  Son  buste 
laure,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  H.  MYS.  Y. 
12999  ;  piece  d'argent  inedite,  17  millimetres  de 
diametre,  piece  de  1'espece  du  96me  de  la  livre 

Constantin  intervint  dans  les  demeles  des  Goths  et  des 
Sarmates  en  334.75  Mais  les  legendes  et  le  type  de  la  Yic- 
toire f  urent  tres  f  requemment  f  rappes  sans  raison  speciale 
pendant  toute  la  fin  du  regne  de  Constantin. 


Cette  derniere  emission  fut  frappee  depuis  r elevation  de 
Lelmatius  Cesar  le  IS  Septembre  33576  jusqu' d  la  mort  de 
Constantin  le  Grand  survenue  au  mois  de  Mai  337. 77 

En  effet  on  trouve  dans  toutes  ces  series  des  mommies 

75  Hieronymus,  ii.,  250 ;  Anonymus  Valesii,  6,  32. 

76  Idat.  de  Fast.,  tf  Constantino  (id  est  Constantio)  et  Albino. 
His  conss.  tricennalia   edidit  Constantinus  Aug.    (ces   fetes 
etaient  celebrees  deux  annees  de  suite,  en  335  et  336)  YIII 
Kal.  Aug.  et  levatus  est  Delmatius  Caesar  XIY  Kal.  Oct." 
Athanase,  Contra  Arianos,  tome  i,  p.  782,  Kalcrapa  avrjyopevo-ev 
Trpoiy'  KaXav8o>v  oKrw/SptW.     Anonymus  Valesii,  vi,  35. 

77  IS  Epitome  de  Yictor  dit  qu'il  a  regne  trente  ans,  (Epit. 
61).     Tous  les  auteurs  le  font  mourir  pendant  les  preparatifs 
d'une  guerre   contre  les  Perses — ^Eutrope,  x,   8 ;    I' Anonymus 
Valesii,  vi,  35,  disent  qu'il  a  regne  31  ans.     II  a  exactement 

regne  30  ans  et  10  mois  (0.  Seeck,  D.  Verwandtenmorde  Con- 
stantins  d.  Grossen,  p.  69).  Le  Chronicon  Paschale,  p.  286  et 
Eusebe,  Vita  Comtantini,  i,  7-8  et  iv,  63,  indiquent  lemois  de 
sa  mort,  mois  de  Mai.  L'annee  est  donnee  par  les  Fastes 
d'Idace,  le  Chronicon  Pasch. ;  la  chronologie  de  St.  Jerome. 
Cf.  Clinton,  Fasti  Romani,  337. 


de  Delraatius  et  jusqu'a  la  fin  de  1'emission  on  frappa  les 
pieces  de  Constantin  Auguste. 

Les  monnaies  de  bronze  de  cette  emission  sont  de  deux 
especes.  La  plus  grande  est  le  denier  de  poids  reduit 
dont  il  a  deja  ete'  question  et  qui  fut  frappe  a  Siscia 
jusqu'a  la  mort  de  Constantin  en  337  ;  la  seconde  est  le 
Centenionalis,  petite  monnaie  de  bronze  du  poids  moyen 
de  1  gramme  75  c.  sous  Constantin,78  de  0,0 1 6  de  diametre. 
Suivant  une  regie  qui  semble  constante  a  cette  Epoque, 
on  ne  trouve  pas  les  memes  exergues  sur  des  monnaies 
d'especes  differentes  frappees  a  la  meme  epoque ;  aussi  est- 
il  facile  de  distinguer  le  denier  de  poids  reduit  du  Cen- 


Les  monnaies  de  cette  serie  sont  de  Tespece  du  denier 
de  bronze  avec  les  exergues — 

•ASIS-      -BSIS-      -rsis-      -ASIS-      -esis- 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— GLOEIA  EXEECITY8.  ^  Avec  le  type  deja 
decrit  dans  1'emission  precedente,  avec  deux 
etendards  ou  enseignes  militaires. 

Au  droit.  1.— CONSTANTINV8  MAX.  AVG.  Son 
buste  diademe,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite  ou 
simplement  drape.  Cohen,  254  ;  FE.  14629  ; 
BE.  MVS.  ;  H.  MVS.  V. ;  Voetter. 

78  Le  Centenionalis  n'a  pas  echappe  a  la  regie  constante  de 
reduction  de  poids  des  monnaies  de  cette  epoque.  Sous 
Diocletien  et  au  debut  du  regne  de  Constantin  les  poids  des 
Centenionales  oscillaient  entre  2  gr,  40  et  1  gr.  10  exception- 


2.  CONSTANTINVS  IVN.  NOB.  C.     Son  buste  laure 

et  cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,  122;  FB.  15691  ; 
2  gr.  35  ;  0-018  m.  de  diametre. 

3.  FL.  TVL.    CONSTANTIVS  NOB.  C.     Son   buste 

laure  et  cuirasse  a  droite.     Cohen,   104  ;  FE. 
16182,  16184;  2  gr.  75  ;  18  m.m. ;  BE.  MVS. 

4.  FL.  CONSTANTIS  BEA.  C.    Son  buste  laure,  drape, 

ou  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.     Voetter;  BE. 
MYS. ;  variete  de  Cohen,  73. 

5.  FL.    DELMATIYS  NOB.  C.     Son   buste  laure  et 

drape    a    droite.       Cohen,     12;    BE.    MVS.; 

Yoetter;  T. 

II.  Au  revers. — Sans  legende.  Victoire  debout  a  gauche, 
mettant  le  pied  sur  une  proue  de  vaisseau, 
tenant  un  sceptre  transversal  et  appuyee  sur  un 

Au  droit.— CONSTANTINOPOLIS.  Cohen  21,  deja 
decrit ;  BE.  MVS. ;  Voetter. 

III.  Au  revers. — Sans  legende.  Le  type  de  la  Louve  deja 
decrit  avec  Eomulus  et  Eemus  et  deux  etoiles. 

Au  droit.—VRBS  EOMA.  Cohen  18,  deja  decrit;  FE. 
15237;  2  gr.  30;  15239,  2  gr.  60;  BE.  MVS.; 
Voetter.  [PI.  XVI.,  No.  17.] 


Les  monnaies  de  bronze  de  cette  serie  sont  de  1'espece 
du  Centenionalis. 

Avec  les  exergues —  ' 

ASIS       BSIS       rsis        ASIS        esis 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au   revers.— GLOEIA   EXEECITVS.       Deux    soldats 
casques,  debout,  tenant   chacun   une   haste   et 


appuyes  sur  un  bouclier ;  entre  eux  une  seule 
enseigne  militaire  surmontee  d'un  drapeau  sur 
lequel  est  une  couronne. 

Au   droit.    1.— CONSTANTINYS    MAX.    AYG.     Son 

buste  diademe  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  256  ; 
BE.  MVS. ;  Yoetter.  Officines  A  et  6. 

2.  CONSTANTINYS  IYN.  NOB.  C.    Son  buste  laure 

et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  114;  FE.  15672  ; 
1  gr.  90;  BE.  MVS.;  Voetter.  Officine  6.  [PL 
XVI,?  No.  18.] 

3.  FL.  IVL.  CONSTANTIYS  NOB.  C.   Son  buste  Iaur6 

et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen,  92;  16139-41;  1 
gr.  20 ;  BE.  MYS. ;  Yoetter.  Officine  A— B— 

r— A. 

4.  FL.  CONSTANTIS   BEA.  C.     Son  buste  laure  et 

drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  48;  FE.  15916;  1  gr. 
70  ;  17  m.m. ;  15918.  Officines  A — B— Y— A. 

5.  FL.  DELMATIYS  NOB.  C.    Son  buste  laure  et  cuir- 

asse a  droite.    Cohen,  4  ;  BE.  MYS.  Officine  A. 

6.  FL.  IYL.  CONSTANS  NOB.  C.    Son  buste  diademe 

et  drape  a  droite.  T.  avec  le  monogramme  ^ 
au  revers.  Le  Catalogue  Fabretti  du  musee  de 
Turin,  No.  9,172,  indique  seulement  1'exergue 


Le  petit  bronze  suivant  se  trouve  decrit  dans  Tanini, 
supplement  a  Banduri,  Numism.  Imp.  Rom.,  p.  286, 

avec  1'exergue  -j-  egalement. 

I.  Au  revers.— SECYEITAS  PYBL1CA.  L'Euphrate  a 
demi-nu,  couche  a  droite,  s'appuyant  d'une  main 
sur  un  sceptre  ou  aviron,  a  son  cdte  gauche  se 
dresse  un  roseau. 

Au  droit.— FL.  HANNIBALLIANNO  EEGI.  Son 
buste,  tete  nue  et  tourne  a  gauche,  les  epaules 
drapees.  Yatican.79 

79  Hanniballien  fut  eleve  a  la  dignite  de  roi  de  Pont  par 
Constantin  apres  que  Delmatiusfut  fait  Cesar  le  15  Septembre 
335.  Cf.  Athanase,  Contra  Arianos,  tome  i,  p.  782  ;  Anonymus 
Valesii,  vi,  35 ;  Idat.  de  Fast. 


Les  pieces  d'or  suivantes  se  ran  gent  dans  cette  serie  en 
raison  de  leur  exergue  et  de  la  presence  des  pieces  de 

Delmatius,  avec  Texergue  —^     On  trouve — 


II.  Au  revers.— PEINOIPI  IYYENTYTIS.  Constance 
debout  a  gauche  tenant  un  etendard  et  un 
sceptre,  a  droite  deux  enseignes  militaires. 

Au  droit.  1.— FL.  IYL.  CONST  ANTIYS  NOB.  C.  Son 
buste  diademe  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  162  ; 
H.  MYS.  V.  Solidus. 

Meme  revers,  mais  le  prince  debout  de  face  regardant  a 

2.  Son  buste  laure  et  cuirasse  &  droite.     Cohen  165;  col- 

lection P.  d'Ameoourt.     Solidus. 

Meme  revers  qu'au  No.  II. 

3.  EL.  CONSTANTIS  BEA.  CAES.    Son  buste  laure, 

drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.      Cohen,  92  ;   FE. 

III.  Meme  legende.      Delmace  debout  en  habit  militaire, 
tenant  une  haste  transversale  et  un  globe. 

Au  droit.— FL.  DELMATIYS  NOB.  C.  Son  buste 
laure  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  16.  Solidus. 
M.  Eollin. 

Les  pieces  d'or  frappees  pendant  les  dernieres  annees 
de  Constantin  ay  ant  le  diametre  de  22  millimetres, 
se  distingnent  facilement  des  pieces  frappees  pendant  la 
pins  grande  partie  de  son  regne,  quoiqu'ayant  le  meme 
poids  moyen  4  grammes  50  c.  et  etant  de  1'espece  du 
SOLIDUS.  C'est  ce  qni  permet  de  placer  les  pieces  suivantes 

dans  cette  emission.   Avec  Fexergue  - 


IY.  Au  revers.— YICTOEIA  CONSTANTINI  AYG.  Yic- 
toire  aseise  a  droite  tenant  un  bouclier  sur 
lequel  on  lit  YOT.  XXX;  derriere  elle  une 
cuirasse  et  un  bouclier. 


Au  droit.— CONSTANTINYS  MAX.  AYG.  Son  buste 
diademe  et  drape  a  droite.  Cohen,  611;  FE. 
1543  ;  4  gr.  40  ;  0,022  m.m. 

V.  Meme  legende.  Meme  type,  mais  la  Yictoire  ecrivant 
les  YOT.  XXX.  sur  un  bouclier  que  lui  pre- 
sente  un  genie. 

Meme  droit.  Inedite.  Musee  Brera,  Milan.  Meme  dia- 

Le   me  me   exergue  r—    se   retro uve    sur    la   monnaie 


d'argent  suivante  de  1'espece  du  96me  a  la  livre  d'argent80 
qui  fut  frappee  a  la  fin  du  regne  de  Constantin,  car  des 
pieces  analogues  continue  rent  a  paraitre  sous  les  regnes 
des  fils  de  Constantin. 

YI.  Au  revers.— CONSTANTIYS  CAESAE.  Quatre  enseignes 
militaires  dans  le  champ. 

Au  droit.— FL.  IYL.  CONSTANTIYS  NOB.  C.  Son 
buste  laure,  drape  et  cuirasse  a  droite.  Cohen, 
17;  3  gr.  68  a  3gr.-25;  FE. 

Avec  les  exergues — 

ASIS*     BSIS*     rsis*        ASIS*        esis* 

On  trouve — 

I.  Au  revers.— GLOEIA  EXEECITYS.     Avec  une  seule 
enseigne  militaire  ;  type  qui  vient  d'etre  decrit. 

80  Pendant  que  ce  travail  etait  en  cours,  Monsieur  Babelon  a 
elucide  le  problerne  de  la  determination  des  especes  monetaires 
sous  le  bas  empire  ;  cf.  E.  Babelon,  La  Silique,  le  Sou  et  le 
Denier:  Journal,  des  Savants,  Paris,  fevrier,  1901. — Le  Mill- 
arense,  piece  d'argent  etalon  sous  Constantin,  est  le  72me  a 
la  livre,  pesant  4  grammes  55  c.  en  moyenne,  aj^ant  un  module 
de  23  a  24  millimetres.  Ce  n'est  que  sous  Heraclius  (610  a 
614)  que  la  96me  partie  de  la  livre  deviendra  le  poids  du 
/MtXtap^trioi/  byzantin.  Toutefois  le  72me  et  le  96me  a  la  livre 
sont  frappes  simultanement  sous  Constantin. 

VOL.  XX.    THIRD  SERIES.  3    B 


Au   droit.    1.—  CONSTANT1NYS   MAX.   AYG.     Son 

buste  diademe  et  drape  ou  laure  et  drape  a 
droite.  Cohen,  250  ;  BE.  MYS.  ;  H.  MYS.  Y.  ; 

2.  CONST  ANTINYS    IYN.   NOB.    C.      Cohen,    114; 

BE,  MYS.  ;  Yoetter. 

3.  FL.  IYL.  CONSTANTIYS   NOB.  C.     Cohen,   92  ; 

16138;  Yoetter. 

4.  FL.    CONSTANTIS    BEA.    C.      Cohen,    48;    FE. 

15917;  BE.  MYS. 

5.  FL.  DELMATIYS  NOB.  C.     Cohen,  4;  FE.  15550; 

1  gr.  70  ;  0,017  m.m.     [PI.  XVI.,  No.  19.] 

Toutes  ces  pieces  ont  deja  ete*  de*crites. 

On  peut  aj  outer  a  la  suite  de  ces  pieces  le  medaillon 
d'or  suivant,  qui  en  raison  du  type  du  droit  avec  la  t6te 
diademe*e  se  classe  parmi  les  medaillons  frappes  pendant  les 
dernieres  annees  du  regne  de  Constantin. 

Au  revers.—  GLOEIA  CONSTANTINI  AYG.  Con- 
stantin casque  et  en  habit  militaire  marchant  a 
droite,  trainant  un  barbare  par  les  cheveux, 
portant  un  trophee,  et  lan^ant  un  coup  de  pied 
a  un  captif  barbu  assis  devant  lui  les  mains 
liees  derriere  le  dos  et  retournant  la  tete. 

Au  droit.  —  Tete  diademee  de  Constantin  a  droite,  sans 
legende.  Cohen,  337  ;  FE.  80  A  ;  6  gr.  34  ; 
0  025  m.m. 

Les   exergues   ASIS^*.  a  GSIS^  semblent  devoir 
attribues  a  Constantin  II  Auguste. 




(Continued  from  Vol.  XIX.,  p.  262.) 

References  in  [     ]  are  those  which  I  have  not  been  able  to  consult  myself. 


BAESURIS.— Monn.  de  B:   R.  Mowat,  Archeol.  Portugu.,  v. 

(1900),  17-24. 
EMPORIUM. — Human-headed   bull:   L.   Heuzey,  Mon.  Piot, 

vi.,  124. 


SEGUSIAVI. — Hercules  and  Telesphorus  :  S.  Reinach,  R.  Arch., 
35  (1899),  57. 


HERACLEA. — Cross-headed  object  (at  H.  and  Metapontum) 
identified  with  groma  :  H.  Schone,  Arch.  Anz.,  1899, 
131  ;  H.  von  Fritze,  ibid.  182.1 

METAPONTUM. — Form  of  barley  (wide-eared,  six-rowed,  Hor- 
deum  hexastichum]  ;  on  Cunobelin's  coins  of  Camulo- 
dunum,  the  wide-eared,  two-rowed  h.  zeocrithum  is 
represented.  J.  M.  H.  Munro  and  E.  S.  Beaven,  Journ. 
.R.  Agric.  Soc.,  ser.  iii.,  vol.  xi.,  part  ii.  (1900),  pp.  14, 
15  (of  reprint). — Acheloos  as  horned  human  figure: 
A.  Mahler,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  ii.,  78. 

1  In  this  identification  the  evidence  of  the  cross -headed  torch  on  S. 
Italian  vases  has  surely  been  underrated. 


TAEENTUM. — Dioskuri:  E.  Petersen,  Rom  Mitth.,  1900,47.— 
Dolphin-rider  and  horseman  types,  ibid.,  48  f. — Anabates 
type :  M.  Yassits,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  iii.,  174. — Seat 
with  cushions  (Imhoof,  Monn.  Gr.,  Nos.  3,  4) :  H.  von 
Fritze,  Rh.  Mus.,  55  (1900),  603.— See  also  Metrology. 

TEKINA.— Nike  :  F.  Studniczka,  Neue  Jahrb.,  i.,  387,  397. 


GELA. — EuySota  (Millingen,  Rec.,  82),  should  be  EJI/O///O,:  P. 
Orsi,  Rom.  Mitth.,  1898,  306. 

MESSANA.—  Hadranos  :'ls.  Levy,  R.  Arch.,  34  (1899),  277. 

SELINUS. — Herakles  and  Acheloos  :  A.  Mahler,  Oesterr. 
Jahresh.,  ii.,  78. 

SYRACUSE. — Arethusa  on  Kimon's  coins ;  female  head  on 
other  fifth-century  coins  :  0.  Puchstein,  Kiepert  Fest- 
schr.,  202. — Female  heads  on  the  older  coins  of  Syra- 
cuse :  C.  Joergensen,  Festskr.  til  J.  L.  Ussing,  117- 
143  (Danish,  with  abstr.  in  German). 


URANOPOLIS. — Aphrodite  Ourania  :   S.  A.  Xanthoudides,  'E0. 

JApX.,  1900,  33. 
REGES.     ALEXANDER  III.     See  below,  Portraiture. 

DEMETRIUS   POL. — Nike    on   prow :  F.    Studniczka,   Neue 

Jahrb.,  i.,  400. 
PAEONIA.      LYCCEIUS.  —  Form    of   name:    H.    Hirt,   Kiepert 

Festschr.,  184. 


MESEMBRIA. — Helmet   with   transverse    crest :    M.    Vassits, 

Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  iii.,  176. 
ODESSUS. — Thracian  rider  :  Babelon,  C.  R.  de  VAc.  d.  Inscr., 

1900,  365. 
IMBROS. — Name  on  coins  :  E.  Oberhummer,  Kiepert  Festschr., 

282.     Coins  of  Athenian  kleruchs,  294.     Types,  301  f. 

Dacia  and  Moesia. 

H.  v.  Fritze,  Berl.  Phil.  Woch.,  1900,  979-992,  rev.  of  Pick's 
work. —  Dates  of  Aemilianus  and  Decius  on  Dacian  coins : 
N.  Vulic,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  iii.,  Beibl.  96. 

YIMINACIUM. — Philip  jun.  made  Augustus  between  October 
246  and  August,  247.  N.  Vulic,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  iii., 
Beibl.  95. 



CRANNON. — Sacred  vessel  on  car  :  A.  Furtwangler,  Munch. 
Sitzgber.,  1899  (ii.),  429,  480. 


DYERHACHIUM. —  Graces  (uva  duracina)  as  symbol :  Th. 
Reinach,  R.  d.  Et.  Gr.,  1899,  51. 


DELPHI. — Dolphins  as  city  arms  on  proxenia  inscr  :  B.  C.  H., 
xxiii.,  350.  Same  type  on  Theran  inscr.  of  proxenia. 
Homolle  doubts  whether  the  dolphins  refer  to  Delphi 
and  not  rather  to  Pellene,  ibid.,  377. 


ATHENS. — Tetradrachm  of  Antiochus  :  M.  Holleaux,  R.  d. 
£t.  Gr.,  1900,  273.— Athena-Hygieia :  H.  B.  Walters, 
J..H.  8.,  xix.,  167.— Athena  (Imhoof-Gardner,  AA  vii.)  : 

E.  A.  Gardner,  J.  H.  5., xix.,  10.— Athena  Promachos  (?): 
P.  Hermann,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  ii.,  170. — Contest  between 
Athena   and    Poseidon  :    A.   de    Bidder,   R.    Arch.,   32 
(1898),  410,  411.— Theseus  raising  the  stone:    Arch. 
Anz.,  1899,  201.— See  also  Metrology. 


MEGARA. — Apollo,  Artemis,  and  Leto :  K.  Kourouniotes, 
'E0.  'APX.,  1900,  14,  16. 


CORINTH. — Ino  and  Melicertes,  Leucothea  :  Correra,  Studi  e 
Mater.,  i.,  76  f. — Lechaion  and  Kenchreai :  K.  Wernicke, 
Arch.  Anz.,  1899,  200. 


PATRAE. — Busts  of  Octavia  and  Antonia   on    cornuacopiae : 

H.  Graillot,  R.  Arch.,  37  (1900),  235. 
PELLENE. — Monogram   |"E   on  Delphian  decrees  concerning 

Pellenians  :  Th.  Homolle,  B.  C.  H.,  23,  374. 


ELIS. — Eagle-type:  Milani,  Studi  e  Mater.,  i.,   16. — Nike: 

F.  Studniczka,  Neue   Jahrb.,  i.,  888,  397.— Hera :  A. 
Furtwangler,  Munch.  Sitzyber.,  1899  (ii.),  5b4. — Aphro- 
dite on   goat :    A.  de    Ridder,  Mon.  Plot,  iv.,  81  ;  A. 
Furtwangler,  Munch.  Sitzgber.,  1899  (ii.),  590. 

PISA.— -Date  of  gold  coins  :  B.  Niese,  Hermes,  1899,  523. 



GYTHIUM.— Coin  found  at  Basra  :  P.  Perdrizet,  R.  Arch.,  85 
(1899)  48. 


ARGOS.— Hera  :  A.  Furtwangler,  Munch.  Sitzgbcr.,  1899  (ii.), 
584.  Ch.  Waldstein,  J.  H.  8.,  xx.,  p.  xxxv. 


Female  head  on  earliest  coins  (similar  style  at  Corinth, 
Cnidus,  Syracuse)  :  A.  Furtwangler,  Munch.  Sitzgber., 
1899  (ii.),  581,  582. — Monogram  on  Delphian  decree 
of  proxenia  for  an  Arcadian  :  Homolle,  B.  0.  H.,  23, 

HERAEA. — Head  on  earliest  coins  :  A.  Furtwangler,  Munch. 
Sitzgber.,  1899  (ii.),  581.— H.,  Orchomenos  and  Pheneos 
as  members  of  the  league  :  B.  Niese,  Hermes,  1899,  521. 

PSOPHIS. — Form  ^  for  i/r :  W.  Arkwright,  Oesterr.  Jahresh., 
ii.,  72. 

STYMPHALUS. — Head  of  Artemis :  A.  de  Bidder,  Mon.  Plot, 
iv.,  89,  90. 


CNOSSUS. — Head    of  Aphrodite :    A.  de  Ridder,  Mon.  Piot, 

iv.,  89.— Minotaur:  A.  Taramelli,  Mon.  Ant.,  p.  883. 
DICTYNNA    (Trajan).      Nymph   with   infant    Zeus    and    two 

Curetes  :  Milani,  Studi  e  Mater.,  i.,  8,  note  28. 
HIERAPYTNA. — Eagle  and  palm-tree  of  Rhea  :  Milani,  /.  c.,  12. 
ITANUS. — "AAtos  yeptoj/  and  serpents  :  Milani,  I.  c.,  15. 
PHAESTUS. — Herakles,  tethered  bull,  &c.  :  Milani,  L  c.,  25. 
PRAESUS. — Zeus  suckled  by  cow;  Herakles  slaying  monsters, 

and  other  types  :  Milani,  I.  c.,  22-24. 
PRIANSUS. — Head    of  Aphrodite  :  A.  de  Ridder,  Mon.  Piot, 

iv.,  89. 
RHAUCUS. — Poseidon,  trident,  dolphins:  A.  Taramelli,  Mon. 

Ant.,  9,  321. 
PROVINCE. — Zo)s   Kp^rayci/^s   and    Tav   ~KprjTay€v(]s :  Milani, 

I.  c.,  17,  note  61. 


NLOCAESAREA. — Personification  of  Koinon  and  Metropolis: 
J.  G.  C.  Anderson,  J.  H.  8.,  xx..  155. 



NlCAEA. — Trpurrot  TT/S  cTrap^c/as  :  Korte,  Ath.  Mitth.,  1899, 
401. — Dionysos  as  founder,  ibid.,  403. 


AMYNTAS. — Genuineness  of  gold  coins :  Weil,  Berl.Phil.  Woch. 
1899,  1198. 


OROPHERNES. — The  coins  found  at  Priene  :  Weil,  I.  c.,  1198  f. 

CAESAREA.— H.   Riggauer,  Munch.  Sitzgber.,  1898  (ii.),  465, 

corrects  his  previous  descriptions,  ibid.,  1897  (ii.)  523  f. 


CYZICUS. — Kybele  on  lion  :  Milani,  I.  c.,  7,  note  26,  53. — K6py 

^ujTcipa,  ibid.,  54. 
PERGAMUM. — Female    Prytanis :    Conze    und    Schuchhardt, 

Ath.  Mitth.,  1899,  167. 
PERPERENE. — Coin  found  at  Kosak :  ibid.,  147. 


CEBREN. — Restoration  as  Antiochia:  W.  Judeich,  Kiepert 
Festschr.,  239,  note  1. 

SCEPSIS. — W.  Judeich,  Kiepert  Festschr.,  229  f .  :  R.  Sca- 
mander ;  M  coins  with  2*:a.  not  Scamandrian ;  coins 
with  Nc  and  N  =  Nea  KW/X>;  ? ;  various  types  (horned 
Dionysos,  Pegasos,  nymph  Ide,  Serapis,  Aeneas,  &c.)  ; 
strategos  and  other  magistrates. 


COLOPHON. — Strategos  chief  magistrate.     B.  Haussoullier,  R. 

de  Phil.,  1898,  265. 
EPHESUS. — Palm-tree  :  J.  Bohlau,  Ath.  Mitth.,  1900,  94. — 

Name  Arsinoeia  :  C.  Fredrich,  ibid.,  104. 
HERACLEA. — Cult  of  Athena,  and  types  at  Priene,  Lebedos, 

Clazomenae,  Naulochus :  B.  Haussoullier,  R.  de  Phil., 

1899,  281. 
MILETUS. — Magistrate     'Apto-TOKpar^s  :    C.    Fredrich,    Ath. 

Mitth.,  1900,  104.— Did  Ptolemy  II  strike  at  M.  ?  :  B. 

Haussoullier,  R.   de   Phil.,   1900,  823.— Ti    (Claudius) 

Damas :    ibid.,    1899,    315. — Didymeion     on   coins    of 

Caligula:  ibid.,  21,  161. 
SMYRNA. — L.  Venuleius  Apronianus,  procos. :  Th.  Mommsen, 

Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  iii.,  2. 



ALABANDA. — Under  name  Antiochia  :  M.  Holleaux,  R.  d.  fit. 
Gr.,  1899,  351,  358;  W.  R.  Paton,  Class.  Rev.,  1899, 
319,  320. 

APHKODISIAS. — Aphrodite  :  A.  Furtwangler,  Munch.  Sitzgber., 
1899  (ii.),  605;  cf.  S.  A.  Xanthoudides,  'E0.  'ApX., 
1900,  83.— TrpwTos  apXwv :  Is.  Levy,  R.  d.  fit.  Gr.,  1899, 
264. — See  also  Myra. 

BARGASA. — Provenance  of  coins  :  W.  R.  Paton,  J.  H.  S.t 
xx.,  60. 

CHALCETOR. — Attribution  of  XA  coins  (Class.  Rev.,  1895, 
p.  188,  cp.  B.  M.  Catal.,  Caria,  p.  xlv.  and  79)  is  doubt- 
ful :  G.  Cousin,  B.  0.  H.,  22  (1898),  375. 

CNIDUS. — Aphrodite  head  :  A.  de  Ridder,  Mon.  Piot,  iv.,  92  ; 
L.  Savignoni,  Mon.  Ant.,  8,  84. 

EUROMUS. — Duration  of  E.'s  absorption  in  Mylasa :  G. 
Cousin,  B.  C.  H.,  22  (1898),  438. 

Cos. — Head  of  Herakles  with  features  of  Maussollus  :  J.  Six, 
Horn.  Mitth.,  1899,  81  f. 


ACCILAEUM. — J.  G.  C.  Anderson,  J.  H.  S.,  xix.,  90. 
APAMEA. — Ko«/oi/  4>pvytas  :    Conze    und   Schuchhardt,   Ath. 
Mitth.,  1899,  196. 


E.  Kalinka,  zur  hist.  Topogr.  Lykiens  :  Kiepert  Festschr., 
159  f . ;  reprinted  with  alterations,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  in., 
BeibL,  38  f. — Various  names  on  Lycian  coins  :  W. 
Arkwright,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  ii.,  53  f. 

KHARAI. — Significance  of  types:  O.Benndorf,  Oesterr.  Jahresh., 
in'.,  119. 

MYRA. — Agalma  in  tree  (cp.  Aphrodisias) :  Milani,  Studi  e 
Mater.,  i.,  12. 


SAGALASSUS. — Pine  cone  with  star  and  crescent:  Milani,  /.  c., 


MALLUS.— "  Nike  :  ''  F.  Studniczka,    Neue  Jahrb.,  i.,  388. 
NAGIDUS. — Orientalizing  Aphrodite  :    G.   F.   Hill,   J.   H.  8., 

xix.,  164. 
SOLI-POMPEIOPOLIS. — Head   of  Chrysippus  ?  :    0.   Benndorf, 

Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  ii.,  252. 


TARSUS. — Various  types :  Baal-tars,  lion  and  bull,  Ahura- 
mazda,  deity  on  lion,  crown  with  human  heads,  elephant 
with  wreath  and  letters  OM  AKK,  etc.2  Milani,  Studi  e 
Mater.,  i.,  44,  50. — Crowns  with  human  heads  :  G.  F. 
Hill,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  iii.,  247  f. — Eagle  above  pyre  of 
Sandan,  lion  and  ball  :  J.  W.  Crowfoot,  J.  H.  8.  xx., 
119,  120. — Astragalizousa  :  A.  de  Bidder,  Mon.  Plot,  iv., 


MARIUM. — Goddess    with   ram  :     A.    Furtwangler,    Munch. 

Sitegber.,  1899,  (ii.),  604. 
SALAMIS. — Euagoras  I,  Herakles  and  goat :    Milani,  L  c.,  24, 

note  76. — Euagoras  II,  Aphrodite,  eagle  on  lion  :  ibid., 



REGES. — (See  also  Portraiture.)  Seleucus  I  and  Antio- 
chus  IV,  type  of  Zeus :  E.  R.  Bevan,  J.  H.  S.,  xx., 
26,  28.  —  Antiochus  I.,  Date  of  coins  with  Samjpor 
*Ai™Xov:  B.  Haussoullier,  R.  de  Phil.,  1900,  328. 

ANTIOCHIA. — Archieratic  crown  :  G.  F.  Hill,  Oesterr.  Jakresh., 
ii.,  249. 


HIEROPOLIS-BAMBYCE. — Ateh  on  lion,  lion  and  bull :  J.  W. 
Crowfoot,  J.  H.  S.,  xx.,  121. 


ANTIOCHIA- GERASA. — Title  'Av(Tto^f'coi/)  TW(I/)  Trp(os)   Xp(vo-o- 

poa)   TW(V)    Trp(oTepov)    Te(pao-r]vG)v)  :    P.    Perdrizet,   R. 

Biblique.,  Juill.  1900  (pp.  IB,  14  of  reprint). 
GADARA. — Leg.    X    Fretensis     at    Gadara ;    inscr.    NAY- 

MA(xl/a)."     Clermont-Ganneau,    Rec.    d'Arch.    Or.,    ii. 

(1898),  301. 
PHILADELPHIA. — Legend,  3>iAaSeA0«-W  Koi'(A?7<?)  5vp(tas) :    P. 

Perdrizet,  R.  Arch.,  35  (1899),  42. 


Era  of  Alexander  the  Great  in  Phoenicia  :  J.  Rouvier,  R.  d. 
fit.  Gr.,  1899,  362  f. 

2  The  writer  seems  to  base  a  good  deal  of  very  fanciful  interpretation 
on  inaccurate  or  imaginative  drawings  of  solitary  specimens. 

VOL.    XX.    THIRD    SERIES  3  C 


ARADUS.— J.  Rouvier,  C.  R.  de  VAc.  d.  Inscr.,  1898,   207  f,  ; 

Journal  Asiat.,  16  (1900),  347  f. 
LAODICEA  of  Canaan. — Clermont-Ganneau,  Rec.  (K  Arch.  Or., 

ii.  (1898),  80,  81. 
MARATHUS. — Era :    J.    Rouvier,  Journ.   Asiat.,    xii.   (1898), 

361  f. 

TRIPOLIS. — Actian  era  at  Tripolis  :    Clermont-Ganneau,  Rec. 

d'Arch.  Or.,  ii.  (1898),  297  f. 
TYRE.— Era  of  Alexander  :  J.  Rouvier,  R.  d.  Et.  Gr.,  1899, 

362  f.— Coins    with    KOINOY     <|>OINIKHC    and 
COENV   PHENICES:    P.  Perdrizet,  R.  Arch.,  35 
(1899),  38. 


ACE.— Era  of  Alexander :  J.  Rouvier,  R.  d.  Et.  Gr.,  1899, 
362  f. 


GAZA. — Coin  with  head  of  Hadranos  (?)  and  deity  on  winged 
car:  Is.  Levy,  R.  Arch.,  34  (1899),  276,  277. 


Shape  of  heads  of  Arsacidae  :  A.  C.  Had  don,   Nature  f  3  ML. 

24th,  1901,  310.— Regal  titles  :  Drouin,  Joarn.  Asiat., 

13  (1899)  369  f. 
GOTERZES.     'Apeaj'wi' 3  comp.  with  Persian  form  Anjandm  or 

Ariijdn  :   Drouin,  R.  Arch.,  32  (1898)  73. 

Bactria  and  India. 

Shape  of  heads  of  Bactrian  kings  :   [C,  von  Ujfalvy,  Arch.  f. 

Anthropol.,  26  (1899),  45-70,  341-371]  ;  A.  C.  Haddon, 

Nature,  Jan.  24th,  1901,  310.—    egal  titles  :  E.  Drouin, 

Journ.  Asiat.,  13  (1899),  369  f. 
OP0ATNHZ     and      OPAATNO    comp.     with    name 

Bahram:  Drouin,  R.  Arch.,  32  (1898),  80. 


REGES. — TACHOS. —  VT  struck  piece,  attributed  (if  genuine)  by 
Maspero  (Rec.  de  Trav.,  1900,  p.  225)  to  time  of  Tachos' 
preparations  against  Persia  (cf.  Pseudo-Arist.,  Oecon., 
ii.,  25).  Obv. — Nub-nefr  ("good  gold")  in  ordinary 

3  But  this  is  a  misreading  of  'Apadicuv  ;   see  Wroth,  Num.  Chr.,  1900, 
93,  95. 


hieroglyphs.     Rev. — The  same  in  Saitc-Ptolemaic  hiero- 
glyphs, with  the  horse  to  r.4 

ALEXANDER  IV.  —  Head  with  elephant's  skin  is  portrait  of 

Alexander  IV  :  J.  Six,  Rom.  Mitth.,  1899,  88  f. 
PTOLEMY  I.  —  Head  and  eagle  from  relief  of  Artemidorus  at 

Thera,  comp.  with  types  of  Pt.  :  Hiller  von  Gartringen, 

Arch.  Anz.,  1899,  189-192. 
PTOLEMY  I  and  II.  —  Coins  struck  at  Tyre  and  Ptolemais  : 

J.  Rouvier,  R.  d.  Et.  Or.,  1899,  366. 
ARSINOE  II.  —  N  and  M  dating  from  271  B.C.  :  Strack,  Rh. 

Mm.,  55  (1900),  165. 
ALEXANDRIA.  —  Tyche  recumbent  :    P.   Perdrizet,   B.   C.  H., 

22   (1898),  601.—  City  goddess  in  attitude   of  prayer  : 

W.  Amelung,  Rom.  Mitth.,  1899,  12.—  Pharos  :  Adler, 

Arch.  Anz.,  1901,  203.—  Aurelian  and  Vabalathus  :    P. 

Meyer,  Hermes,  1898,  269.  —  Philip   jun.  as  Augustus; 

date  of  death  of  Trajan  Decius  and  Aurelian  :  N.  Vulie, 

Oesteir.  Jahresh.,  iii.,  Beibl.,  95,  96. 


GYRENE.—  Silphium  :  Is.  Levy,  R.  Arch.,  36  (1900),  334  f.  — 
Ammon  type  :  Usener,  Rh.  Mus.,  1898,  362. 


.—  Sitt(ius)  Mug(onianus)  IIII  vir  :  S.  Grsell,  Mel. 
d'Arch.  et  d'Hist.  de  V  EC.  Fr.,  1898,  129,  quoting  Rec. 
de  Constant!  ue,  30,  310. 

4  I  have  recently  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  this  piece,  which 
is  reproduced  here.  Among  the  many  objections  to  its  genuineness  I 
may  mention  that  the  extreme  flatness  of  fabric  is  decidedly  suspicious ; 
that  the  border  of  dots  is  very  unsatisfactory  in  its  treatment  ;  that  it  is 
difficult  to  understand  why  the  same  legend  is  given  on  both  sides, 
without  any  sign  of  the  authority  by  whom  the  coin  wan  issued  ;  that  the 
position  of  the  horse  to  the  right  is,  if  I  am  rightly  informed,  unusual ; 
that  similar  pieces  struck  in  base  metal  are  f-aid,  on  good  authority,  to 
have  been  offered  to  visitors  in  Egypt ;  and  that  nearly  all,  if  not  all, 
the  numismatists  who  have  seen  the  piece  have  agreed  in  condemning  it. 



Islands  between  Africa  and  Sicily. 

COSSURA. — Astarte  :  P.  Orsi,  Mon.  Ant.,  9,  513. — Coins 
found  in  tombs :  ibid.t  524. — Counterfeit  (?)  with 
KOZZY  :  Ibid.,  538. 


Coin  with  Felix  Princeps  (see  N.  C.,  xix.,  260) :  Riggauer, 
Munch.  Sitzgber.,  1898  (ii.),  465. 


E.  Babelon,  Oriyines  dm  portrait  sur  les  monn.  qr. :  R.  de 
1'Art,  v.  (1899),  89-102. 

Alexander  the  Great. — Portrait  on  coins  of  his  successors. 
A.  Chaumeix,  Mel.  cVArch.  et  d'Hist.  de  I' fie.  Fr.,  1899, 
95. — Portrait  as  Heracles  (cf.  coins  of  Agathocles  of 
Bactria,  Imperial  Macedonian,  Apollonia  Mordiaeum, 
Alexander  Balas),  J.  Six,  Rom.  Mitth.,  1899,  83  f. — 
Head  on  coins  of  Lysimachus  :  Th.  Wiegand,  Jahrb.  d. 
fast.,  xiv.  (1899),  3  ;  cf.  Sitzgber.  d.  Akad.  Berl.,  1899, 
286.— Types  of  Tresor  de  Tarse  :  P.  Perdrizet,  J.  H.  S., 
xix.,  276  f. 

Perseus.— 3.  Six,  Rom.  Mitth.,  1898,  74  f. 

Seleucus  I.— J.  Six,  Rom.  Mitth.,  1898,  66  f.  —  Seleucus  I, 
Antiochus  II,  IV,  Demetrius  1 :  0.  Rossbach,  Neue 
Jahrb.,  iii.  (1899),  55-59. 

Alexander  IV. — See  Egypt  above. 

Ptolemy  I,  II,  V,  Ar&inoe  Philadelphmt  Cleopatra  I. :  0. 
Rossbach,  I.e.,  53-57. 

Deities  and  Human  Figures. 

Apollo  with  laurel-branch  and  bow  (Metapontum,  Side, 
Athens,  Patara)  :  W.  Amelung,  Ath.  Mitth.,  1900,  289. 

Nike  (Terina,  Cyzicus,  Mallus,  Elis,  Himera,  Syracuse,  Deme- 
trius Poliorc.).  F.  Studniczta,  Neue  Jahrb.,  i.,  377  f. 

DiosJfuri.—E.  Petersen,  Rom.  Mitth.,  1900,  1  f.,  esp.  48-50. 
Denies  identifications  of  Nuceria  (B.  M.  Italy,  p.  121), 
Tyndaris  (Sicily,  p.  235),  Locri  Op.  (Centr.  Greece, 
p.  10). 

River-god. — A.  Mahler,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  ii.,  78.  Cp.  Per- 
drizet, Rev.  Bibl.,  Juill.  1900  (p.  9  of  reprint)  ;  L. 
Heuzey,  Mon.  Piot,  vi.  126. 


Andhates   leaping   from   or   running  beside  horse   (Himera, 

Celenderis,5    Erythrae)  :     E.    Petersen,    Rom.    Mitth., 

1900,  32,  33.    Cp.  M.  Vassits,  Oesterr.  Jahresh.,  hi.,  174 

(Himera,  Dardanus  ?,  Celenderis). 
Astragalizousa  (Cierium,  Tarsus).     A.  de  Bidder,  Man.  Piot, 

iv.,  100. 
Negro  (Tresor  d'Auriol,  Etruria,  Lesbos,  &c.)  :  P.  Perdrizet, 

Moii.  Plot,  iv.,  217. 
Charioteer's  dress  on  Sicilian  coins.     Th.  Homolle,  Mon.  Piot, 

iv.,  184. 
Eyelashes  on  Sicilian  coins.     Th.  Homolle,  Mon.  Piot,  iv., 


Animals,  &c. 

Cerberus. — L.    Homo,  Mel.   d'Arch.  et  d'Hist.  de  V£c.  Fr., 

1898,  310  f.  (Perinthus,  Anchialus,  Marcianopolis,  Bizya, 

Sinope,  Alexandria  Eg.). 
Chimaera. — L.  Homo,   ibid.,   298  f.  (Populonia,  Fensernia, 

Zeleia?,  Leucas,  Sicyon,  Corinth,  Lycia). 
Dolphin. — B.    von    Schneider,    Oesterr.    Jahresh.,    ii.,    204 

(Zankle,  Syracuse,  Tarentum). 
Goat. — A.  de  Bidder,  Mon.  Piot,  iv.,  88  (Aenus,  Aegae  Mac., 

Archelaus   I.,    Aegosthena,    Faros,    Elyros,    Hyrtacos, 

Lisos,  Tarrha,  Celenderis). 
Horse  in  motion:  Larisa  Thess.,  Syracuse,  Corinth  (Pegasos), 

&c.     S.  Reinach,  R.  Arch.,  36  (1900),  227  f. 
Panther. — S.  Beinach,  Mon.  Piot,  iv.,  113. 


B.  Brown,  Knowledge,  1901 ,  35  f.     Constellation-Figures  as 
Greek  Coin-Types.6 


MONT  BEUVRAY. — Monn.  recueillies  de  1867-98.  J.  Deche- 
lette,  Mem.  de  la  Soc.  Eduenne,  27  (1899)  313-355 
(chiefly  Gaulish  and  Roman,  1  Celtiberian,  1  of  Juba  II), 
Note  on  composition  of  bronze  of  Aeduan  coins. 

5  As  I  have  remarked  (B.  M.  Gatal.  Lycaonia,  etc.,  p.  xlvii.)  the  rider 
is  not  really  in  the  act  of  alighting  from  his  horse.     Celenderis,  by  the 
way,  is  not  in  Cyprus. 

6  An  entirely  uncritical  list. 


LOIRE. — Fouilles  de  la  L.  en  1894  :  M.  Desnoyers,  Mem.  de 
la  Soc.  arch,  et  hist,  de  VOrleanais,  17  (1898),  41-58 
(Gr.,  Rom.,  Gallo-Eom.  and  Gaulish). 

THEEMAE  HIMEEAEAE. — Hoard  from  Mte.  Calogero.  Tetra- 
drachms :  1  Messana  (B.  M.  Guide,  pi.  16,  28) ;  2 
Syracuse  (Du  Chastel,  pi.  7,  81  ;  8,  94) ;  4  Siculo-Punic 
[(a)  ziz ;  rev.  imitated  from  Euth.,  in  ex.  sea-horse,  cf. 
Evans  Syr.  Med.  pi.  1,  8  and  9.  (/3)  obv.  fast  quadriga, 
altar  in  ex.  (only  two  others  known),  (y)  imit.  of 
Eukleidas  and  Eumenes,  cp.  du  Chastel,  pi.  6,  62,  63, 
65-69.  (S)  ammachanat,  forepart  of  horse  in  ex.  ;  the 
head  after  decadr.  of  Euainetos,  Evans,  pi.  7  and  47] ; 
also  2  Corinthian  pegasi.  E.  Gabrici,  Not.  d.  ticavi, 
1900,  205  f. 

CEOATIA. — Narti.     30  barbarous  imitations  of  Philip  II  tetra- 

drachms.    J.  Brunsmid,  ViestniJca  Hrv.  Arheol.  Drustva, 

New  Series,  Yr.  I.,  1896,  2-13. 

Mazin.     Italian,  Greek,   and  African  M  :    aes  rude, 

aes   sign.,    aes    grave;    Romano-Campanian ;     Salapia, 

Teate,  Syracuse  (Hiero  II,  &c.),  Caphyae  Arcad.,  Egypt 

(Ptol.  VIII   and  X),  Carthage,  Numidia   (Micipsa,  &c.). 

J.   Brunsmid,  ibid.   II.,  1896-7,   3-42;  IV.,   1900,   1-6. 

Since    republished    in    German   by   M.    Bahrfeldt,    Der 

Munzfund  von  Mazin  (Berlin,  1901). 
DALMATIA. — SSkudljivac   (Lesica).     Coins  of  Pharos,  Herak- 

leia,  Di  .  .  .  ,  Issa,  and  Ballaios.     G.  Kubitschek,  Bull. 

di  Arch,  e  Stor.  Dalmata,  xx.  (1897),  pp.  159  foil. 
SAIDA.— Trouvaille   de   1863.      J.   Rouvier,   E.   d.   Et.   Gr., 

1899,  380. 
MAEASH. — Nearly  100  M  Athenian   5th  c.   staters,  now  at 

Constantinople.       Amer.   Journ.   of  Arch.,   1899,    251 

(from  S.  S.  Times,  Nov.  26th,  1898). 

METROLOGY,    &c. 

F.  Hultsch,    Gr..  u.  Rom.   Grewichtmormen.      N.  Jahrb.   iii. 

(1899),  186  f. 
R.  J.  Albrecht,  Summary  of  Hultsch's  Gewichte  des  Altertwus 

from   classical   point  of  view,  Berl.  Phil.  Woch.,  1900, 

848  f.,  879  f. 


Th.  Mommsen,  Zum  Aegijpt.  Milnzicesen,  Arch.  f.  Papyrus- 
kunde,  i.  273  f.  ^p^XM  ^n  R°man  times  :  (1)  copper 
dr.  of  6  obols:=dr.  of  billon  tetradrachm.  (2)  dpyuptov  Bp. 
=dr.  of  Roman  denarius,  which  was  regarded  as  tetra- 
,  drachm,  and  rated  at  28  or  29  obols.  Other  names  are 
dpyvptou  eTTto-^/xov  vo/>t/(r/xaTO5  8p.,  dpy.  2e/3a<7TOU  KOL 
UroAe/xatKov  vo/x.  Sp.,  dpy.  TraXatov  IlrcA..  vo/z.,  &C.  The 
old  Ptolemaic  dr.  was  roughly  equated  to  the  denarius, 
which,  however,  in  both  normal  and  effective  weight 
was  superior  to  the  old  coin.  The  copper  "  reckoning 
dr."  of  T£o-  of  the  Ptol.  silver  dr.  was  fixed  first  at  i-gV^» 
later  at  aoVo  of  the  denarius-tetradrachm.  Denarius- 
tetradrachm  known  as  quadruple  dpy.  8p.,  also  as  o-To/njp. 
When  metal  not  stated,  Sp.  =  usually  dr.  of  billon 
tetradrachm.  The  only  coined  obol  was  the  i  of  the 
billon  dr.,  =  about  4-  of  the  denarius-dr.,  i.e.  -^  of  the 
denarius  itself;  but  in  commercial  language  obol  may 
also  mean  a  money  of  account  —  i  of  denarius-dr. 

W.  Christ,  Munch.  Sitzgber.,  1900,  106  f.  (1)  Weights  from 
Tarentum  :  Hemilitra  (h  HMIA  on  one)  of  119-116  gr. 
A  wt.  of  153  gr.  with  HI  ?  perhaps=il  nummus  (cp. 
dextantes  of  Teate  and  Venusia),  being  equivalent  of 
diobol  of  1-3  gr.  If  M  :  ^E  as  112  :  1,  the  copper  num- 
mus would  weigh  145 '6  gr.,  which  is  nearly  half  of  an 
uninscr.  wt.  of  290  gr. — (2)  List  of  Gk.  wts.  in  Munich 
Antiquarium  not  contained  in  Pernice's  work  —  (3) 
Solonian  reform  :  CU^T/O-IS  in  'A0.  lloX.  10  means  increase 
not  of  the  weight  of  the  coin,  but  of  the  amount  of  the 
coinage7).  The  authority  of  Androtion,  connecting 
Solon's  reform  with  the  seisachtheia,  preferable  to  that 
of  Aristotle.  The  reform  meant  a  general  reduction, 
not  increase,  of  weights. 

C.  F.  Lehmann,  Hermes  35  (1900),  636  f.  Aristot.  'A0.  TToA.  x. : 
confirmation  of  reading  [at  rjpets  /xva! ;  the  weight-talent' 
of  63  Solonian  minae  ;  ''  stater  "  the  name  for  double 
mina  as  unit  of  heavy  system  of  Solonian  norm  ;  relation 
between  seisachtheia  and  reform  of  standards  ;  origin 
of  Euboic  standard  ;  the  ^eiSon/eia  /xerpa;  date  of  Pheidon. 

Clermont-Ganneau,  Ree.  d'Arch.  Or.,  iii.  (1899)  82  (-C.  E. 
tie  VAc.  d.  Inscr.,  1898,  606):  Leaden  weight  from 
Syria.  Ibid.  iv.  (1900),  24  f. :  Five  Israelite  weights 
with  inscriptions. 

7  This  would  probably  require  r«Di/  vo/n<T/idru>j>,  to  mention  only  one 



Bibliotheca  Philologica  Classica,  xxv.,   1898,   247  f . ;  xxvi., 

1899,  56  f.  ;  110  f.  ;  166  f.  ;  225  f.  ;  xxvii.,  1900,  65  f., 

138  f.  ;  202  f. 

Rev.  cL  Et.  Gr.,  1900,  118  f. 
Amer.  Journ.  of  Arch.,  1899,  470  f.  ;  1900,  403. 
Rev.  Arch.-    36  (1900)   270  f.  :  Publications  of  Arch.  Soc. 

of    Moscow :    §    9  —  Numismatique    et  Sphragistique. 

Articles   on  Karkinites,  Aspurgus,  Rhescuporis  I,  Dio- 

dotus,  Pythodoris,  &c. 


BERLIN  CABINET.  —  Acquisitions:    Berl.    Phil.   Woch.,   1899, 
1277;  1900,  1342.      Woch.  f.  Mass.  Phil.,  1900,  1270. 


Ueber  die  Entincklg.  d  Numism.  it.  d.  num.  Sammlgn.  im  19 

Jahrh.  H.  Riggauer,  Festr.,  K.  Bayer.   Akad.   d.  Wiss., 

Miinchen,  14th  Nov.  1900. 
Corpus  Nummorum.  Th.  Mommsen :  reports  progress  Sitzgber. 

d.  Akad.  z.  Berl,  1898,  79  ;  1899,  74  ;   C.  R.  de  VAcad. 

d.  Inscr.,  1899,  431. 
Charon's  obol     A.  Korte,  Ath.  Mitth.,  1899,  4  ;  [P.  Sartori, 

die  Totenmiinze,  Arch./.  Religionswiss.  II.  (1899)  205- 

Provenance  of  coins  as  evidence  of  sites.  W.  R.  Paton,  J.  H.  S.t 

xx.,  80;  C.  D.  Edmonds,  B.  8.  A.,  v.,  24. 
Magistrates'  titles  on  coins  of  Asia  Minor.  Is.  Levy,  R.  d.  Et. 

Gr.  1899,  262  f.  (Smyrna,  Aphrodisias,  Antiochia  Car. 

Sardes,  Thyatira,  Silandus,  Docimeum,  &c.). 

G.  F.  H. 



Ablera,  Thrace,  coins  of,  278 
Ac  ;ilaeum,  Phrygia,  coins  of,  368 
Acs,    Galilaea,  era   of  Alexander, 


Achaean  League,  coin  of  the,  286 
Aegina,  coin  of,  285 
Aegium,  Achaia,  coins  of,  12 
Aethelred  II  of  England,  coin  of. 

Aethelred  II  of  Northumbria,  coin 

of,  266 
Aethelwulf  of  "Wessex,  coin  of,  new 

variety,  160 
Aethulwulf  of  Wessex  and  Berht- 

wulf  of  Mercia,  coin  of,  154 
Alabanda,  Caria,  under  name  An- 

tiochia,  368 
Alexander  III  of  Macedon,  coins 

of,    277 ;    portraiture    of,    364 ; 

era  of,  in  Phoenicia,  369 
Alexander  IV,  Aegus,  portrait  of, 


Alexandria,  Egypt,  coins  of,  371 
Alfred  of  Wessex,  coin  of,  266 
Alyzia,  Acarnania,  coin  of,  284 
Amisus,  Pontus,  coin  of,  16 
Amyntas  of  G-alatia,  coin  of,  367 
Anglo-Saxon    Chronicle,    its   his- 
torical value,  66 
Anglo-Saxon  coins,  unique,  148  ; 

unpublished  varieties,  265 
Animals  on  Greek  coins,  373 
Antigonus,  King  of  Asia,  coin 

of,  7 

Antiochia,  Pisidia,  coin  of,  21 
,,         Syria,  coins  of,  369 
Antiochia- Gerasa,  Decapolis,  title 

of,  369 
Antiochus  VI  of  Syria,    coin  of, 


Antiochus  VIII  (Grypus)  and  Cleo- 
patra of  Syria,  coin  of,  25 
Antoninus  Pius,  coin  of,  22 


Apamea,  Phrygia,  coins  of,  368 
Aphrodisias,  Caria,  coin  of,  368 
Apollonia  Pontica,  Thrace,  coin  of, 


Aptera,  Crete,  coin  of,  15 
Aradus,  Phoenicia,  coins  of,  370 
Arcadia,  coins  of,  366 
Argos,  Argolis,  coins  of,  366 
Arsaces  of  Parthia,  coins  of,  190 

et  seqq. 
Arsacid  kings  of  Parthia,  list  of, 

183  ;  portraits  of,  370 
Arsinoe  II  of  Egypt,  coins  of,  371 
Artabanus    I,    King    of    Parthia, 

coins  of,  184  et  seqq. 
Artabanus  II,   King  of   Parthia, 

coins  of,  19<5  et  seqq. 
Athens,  Attica,  coins  of,  366 
Attaea,  Mysia,  coin  of,  288 
Aurelian,  coins  of,  216 
AlTOKPATOPOS,  title  of,  on  coins 

of  Parthia,  193 


Bactrian  tings,  portraiture  of,  370 
Baldred  of  Kent  expelled  by  Ecg- 

beorht,  79 

Bargasa,  Caria,  coins  of,  368 
Barsuris,  Spain,  coin  of,  363 
BA2IAEYONTO2  on  Parthian  and 

Bactrian  coins,  94 
Berenice  II  of  Egypt,  coin  of,  296 
Berhtwnlf  of  Mercia  and  Aethel- 
wulf of  Wessex,  coin  of,  154 
Berlin,  coins  of  the  South  African 

Republic  struck  at,  257 
Birmingham,       Transvaal      coins 

struck  at,  253 
Bodleian  Library,  coins  of  Smyrna 

in  the,  203 
BOYD,  W.  C.  :  — 

Some  unpublished   Varieties   of 

Saxon  Coins,  265 
Bretwalda,  title  of,  78 
British  Museum,  Greek  coins  ac- 




quired  by  the,  in  1899,    1  ;    in 

1900,  274 
Burgers,  Thomas,  President  of  the 

Transvaal  Republic,  issues  gold 

coins,  253,  254 
Burgred  of  Mercia,  coin  of,  266 


Caesarea,  Cappadocia,  coins  of,  367 
Caesarea  Paulas,  Trachonitis,  coin 

of,  294 

Calchedon,  Bithynia,  coin  of,  287 
Caligula,  coins  of,  207 
Capsa,  Macedonia,  coin  of,  275 
Caracalla,   coins  of,  8,  23,  29,  34, 


Carausius,  coin  of,  30,  48 
Cardiff,    Roman   coins   and    rings 

found  at  Sully,  27 
Carhayes,  find  of  Roman  coins  at, 

Carthage,  coin  of,  struck  in  Sicily, 

Cebren,  Troas,  restoration  of,   as 

Antiochia,  367 

Chalcetor,  Caria,  coins  of,  368 
Charles   I,    new   variety   of    half- 
groat  of,  88 

Cirta,  Numidia.  coins  of,  371 
Claudius   II,    Gothicus,    coins   of, 

215,  344 
Cleopatra     and    Antiochus     VIII 

(Grypus)  of  Syria,  coin  of,  25 
Cnidus,  Caria,  coins  of,  368 
Cnossus,  Crete,  coins  of,  366 
Cnut  of  England,  coin  of,  268 
Colbassa,  Pisidia,  coins  of,  22 
Colophon,   Ionia,    its    magistrate, 


Colybrassus,  Cilicia,  coin  of,  292 
Commodus,  coin  of,  1 1 
Constans  I,  coins  of,  354  et  seqq. 
Constantine  I,  coins  of,  1 1 1  et  seqq.  ; 

301  et  seqq. 
Constantine  II,    coins   of,    135   et 

seqq.  ;  324  et  seqq, 
Constantius  I,  Chlorus,   coins  of, 

110  ;  301  et  seqq. 
Constantius  II,  coins  of,  146  ;  346 

et  seqq. 

Corinth,  coins  of,  286,  365 
Corn,    distribution  of,   at  Tarsus, 

tesserae  used  at,  96 
Cos,  coins  of,  18,  368 
Cossura,  coins  of,  372 
Crannon,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  365 

Crete,  province  of,  coins  of,  366 

Crispina,  coin  of,  208 

Crispus,  coins  of,  135  et  seqq.  ;  324 

et  seqq. 

Cyrene,  Cyrenaica,  coins  of,  371 
Cyzicus,  Mysia,  coins  of,  367 


Dardanus,  Troas,  coin  of,  17 
Deities,  &c.,  on  Greek  coins,  372 
Delmatius,  coins  of,  358  et  seqq. 
Delos,  coins  of,  16,  287 
Delphi,  Phocis,  coins  of,  365 
Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  coin  of,  364 
Demetrius  II,  Nicator,  coin  of,  24 
Uictynna,  Crete,  coin  of,  366 
Diocletian,  coins  of,  29,  30,  32.  57 
Disselboom,     the,     on     Transvaal 

coins,  257 

Dyrrhachium,  Illyria,  coins  of,  365 


Eadgar  of  England,  coin  of,  267 
Eadred  of  Wessex,  coins  of,  266 
Eanred  of  North umbria,  coin  of, 


Ecgberht  of  Kent,  coin  of,  148 
Ecgberht,  or  Ecgbeorht,  of  Wes- 
sex and  his  coins,   66  ;  of  Kent- 
ish origin,  68  ;    strikes  coins  for 
Kent,   71  ;   expelled  from  Eng- 
land,   72 ;    visits    Charlemagne, 
73 ;  marries  St.  Ida,  74  ;  returns 
to   England,    75,    76 ;    conquers 
Kent,  79  ;  first  coinage  as  King 
of  "Wessex,   81  :   conquers  Mer- 
cia,  82  ;  strikes  coins  as  King  of 
Mercia,  82,  159  ;  his  other  mints, 
83  ;    his  titles  in  charters,    86 ; 
unpublished  coin  of,  161 
Edward  the  Confessor,  coin  of,  269 
Edward    III,   haJf-noble   of  third 
coinage   of,    162  ;    earliest  gold 
coins  of,  229,  231  et  seqq. ;  ward- 
robe counter  of,  242 
Edward  IV,  coins  of,  166,  171 
Edward  V,  coins  of,  166,  174 
Elagabalus,  coins  of,  30,  36 
Elea,  Epirus,  coin  of,  10 
Elis,  coins  of,  365 
Ellandune,  battle  of,  78 
Emporium,  Spain,  coin  of,  363 
England,  first  gold  coins  of,  218 
Ephesus,  Ionia,  coins  of,  289,  367 



Eni*ANOT2,  title  of,  on  Parthian 

coins,  194 

Etruria,  uncertain  silver  coin  of,  2 
Etruscilla,  coins  of,  30,  44 
Euromus,  Caria,  absorbed  in  My- 

lasa,  368 
EVANS,  SIE  JOHN,  K.C.B.  : — 

The  first  Gold  Coins  of  England, 

EXPECTATE  VENT  on  coins  of 

Carausius,  50 


Fausta,  coins  of,  147,  347  et  seqq. 
Faustina  junr.,  coins  of,  18,  207 
"Fides    Militum"     on    coins    of 

Caraufius,  56 
Finds  of  Coins,  Carhayes,  209 

Greek,  373 
,,         ,,         Groats  'of    Henry 

VI-VII,  166 
„         „         Sully,  27 
Florianus,  coins  of,  217 
Florin,  gold,  of  Edward  III,  232 

tt  seqq. 

Frederick  the  Great,  successes  of, 
medal,  180 


Gadara,  Decapolis,  coins  of,  369 
Gafulford,  battle  of,  78 
Galeria  Valeria,  coins  of,  308 
Gallienus,    coins  of,    23,  30,    106, 


Gaza,  Judaea,  coin  of,  370 
Gela,  Sicily,  coin  of,  364 
Gerasa,  Decapolis,  coin  of,  295 
Geta,  coin  of,  30,  35 
Gold  coins  of  England,   the  first, 

Gordian  III,  coins  of,   21,  24,  30, 

Goterzes,  King  of  Parthia,  legend 

on  his  coins,  93,  370 
GRANTLEY,  LOED,  F.S.A.  : — 

On   some  Unique    Anglo-Saxon 

coins,  148 

Greek  coins,  finds  of,  373 
Groats  of  Henry  VI-VII,  find  of, 

GRUBBER,  H.  A.,  F.S.A.  :  — 

Find  of  Roman  Coins  and  Gold 
Rings  at  Sully,  near  Cardiff, 

An  unpublished  Silver  Coin  of 

Verica,  264 
Phillip's  "  Token  Money  of  the 

Bank  of  England,"  notice  of, 

Gythium,  Laconia,  coin  of,  366 


Half-florin  or   Leopard,    gold,   of 

Edward  III,  233  et  seqq. 
Half -noble   of    third    coinage    of 

Edward  III,  162 
Hanniballianus,  coin  of,  359 
Harold  II,  coin  of,  269 
Harthaciiut,  coin  of,  268 
HAVEEFIELD,  F.,  F.S.A.  :— 

On    a   Hoard   of  Roman   Coins 
found  at  Carhayes,  Cornwall, 
Heahberht,  Bang  of  Kent,  coin  of, 


Helena,  coins  of,  147,  346  etseqq. 
Helm  or  Helmet,  gold  coin  of  Ed- 
ward III,  233  et  seqq. 
Henry  III,   gold  penny  of,  218  et 


Henry  VI,  coins  of,  166,  171,  174 
Henry  VII,  coins  of,  166,  175 
Heraclea,  Ionia,  coins  of,  367 

,,         Lucania,  coins  of,  363 
Heraea,  Arcadia,  coins  of,  366 
Herennius  Etruscus,  coin  of,    30, 

Herod  Philip  II  of  Judaea,  coin  of, 


Hierapytna,  Crete,  coin  of,  366 
Hieropolis-Bambyce,    Cyrrhestica, 

coins  of,  369 
HILL,  G.  F.,  M.A.  :— 

Kennedy's    "  Money  "   in  Has- 
tings'    "Dictionary     of     the 
Bible,"  notice  of,  270 
Bibliographical  Notes  on  Greek 

Numismatics,  363 
Himerus,   King  of  Parthia,   coins 

of,  193  et  seqq. 
HOWOHTH,       SIR      HENEY       H., 

K.C.T.E.  :— 

Ergberht,  King  of  the  West 
Saxons,  and  the  Kent  Men, 
and  his  coins,  66 


Imbros,  Thrace,  coins  of,  364 
Itanus,  Crete,  coins  of,  366 




Judaea,  coin  of  Herod  Philip  II, 


Julia  Domna,  coins  of,  29,  34 
Julia  Maesa,  coins  of,  30,  37 
Julia  Mamaea,  coins  of,  23,  30,  39, 


Julia  Paula,  coins  of,  30,  37 
Julia  Soaemias,  coins  of,  30,  37 


Kennedy's  "Money"  in  Hastings' 
"Dictionary  of  the  Bible"  no- 
ticed, 270 

Kent  conquered  by  Ecgbeorht,  79, 

Kruger,  Paul,  President  of  the 
South  African  Republic,  coinage 
of,  256 


Laelianus,  coins  of,  214 
Laertes,  Cilicia,  coin  of,  293 
Lampsacus,  Mysia,  coin  of,  17,  288 
Laodicea,  Canaan,  coins  of,  370 
Larissa,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  282 
LAWRENCE,  L.  A.  : — 

A  new    Variety    of    the    Half- 
Groat  of  Charles  I,  88 

The  Half-Noble  of    the  Third 
Coinage  of  Edward  III,  162 

Small  Hoard  of  Groats  of  Henry 

VI- VII,  166 
Leopard,  gold  coin  of  Edward  III, 

233  et  seqq. 
Licinius  I,  coins  of,    115  et  seqq.  ; 

307  et  seqq. 

Licinius  II,  coins  of,  325  et  seqq. 
London,  mint  of,  under  the  Con- 

stantines,  108 
LVNDONIA  CIVIT.   on  coin  of 

Ecgbeorht,  82 
Lycceius  of  Paeonia,  coin  of,  364 


Macrinus,  coin  of,  30,  35 
Magnetes,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  8 
Magydus,  Pamphylia,  coin  of,  19  ; 

numerals  on  coins  of,  20 
Mallus,  Cilicia,  coins  of,  368 
Marathus,  Phoenicia,  era  of,  370 
Marcus  Aurelius,  coins  of,   12,  19, 

29,  33 
Harium,  Cyprus,  coins  of,  369 

Marius,  coins  of,  214 

L' Atelier  monetaire  de  Londres 
(Londinium)  pendant  la  Pe- 
riode  Constantinienne,  108 

Classification  chronologique  des 
Emissions  monetaires  de  1' Ate- 
lier de  Siscia  pendant  la  Pe- 
riode  CoDstantinienne,  297 
Maximianus  Herculius,    coins   of, 

29,  30,  33,  59,  113  et  seqq.  ;  300 

et  seqq. 
Maximinus  I,  coins  of,  30,  39 

,,  II,  Daza,  coins  of ,  110 

etseqq. ;   299  et  seqq. 
METAAOT,   title  of,  on  Parthian 

coins,  191 

Megara,  Megaris,  coins  of,  365 
Mende,  Macedonia,  coins  of,  6 
Mercia  conquered  by  Ecgbeorht 

of  Wessex,  82 

Mesembria,  Thrace,  coin  of,  364 
Mesma,  Bruttii,  coin  of,  4 
Messana,  Sicily,  coin  of,  364 
Metapontum,  Lucania,  coin  of,  363 
Metrology  of  Greek  coins,  374 
Miletus,  Ionia,  coins  of,  367 
Mint-marks  on  coins  of  Henry  VI- 

VII,  classified,  167 
Mithradates  I,    King   of  Parthia, 

coins  of,  180  et  seqq. 
Mithradates  II,  King  of  Parthia, 

coins  of,  193  et  seqq. 
Mithradates  III,  King  of  Parthia, 

coins  of,  196  et  seqq. 
Myra,  Lycia,  coins  of,  368 


Nagidus,  Cilicia,  type  of  Aphro- 
dite, 368 

Neocaesarea,  Pontus,  coins  of,  366 

Nero,  coin  of,  8 

Nicaea,  Bithynia,  coin  of,  367 

NIKH*OPOY,  title  of,  on  Parthian 
coins,  193 


Odessus,  Tbrace,  coins  of,  364 
Oetaei,  the,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  282 
Olbasa,  Pisidia,  coin  of,  292 
OMAN,  C.,  M.A.  :— 

Unpublished   or  rare    Coins    of 
Smyrna  in  the  Bodleian  cabi- 
net, 203 
Orbiana,  coins  of,  30,  39 



Orodes,  King  of  Parthia,  coins  of, 

196  et  seqq. 
Graphemes,  King  of  Cappadocia, 

coins  of,  367 
OPGArNHS  or  OPAAFNO,  name 

of,  370 
O.  S.  initials  of  Otto  Schulz,  die 

engraver,  258 

Otacilia  Severa,  coins  of,  30,  43 
Otanes,  King  of  Parthia,  coins  of, 



Pagae,  Megaris,  coin  of,  11 
Parthian  coinage,    rearrangement 

of,  181 

Patrae,  Achaia,  coin  of,  365 
Pellene,  Achaia,  coin  of,  365 
Penny,  gold,  of  Henry  III,  208 

et  seqq. 

Perga,  Pamphylia,  coin  of,  290 
Pergamum,  Mysia,  coins  of,  367 
Perpecene,  Mygia,  coin  of,  367 
Phaestus,  Crete,  coin  of,  366 
Philadelphia    Decapolis,    title    of, 


4>IAEAAHNOS,  title  of,    on   Par- 
thian coins,  194 
Philip  I,  coins  of,  30,  42 

,,       II,  coins  of,  30,  43 
Philippopolis,  Thrace,  coin  of,  8 
Phillips,   Maberley,    his    "Token- 

Money  of  the  Bank  of  England  " 

noticed,  271 
Phraates  I,  King  of  Parthia,  coins 

of,  190  et  seqq. 
Phraates  II,  King  of  Parthia,  coins 

of,  186  et  seqq. 
Phraates  III,    King  of     Parthia, 

coins  of,  196  et  seqq. 
Phiaates   IV,      King  of   Parthia, 

coins  of,  89,  199,  202 
Phriapatius,  King  of  Parthia,  coins 

of,  184  et  seqq. 
Pisa,  Elis,  coin  of,  365 
Plautilla,  coin  of,  23 
Pogla,  Pisidia.  coin  of,  23 
Poly  rhenium,  Crete,  coin  of,  15 
Porto  Bello,  unpublished  medal  of, 

Portraiture  on   Greek  coins,  364, 

369,  370,  371,  372 
Postumus,  coins  of,  30,  47,  213 
Potidaea,  Macedonia,  coin  of,  276 
Praecus,  Crete,  coins  of,  366 
Praetoria,  mint  established  at,  261 

Priansus,  Crete,  coins  of,  366 
Probus,  coins  of,  217 
Psophis,  Arcadia,  coins  of,  366 
Ptolemy  I,  coins  of,  26,  371 
Ptolemy  I  and  II,  coins  of,  371 


Quarter-florin    or  Helm,  gold,  of 

Edward  III,  233  et  seqq. 
QuintiUus,  coins  of,  216 



Medals      of    Porto    Bello    and 

Frederick  the  Great,  180 
Rhaucus,  Crete,  coins  of,  366 
Rhizus  (?),  Thessaly,  coin  of,  9 
Richard  III,  coins  of,  166,  174 
Richborough,     supposed     Roman 

mint  under  Carausius,  52 
Rin'gs,    gold,    Roman,    found    at 

Sully,  near  Cardiff,  27,  63 
ROSTOWZEW,  M.  : — 

R.  S.  R.  on  coins  of  Carausius,  52, 



Sabina,  coin  of,  16 
Sagalassus,  Pisidia,  coins  of,  368 
St.  Ida  marries  Ecgberht,  74 
Salamis,   Cyprus,    coins    of  Eva- 

goras  I,  369 

Salonina,  coins  of,  30,  46,  213 
Saloninus,  coins  of,  30,  47,  208 
Scepsis,  Troas,  coins  of,  367 
Schulz,  Otto,  coin -en graver,  258 
Segusiavi,  Gaul,  coins  of,  363 
Seleucia,  Pitddia,  coin  of,  23 
Seleucus  I,  King  of  Syria,  coin  of, 


Selinus,  Sicily,  coin  of,  364 
Sepia  on  uncertain  coin  of  Etruria, 

Septimius  Severus,  coins  of,  17,  22, 

29,  34 

Severus    Alexander,    coins  of,  22, 

30,  38,  101 

Severus  II,  coins  of,   110  et  seqq., 

299  et  seqq. 

Side,  Pamphylia,  coin  of,  291 
Sinatruces,  King  of  Parthia,  coins 

of,  193  et  seqq. 



Siscia,   mint  of,  during  the   Con- 

stantine  period,  297 
Smyrna,    Ionia,   unpublished    and 

rare  coins   of,   203;    its  magis- 
trate, 367 
Soli-Pompeiopolis,  Cilicia,  coin  of, 

South  African  Eepublic,  coinage  of 

the,  2o2 
Spithridates,  Satrap  of  Ionia,  &c., 

coin  of,  289 
Storrie,  John,  on  coins  and  rings 

found  at  Sully,  27 
Stymphalus,  Arcadia,  coins  of,  366 
Sully,    Cardiff,   Roman  coins   and 

rings  found  at,  27 
Syracuse,  Sicily,  coins  of,  274,  364 
Syria,  kings  of,  their  coins,  369 


Tachos,  king  of  Egypt,  gold  coin 

of,  370 

Tacitus,  coins  of,  217 
Tarentum,  Calabria,  coins  of,  364 
Tarsus,  Cilicia,  tesserae  of,  96,  103 ; 

coins  of,  369 

Terina,  Bruttium,  coins  of,  364 
Tesserae  of  Tarsus,  on  distribution 

of  corn,  96,  103 
Tetricus  I,  coins  of,  215 
Tetricus  II,  coins  of,  215 
Thebes,  Boeotia,  coin  of,  11 
eEOnATOPOS,   title  of,  on   Par- 
thian coins,  192 
6EOT,   title   of,  on  Parthian   and 

Bactrian  coins,  94,  95,  192 
Thyrrhemm,    Acarnania,  coin   of, 

Tiridates,  king  of  Parthia,  coins  of, 

190  et  seqq. 

Titiopolis,  Cilicia,  coin  of,  293 
Trajan  Decius,  coins  of,  30,  43 

Transvaal  arms,  error  in,  on  coin- 
age, 257 

Trebonianus  Gallus,  coins  of,  30, 

Tripolis,  Phoenicia,  Actian  era  of, 

Tyre,  Phoenicia,  era  of  Alexander, 


Uranopolis,  Macedon,  coin  of,  364 


Valerian  I,  coins  of,  30,  45,  212 
Valerian  II,  coins  of,  30,  47 
Verbe,  Pisidia,  coins  of,  23 
Verica,  unpublished  silver  coin  of, 


Vernon,  Admiral,  medal  of,  180 
Victorinus,  coins  of,  214 
Viminiacum,  Moesia,  coin  of,  364 
Volusian,  coins  of,  30,  45 
Vonones  I,  king  of  Parthia,  legend 

on  his  coins,  93 


Wardrobe  counter  of  Edward  III, 

Wiglaf,  king  of  Mercia,   expelled 

by  Ecgberht,  82  ;  his  return,  83 

Greek  Coins  acquired  by  the 
British  Museum  in  1899,  1  ; 
in  1900,  244 

Otanes  and  Phraates  IV,  89 
On    the    Re-arrangement    of 
Parthian  Coinage,  181 


Zancle,  Sicily,  coin  of,  5 

END    OF    VOL.    XX. 


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THIRD  SERIES.     VOLS.  XL— XX.     1891—1900. 



ALISCHAN,  S.  M.  :— 

Posidium  in    Coele-Syria,  xviii. 

AMEDROZ,  H.  F.  :— 

On  Arabic  Coins,  xiii.  76 


A  Hoard  of  Roman  Coins  found 

at  Bishop's    Wood,    Ross- on - 

Wye,  xvi.  209 

Coin- Types  of  Asia  Minor,  xii. 

Some  rare  or  unpublished  Greek 

Coins,  xiii.  21 

Inedited  gold  Crown  of  James  V 

with  Name  of  John,  Duke  of 

Albany,  xi.  203 
BOYD,  W.  C.  :— 

A  Find  of  Roman  Denarii  near 

Cambridge,  xvii.  119 
Some   unpublished   Varieties   of 

Saxon  Coins,  xx.  265 


F.S.A.  :— 
Coins  of  the  Beni  Rasul,   &c., 

xiv.  88 
Note  on  a  gold  Coin  of  Taghlak 

Shah,  xiv.  185 
The  Coinages  of  Cutch  and  Ka- 

thiawar,  xv.  59 
Coins  of  the  Bahmani  Dynasty, 

xviii.  259 
CROWTHER,      REV.      G.      F., 

M.A.  :— 
Pennies  of  William   I  and    II, 

xi.  25 

On  a  Pax  Penny  attributed  to 

Witney,  xi.  161 


Coins  t  f  the  Kushans  or  Great 
Yue-ti,  xii.  40,  98 

Coins  of  the  Later  Indo- Scy- 
thians : — Great  Kushans,  xiii. 
93  ;  Scytho-Sassanians,  166  ; 
Little  Kushans,  184  ;  Ephtha- 
lites  or  White  Huns,  xiv. 

EARLE-FOX,  H.  B.  :— 

Greek  Coins    in   the   Earle-Fox 

Collection,  xviii.  285 
ELLIS,     LIEUT.-COL.    H.    LES- 

British    Copper  Tokens  of  the 
Straits   Settlements   and   Ma- 
layan Archipelago,  xv.  135 
ELY,  TALFOURD,  F.S.A.  :— 

The  Process  of  Coining  as  seen 
in  a  Wail-Painting  at  Pompeii, 
xvi.  53 

EVANS,    ARTHUR    J.,    M.A., 
F.S.A.  :- 

Syracusan  "Medallions"  and 
their  Engravers,  xi.  205 

A  Hoard  of  Coins  recently  di^- 
covered  in  Western  Sicily, 
xi.  364 

Date  of  the  Deposit  of  the  Naxos 
Hoard,  xi.  374 

Contributions  to  Sicilian  Numis- 
matics, xiv.  189  ;  xvi.  85 

Holm's  Geschichte  des  Sicilischen 
Munzwesms,  notice  of,  xviii. 


Hill's    Handbook  of    Greek    and 

Roman    Coins,    notice  of,   xix. 

EVANS,     SIR     JOHN,    K  C.B.. 

D.C.L.,  F.R.S. :— 
On   some   rare    or    unpublished 

Roman  Medallions,  xi.  152 
A  new  Coin  of  Dubnovellauniis, 

xi.  198 
Find  of  Coins  at  Colchester,  xi. 

Coins  of  Henry  I  found  in  Italy, 

xii.  83 
Atlas   et   Catalogue  des  Monnaies 

Gauloises     de     la    Bibliotheque 

Nationale,     Paris,    notice    of, 

xii.  234 

Find  of  Coins  at  Nesboe,  Nor- 
way, xiii.  36 
Reber's  Fragments  numismatiques 

sur  le  Canton  d'Argovie,  notice 

of,  xiii.  149 
A  new  Saxon  Mint,  Weardbyrig, 

xiii.  220 

Hertfordshire  Tokens,  xiii.  282 
A  small  Hoard  of  &axon  sceattas 

found  near    Cambridge,    xiv. 


The  Mint  of  Gothabyrig,  xv.  45 
Wardrobe  Counters  of   Edward 

III,  xv.  168 
Some  rare  or  unpublished  Roman 

Medallions,  xvi.  40 
Ancient  British  Coin  found  near 

Watford,  xvi.  183 
Roman  Coins  found  at  Bricken- 

donbury,  Herts,  xvi.  191 
A  Hoard  of  Roman  Coins,  xviii. 

Barnstaple  as  a  Minting-Place, 

xviii.  274 
Rawlings'    Story  of  the   British 

Coinage,  notice  of,  xviii.  279 
Ancient  British  Coin  of  Verulam 

found    at     Ostend,    Belgium, 

xix.  262 

The  First  Gold  Coins  of  Eng- 
land, xx.  218 
EVANS,      SIR    JOHN,    K.C.B., 

and  NAPIER,   PKOF.  A.    S., 

M.A.  :— 
Barnstaple  as  a  Minting-Place, 

xviii.  274 

FRAZER,  DE.  W.  :  — 

An  unde.scribed   Huguenot  Me- 
dal (?),  xvi.  271 

Bronze  Medallion  on  the  Relief 

of  Antwerp  in  1577,  xvi.  273 
Three  rare  Medals  by  W.  Mos- 

sop,  xvii.  90 
Medallion  of  the  Rt.  Hon.  John 

Beresford  and  his  Wife,  xvii. 



LITT.D.,  F.S.A.  :— 
Babelon'  s      Monnaies     Grecques, 

Hois   de   Syiie,   notice  of,    xi. 


Undescribed     Penny    of     King 

John,  xvii.  249 

GRANTLEY,  LOED,  F  S.A.  :— 
On  a  unique  Styca  of  Ethelred  I 

of  Northumbria,  xii.  87 
On  a  unique  Styca  of  Alchred  of 

Northumbria,  xiii.  267 
Note  on  a  Penny  of  Offa  with 

New    Type  of   Reverse,  xvi. 


On  the  North  Humbrian  Coin- 
age of  A.D.  758-808,  xvii.  134 
On  some    Unique  Anglo-Saxon 

Coins,  xx.  148 

F.R.S.:  — 
Rare  Greek  Coins  in  the  Green - 

well  Collection,  xiii.  81  ;  xvii. 


GRUEBER,  H.  A.,  F.S.A.  :  — 
English   Personal    Medals  from 

1760,  xi.  65,   377  ;    xii.    227, 

Treasure -trove  from   Whaplode, 

Lincolnshire,  xi.  203 
Badge    of    the    Guild   of    Silk, 

Woollen     and     Clothworkers 

and  Mercers   Of    Middleburg-, 

xii.  182 
Forgeries  of  Roman  Large  Brass 

Coins,  xii.  255 
Higgins'  Copper  Coins  of  Europe, 

notice  of,  xiii.  239 
A  Find  of  Anglo-Saxon  Coins, 

xiv.  29 
Montagu's   Copper  and   Tin  Coin- 

ac/e,   &c.,   2nd  ed.,  notice   of, 

xiv.  184 

An  unpublished  Medal  of  Hen- 
rietta Maria,  xiv.  188 
Ambrosoli's  Manuale   di  Numis- 

fnatica,  2nd  ed.,  notice  of,  XY. 



Gnecchi's  Monete  Romane,  notice 

of,  xv.  320 
Phoenix   Medalet  of  Elizabeth, 

xvi.  274 
Medal  illustrating1  the  Condition 

of  France  in  1709,  xvi.  275 
A   Find  of  Coins  at  East  Wor- 

lington,  xvii.  145 
A   Find   of   Coins   at   Crediton, 

xvii.  159 
Bahrfeldt's    Miinzkunde    der    r'6- 

mischen    Republik,    notice    of, 

xvii.  245 
Irwin's   War  Medals,  &c.,  1588- 

1898,  notice  of,  xix.  83 
A  rare  Penny  of  Aethelred  II, 

xix.  344 
Find  of  Roman  Coins  and  Gold 

Rings  at  Sully,  near  Cardiff, 

xx.  27 
An  unpublished  Silver  Coin  of 

Verica,  xx.  264 
Phillips'     Token     Money    of   the 

Bank  of  England,    notice   of, 

xx.  271 
GRUEBER,  H.  A .,   F.S.A.,  and 

LAWRENCK,  L.  A.  :— 
The  Balcombe  Find,  xviii.  8 

HASLUCK,  F.  W.  :— 

Roman  Denarii  found  near  Cam- 
bridge, xvii.  251 
HAVERFIELD,     F.,     M.A., 

F.S.A.  :— 
On  a   Hoard  of  Roman    Coins 

found  at  Carhayes,  Cornwall, 

xx.  209 
HEAD,  BARCLAY  V.,   D.C.L., 

PH.D.  :— 
Archaic     Coins      probably      of 

Cyrene,  xi.  1 
Mtvue  Numismatique,  notice  of  ; 

1890,  xi.  105;    1891,  ib.  418; 

1891,  xii.   174;    1892,  ib.  250, 
326  ;  xiii.  73  ;    1893,  ib.  146, 
230  ;  xiv.  81  ;    1894,   ib.   1»0, 
340  ;  xv.  316  ;   1896,  xvi.  345 

Zeitschrift fur  Nnmismatik,  notice 

of;  1890,  xi.  106;   1H92,  xii. 

177  ;  xiii.  74  ;  1893,  xiii.  232  ; 

xiv.    83;     1894-5,    xv.    319; 

1896,  xvi.  347 
Svoronos'   Ancient    Greek    Coins, 

Ephemeris,     It 90,    notice    of, 

xi.  110 
Raima  \  's  Historical  Geography  of 

Asia  Minor ,  notice  of,  xi.  Ill 

Babelon's  Monnaies  des   Rois  de 

Sidon,  notice  of,  xi.  422 
Ridgeway's    Origin   of   Metallic 

Currency,  notice  of,  xii.  247 
Schlosser's    Catalogue    of    Grtek 

Coins,  Vienna  Museum,  Thessaly 

to  Epirus,  notice  of,  xiii.  72 
Coins  recently  attributed  to  Ere- 

tria,  xiii.  158 
The  Initial  Coinage  of  Athens, 

&c.,  xiii.  241 
Svoronos'  Coin  Cabinet  at  Athens, 

notice  of,  xiii.  234 
Babelon's       Melanges       Numis- 

matiques,  notice  of,  xiii.  236 
Babelon's  Les  Perses  Achemenides, 

$c.,  notice  of,  xiii.  336 
Lehmann's  Altbabylonische  Maas- 

und  Gewichtssystem,  notice  of, 

xiv.  77 
Berlin   Coin    Catalogue,   Vol.  iii. 

Pt.    I,     Etruria    to    Calabria, 

notice  of,  xiv.  179 
Svoronos'  Britomartis,  $c.,  notice 

of,  xiv.  182 
Blanchet's    Monnaies     Grecques, 

notice  of,  xiv.  184 
Gabrici's       Numismatica       delf 

Inter  a,  notice  of,  xiv.  339 
Majr's     Coins     of    Malta,    $c.t 

notice  of,  xiv.  343 
Minton's      Numismatic      Biblio- 
graphy, notice  of,  xvii.  246 
Macdonald's  Catalogue  of  Greek 

Coins  in  the  Hunterian   Collec- 
tion, notice  of,  xix.  177 
Berlin    Academy,    Die    Antiken 

Munzen     Nord  -  Griechenlands, 

Vol.  i.   Pt.  1,  notice  of,   xix. 


HILL,  G.  F.,  M.A.  :— 
Neapolis  Datenon,  xiii.  255 
The  Coinage    of    Lycia    to  the 

Time  of  Alexander  the  Great, 
xv.  1 
Miiller's     Antike      Numismatik, 

notice  of,  xv.  161 
A  Portrait  of  Perseus  of  Mace- 

don,  xvi.  34 
Oinoanda,    a    new    Mint,    xvii. 


Clerk's   Catalogue  of  the  Coins  of 
the  Achcean  League,  notice  of, 
xvii.  246 
Solon's   Reform    of    the    Attic 

SUndard,  xvii.  284 
Cartimandua,  xvii.  293 


Posidium  in  Syria,  xviii.  246 
Babelon's  Origines  dela  Jfonnaie, 

notice  of,  xviii.  278 
Roman  'Aurei    from    Pudukota, 

xviii.  304 
Bibliographical  Notes  on  Greek 

Numismatics,  xviii.  320  ;  xix. 

361 ;  xx.  363 
Defacement    of    Roman    Aurei 

from  Pudukota,  xix.  82 
A    hoard    of    Cyrenaic    bronze 

Coins,  xix.  175 
Olba,    Cennatis,    Lalassis,   xix. 

Kennedy's     article,    Money,    in 

Hastings'    Dictionary    of   the 

Bible,  notice  of,  xx.  270 
HOBLYN,       RICHARD        A., 

F.S.A.  :— 
An    unpublished    Halfpenny  of 

Elizabeth,  xiv.  84 
Rare  pattern  Farthing  or  Jetton 

of  Mary  II,  xix.  362 

K.C.I.E.,  F.R.S. :— 
Coins     recently     attributed     to 

Eretria,  xiii.  153 
The  Initial  Coinage  of  Athens, 

&c.,  xiii.  247 
Some     early    Coins     struck     in. 

Britain,  xiii.  259 
Ecgberht,    King    of    the   West 

Saxons   and    the   Kent   Men, 

and  his  Coins,  xx.  66 

IMHOOF-BLUMER,  DR.  F.  :  — 
Griechische  Miinzen,  xv.  269 

JOHNSTON,  J.  M.  C.  :— 

Coin  of   Nadir    Shah   struck  at 

Bokhara,  xii.  88 
Coins  of  Nasir-ed-Dm  struck  at 

Shooster  and  Herat,  xii.  184 
Gold  and  Silver  Bar- money  of 

Mozambique,  xii.  330 
Mohammadan  Coins,  xix.  265 

KENYON,  R.  LL.,  M.A.  :— 
The   Shrewsbury  Mint  and    its 
Officers     under     Henry    III, 
xix.  112 
KING,      L.     WHITE,     C.S.I., 

F.S.A.  :— 

History  and  Coinage  of  the 
Barakzai  Dynasty  of  Afghan- 
istan, xvi.  277 

KING,     L.      WHITE,      C.S.I., 
F  S.A.,     and     VOST,     DB. 

W.  :  — 

Novelties    in    Moghul      Coins, 
xvi.  155 

LAMBROS,  J.  P.  :— 

On  a  Coin  of  Hierapytna  in 
Crete,  hitherto  wrongly  attri- 
buted, xvii.  31 

LEY, M.R.A.S.  :— 

Fasti  Arabici,  xii.  160 
LATCHMORE,  F.  :  — 

Saxon  Coins  found  near  Hitchin, 

xvii.  248 
LAWRENCE,  L.  A.  :  — 

English  Silver  Coins  issued  be- 
tween 1461-1483,  xi.  180 

On  a  Hoard  of  Groats  of  the 
Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth  Cen- 
turies, xii.  278 

Coinage  of  Aethelbald,  xiii.  40 

Silver  Coins  of  Edward  III, 
xiii.  46 

A  Rare  Penny  of  King  Stephen, 
&o.,  xv.  110 

A  Find  of  Coins  chiefly  of  the 
time  of  Edward  IV,  xvi. 

On  some  Coins  of  William  I  and 
II,  xvii.  226 

On  a  Hoard  of  Short -cross  Pen- 
nies, xvii.  235 

On  the  Mint  of  Barnstaple, 
xvii.  302 

On  some  Forgeries  of  the  Coins 
of  Henry  I  ana  his  successors, 
xix.  241 

A  new  Variety  of  the  Half- 
groat  of  CharJes  I,  xx.  88 

On  the  Half-noble  of  the  Third 
Coinage  of  Edward  III,  xx. 

On  a  small  Hoard  of  Groats  of 
Henry  VI  to  Henry  VII, 
xx.  166 

LAWRENCE,     L.     A.,    and 
GRUEBER,  H.  A.  :— 

The  Balcombe  Find,  xviii.  8 

Coins    and    Tokens  of    Ceylon, 

xv.  211 
LYELL,  A.  H.,  F.S.A.  :— 

George  Fordyce  and  John  Hun- 
ter, medal  of,  xv.  166 


MACDONALD,  G.,  M.A.  :— 
Notes  on  Combe's  Catalogue  of 

the  Hunter  Cabinet,  xvi.  144 
A  Find  of  Coins  in  the  Lipari 

Islands,  xvi.  185 
The  Legend  IATON  on  Coins  of 

Himera,  xviii.  185 
The  Amphora  Letters  on  Coins 

of  Athens,  xix.  288 

Essai   de   Classification  chrono- 

logique  des  Emissions  mone- 

taires  de  1' Atelier  d'Antioche 

pendant  la   Periode  constan- 

tinienne,  xix.  208 
L' Atelier  monetaire  de  Londres 

(Londinium)       pendant        la 

Periode    constantinienne,    xx. 

Classification  chronologique  des 

Emissions       monetaires       de 

1' Atelier  de  Siscia  pendant  la 

Periude    constantinienne,    xx. 


MONTAGU,  H.,  F.S.A.:  — 
The     Anglo-Saxon      Mints    of 

Chester  and  Leicester,  xi.  12 
Engel     and      Serrure's      Traite 

de     Numismalique     du    Moyen 

Age,    Vol.  i.,    notice    of,    xi. 

The  Durham  Pennies  of  Bishops 

de     Bury   and    Hatfield,  xi. 

Some    unpublished     and     rare 

Greek  Coins  in  the  Montagu 

Collection,  xii.  22 
Find  of  Groats  at  Wallingfoid, 

xii.  220 
A  Find  of  Coins  at  Fischenich, 

near  Cologne,  xiii.  26 
Engel  and   Serrure's    Traite   de 

Numismatique  du  Moyen  Age, 

Vol.  ii.,  notice  of,  xiv.  294 
Unpublished     Gold      Coins    of 

James  I,  xiv.  344 
Coinage  of  Edward  V,  xv.  117 
Unpublished  Gold  Coins  of  Eliza- 
beth, xv.  165 
Further  Notes  concerning  Bishop 

de    Bury    and    the    Durham 

Coinage,  xv.  290 
Rare   and  unpublished    Roman 

Gold   Coins   in   the   Montagu 

Collection,  xvii.  35 
The  meaning  of  a  Monogram  on 

Denarii  of  the  Fonteia  Family, 
xv.  290 

MYRES,  J.  L.,  F.S.A.  :— 
Some  Bronze  Coins  from  Crete, 
xiv.  89 

NAPIER,    PROF.    A.    S.,   M.A., 
and    EVANS,    SIB    JOHN, 
K.C.B.  :— 
Barnstaple  as  a  Minting-Place, 

xviii.  274 
NELSON,  P.,  M.B.  :- 

Coinage   of    the    Isle    of    Man, 
xix.  35 

OMAN,  C.  W.  C.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.:— 
Half  and  quarter  obols  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great,  xiv.  186 
Unpublished    or  rare   Coins  of 
Smyrna      in      the      Bodleian 
Cabinet,  xx.  203 

PACKE,  A.  E.,  F.S.A.  :— 

Some    Notes    on    the   Coins    of 

Henry  VII,  xi.  34 
The  Types  and  Legends  of  the 
Mediaeval  and  Later  Coins  of 
England,  xii.  257 
Coinage  of  the  Norman  Kings, 

xiii.  129 

Ryal  of  Henry  VII,  xiii.  240 
The  Coinage  as  affected  by  the 
Administration  of   Henry  II, 
xv.  51 
An  Agreement  to  Pay  Money  in 

1464,  xv.  164 

The  Coins  of  Stephen,  xvi.  59 

Baronial  Coin  of  the  Reign   of 

Stephen,  xvi.  275 
PEARSE,        GENERAL        G., 

G.C.B.  :— 
Unpublished  Medal    of    Coorg, 

xvii.  249 

PEERS,  C.  R.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  :— 
Swiss  Bracteates  in  the  British 

Museum,  xix.  12 

Sur  un  Tetradrachme  de  Nabis, 

xviii.  1 
Deere  t     de     Cyzique    pour    un 

Antandrien,  xix.  1 
PRITCHARD,  J.  E.,  F.S.A.  :— 
Find  of  Roman  Coins  near  Cad- 
bury  Camp,  xvi.  238 


Bristol  Tokens  of  the  Sixteenth 
and  Seventeenth  Centuries, 
xix.  350 

HA  PS  ON,       E.       J.,       M.A., 
M.R.A.S.  :— 

Notes  on  Gupta  Coins,  xi.  48 

Zay's  Hist.  Mon.  des  Colonies 
Franfaises,  notice  of,  xii.  178 

Markoif's  Unpublished  Coins  of  the 
^Lrsacidce,  notice  of,  xiii.  203 

Webb's  Currencies  of  the  Hindu 
States  of  Rajputdua,  notice  of, 
xiii.  338 

Cunningham's  Coins  of  Mediaeval 
India,  notice  of,  xiv.  343 

Copper  Coinage  of  Kumara 
Gupta,  xv.  167 

The  Attribution  of  Certain  Silver 
Coins  of  Sansaiiian  Fabric,  xvi. 

An  Unpublished  Variety  of  the 

Porto    Bello    Medal ;     and    a 

Medal    on    the    Successes     of 

Frederick  the  Great,  xx.  180 

RIDGE  WAY,  PBOF.  W.,  M.A.  :  — 

An  Unpublished  Penny  of  Arch- 
bishop Cranmer,  xi.  418 

How  far  could  the  Greeks  deter- 
mine   the   Fineness    of    Gold 
and  Silver  Coins?,  xv.  104 
RODGERS,  C.  J.  :— 

Two  new  Coins  from  the  Panjab, 
xvi.  268 

On  a  new  Coin  of  Aspa-Varma, 
xix.  176 

Roman   Family   Coins  found  in 

India,  xix.  263 

A£2PEA  CITOY   TAPCQ,  xx.  96 

SANDEMAN,    LT.-COL.    J.   G., 

F.S.A.:  — 
On  the  Bezant  of  James  I,  xvi. 

SCHINDLER,    GEN.    A.    HOU- 

TUM:  — 

Curiosities  in  the  .Imperial  Per- 
sian Treasury,  xviii.  93 
SELTMANN,  E.  J. :  - 

Supposed  Signs  of  Value  on  Early 

(Joins  of  Himera,  xvii.  1 
The    Type     known     as     "  The 
Demos  "  on  coins  of  Rhegium, 
xvii.  173 

The  Picture  of  a  Roman  Mint  in 
the  House  of  the  Vettii,  xviii. 

The  Seated  Figure  on  Silver 
Coins  of  Rhegium,  xix.  5 

Nummi  Serrati  and  Astral  Coin- 
types,  xix.  322 
SIX,  DR.  J.  P.:— 

Monnaies  Grecques,  Inedites  et 
Incertaines,  xiv.  297  ;  xv. 
169;  xvii.  190 

Monnaies  Grecques,  xviii.  193 

Rhegiutn-locastos,  xviii.  281 

Silver  Coin  of    En-Nasir,  xvii. 

STEIN,  M.  A.,  PH.D.  :— 

Notes  on  the  Monetary  System 

of  Ancient  Kasmlr,  xix.  125 
SVORONOS,  J.  N.  :— 

Tityros  or  Tisyros,  xi.  417 

THEOBALD,  W.  :— 

N  ote  on  the  Defacement  of  Roman 
Aurei     from    Pudukota,   xix. 

A  further  Discovery  of  Roman 
Coins  in  Southern  India,  xi. 

VOST,  DR.  W.,  and   KING,  L. 

WHITE,  C.S.I.,  F.S.A. 
Novelties  in  Moghul  Coins,  xvi. 

C.M.G.  :  — 

Notes  on  Coins  found  in  Cyprus, 

xi.  140 
Notes  on  some  Mediaeval  Coins 

of  Cyprus,  xii.  209 
WEBER,    F.    PARKES,    M.D., 

F.S.A.  :  — 
Find  of  Roman  Coins  at  Cologne, 

xii.  182 
Seventeenth- Century     Medalet, 

xii.  253 
A  Portrait  Medal  of  Paracelsus 

on  his  Death,  xiii.  60 
Richard,  Eari  of  Cornwall,  and 

his    corns,    as    King    of    the 

Romans,  xiii.  278 
Medals   and  Medallions  of    the 

Nineteenth  Century,  relating  to 

England,  by  Foreign  Artists, 

xiii.  286 ;  xiv.  191 


Note  on  the  Arms  of  Richard, 

Earl  of  Cornwall,  xiv.  87 
Medal  of  Lieut.-Col.  Sir  P.  Ross, 

xiv.  «7 
Portrait    Medal    of    Paracelsus, 

xv.  154 
Medals  of  Centenarians,  &c.,  xv. 

301  ;  xvii.  309 
Perkins'    School  Tokens  of   the 

Seventeenth       Century,     xvi. 


The  Jenner  Medal,  xvi,  348 
Medals  of  Priam,  Augustus,  &c., 

attributed  to  Alessandro  Ces- 

sati,  xvii.  314 
Medals    by    W.    Mossop,    xvii. 

WEBER,      SIR      HERMANN, 

On  Some  Unpublished  or  Rare 

Greek    Coins,  xii.    185,    331  ; 

xvi.  1 

Coins  of  Mende,  xviii.  251 
On  Finds  of  Archaic  Greek  Coins 

in  Lower  E^ypt,  xix.  269 
WHYMPER,  E.  :— 

Discovery  of  Roman  Coins  on  the 

Summit  of  the  Theodule  Pass, 

xvii.  127 

Svoronos'    Numismatique     de    la 

Crlte  Ancienne,  notice  of,  xi. 

Corrections  as  to  Greek  Coins  in 

the  British  Museum,  xi.  116 
Greek    Coins    acquired    by    the 

British  Museum    in   1890,  xi. 

117;  in  1891,  xii.  1;  in   1892, 

xiii.l  ;  in  1893,  xiv.  1 ;  in  1894, 

xv.  89;  in  1895,  xvi.  85;  in 

1896,  xvii.  93  ;  in  1897,  xviii. 

97  ;  in  1898,  xix.  85  ;   in  1899, 

xx.  1 ;  in  1900,  ib.  273 
Eupolemus,  xi.  135 
Ambrosoli's  Numismatica,  notice 

of,  xi.  425 
Svoronos'    Coins    relating  to    the 

Nurture  of  the  Infant  Zeus  in 

Crete,  notice  of,  xiii.  237 
Tickets  of    Vauxhall    Gardens, 

xviii.  73 

Otanes  and  Phraates  IV,  xx.  89 
On      the      Re-arrangement      of 

Parthian  Coinage,  xx.  181 


VOLS.  XI.— XX.      1891—1900. 


Aachen,     coins     struck     at,    xiii. 

Aargau,     Canton,    coins    of,  xiii. 

Abbasi  Khalif,  coin  of  G-hurshls- 

tan,  xiv.  88 
Abbasi  Khalif s,  coins  of,  xiii.  160, 

170,  172  ;  xix.  265 
Abdera,  Thrace,    coins   of,  xii.   3, 

27;  xiii.  4,  87;  xvi.   11;    xvii. 

273  ;  xviii.  100  ;  xx.  278 
Abdsasan,   satrap  of  Sinope,  coin 

of,  xii.  253  ;  xiii.  7 
Abd-ur- Rahman,  cuins  of,  xvi.  307, 


Aberystwith  shillings,  xvii.  152 
Abramson    or     Abrahamson,    A., 

medallist,  xiv.  148 
Acarnania,  coins  of,  xii.  9 
Accilaeum,   Phrygia,  coins  of,  xx. 

Ace,    Galilaea.    era   of   Alexander 

the  Great,  xx.  370 
Achaean  League,  coins  of  the,  xx. 


Achaia,  coins  of,  xix.  254 
Ad  ana,  Cilicia,  coins  of ,  xv   192 
Adramyteum,  Mysia,  coins  of,  xiv. 

10;  xviii.  107 
Aegae,   Macedonia,   coins   of,   xii. 

5;  xv.  203 
Aegean  Islands,  coins  of  the,  xviii. 

Aeeina,  coins  of,  xi.  127  ;  xiii.  5  ; 

xix.  273  ;  xx.  285 
Aegium,  Achaia,    coins   of,    xviii. 

292,  328  ;  xx.  12 
Aelfwald  I,  King  of  Northumbria, 

coins  of,  xvii.  137 
Aelf  wald  II,  King  of  Northumbria, 

coins  of,  xvii.  140 
Aelia  Flaccilla,  coius  of,  xii.  180 

Aelius  Caesar,  coins  of,  xvii.  59; 

xviii.  136,  139 

Aemilianus,  coin  of,  xvii.  85 
Aenus,   Thrace,  coins  of,  xi.  118  ; 

xii.  4,  188  ;  xvii.  274 
Aeolis,  coins  of,  xix.  256 
"  Aes  signatum,"  xvii.  95 
Aethelbald,  King  of  Wessex,  coins 

of,  xiii.  40 
Aetheldaed  of  Mercia,  her  history, 

xiii.  222 
Aethelred  I,  King  of  Northumbria, 

styca  of,  xii.  87 
Aethelred  I,  King  of  "Wessex,  coin 

of,  xvii.  248 

Aethelred  II,   King  of  Northum- 
bria, coins  of,  xx.  266 
Aethelred   II,    King    of    Wessex, 

coins  of,   xiii.  36  ;  xv.  45  ;  xvii. 

304  ;  xix.  344  ;  xx.  267 
Aethelstan  I,  King  of  East  Auglia, 

coins  of,  xiv.  51 
Aethelstan,  King  of  Wessex,  coins 

of,  xiii.  220 
Aethelwulf ,  King  of  Wessex,  coins 

of,  xiv.  67  ;  a  new  variety,  xx. 

Aethelwulf,   King  of  Wessex,  and 

Berhtwulf,     King     of    Mercia, 

unique  coin  of,  xx.  154 
Aetolian  League,  coin  of,  xi.  126 
Aezani,  Phrygia,  coin  of,  xix.  103 
Afghanistan,  coins  of,  xvi.  277 
Agathocleg,  African  gold  stater  of, 

xiv.  237 
Agathopolis,  Thracian  Chersonese, 

coin  of,  xvi.  88 
"  Agnus    Dei  "     type    on    Saxon 

coins,  xi.  344 
Agreement  to  pay  money  in  1454, 

ihe  performance  of,  xv.  164 
Agrippa,  large  coin  of,  xi.  153 
Agrippina  and  Caligula,  coin  of, 

xviii.  309 


Agrippina  and  Nero,  coin  of,  xvii.  44 
Ahmad  Shah  Wall  Bahraan,  coing 

of,  xviii.  266 
Ailios,  dynast  of  Scythia,  coin  of, 

xix.  89 
Ajax,  son  of  Teucer,  coins  of,  xix. 

Aka  Muhammad  Khan,  coins  of, 

xviii.  93 

Akbar,  coins  of,  xvi.  160,  179 
Akragas,  Sicily,  coins  of,  xi.  365  ; 

xiv.  209 
Ala-ad-Dm  Ahmad  Shah,  coins  of, 

xviii.  267 
Ala-ad-Din    Hasan    Shah   Gangu 

Bahmani,  coins  of,  xviii-  263 
Ala-ad-Dm  Humayun  Shah,  coins 

of,  xviii.  268 
Alabanda,   Caria,  under   name   of 

Antiochia,  xx.  368 
Alalia  (?),  Corsica,  coin  of,  xii.  185 
Alamgir  II,  coins  of,  xvi.  175 
Albany,  John,  Duke  of,  and  James 

V  of  Scotland,   gold  crown  of, 

xi.  203 
Albinus,  Clodius,    coins   of,    xvii. 

120;  xviii.  150 
Albiruni  on  the  Vikrama  and  Saka 

eras,  xiv.  251 
Alchred,    King    of    Northumbria, 

stycas  of,  xiii.  267  ;  xvii.  135 
Alexander  I  of  Macedon,  coins  of, 

xvi.  16  ;  xvii.  277 
Alexander  I.I,   Zebina,    of    Syria, 

coins  of,  xii.  36  ;  xvii.  115 
Alexander  III  (the  Great)   of  Ma- 
cedon,  coins   of,    xi.    122  ;    xii. 

26;    xiii.    3,   11  ;    xiv.    3,    186; 

xv.  199 ;    xvii.    101  ;    xviii.    99 ; 

xx.  277 
Alexander  III  (the  Great),  coins  of 

Side  under,  xvii.  196 
Alexander  III  (the  Great),  era  of, 

in  Phoenicia,  xx.  369 
Alexander  III  (the  Great),  medal 

of,  xvii.  314 

Alexander  III  (the  Great),  portrai- 
ture of,  xx.  364 
Alexander  III  of  Scotland,   coins 

of,  xviii.  10,  36 
Alexander  IV,  Aegus,  coin  of,  xii . 

26;  portrait  of,  xx.  371 
Alexander,   son  of   Crateros,   coin 

of,  struck  at  Carystus,  xiv.  299 
Alexander,  tyrant  of  Pherae,  coins 

of,  xi.  124  ;  xvii.  104 
Alexander  Bala,  coins  of,  XT.  148 

Alexander    Severus,    see    Severus, 

Alexandria,  Egypt,  imperial  coins 

of,  xvii.  117;  xx.  371 
Alexandria,  Troas,  coins  of,  xviii. 

109 ;  xix.  98 
Alfred  the  Great,  King  of  Wessex, 

coins  of,  xx.  266 
All  Mahommed,    of  Afghanistan, 

coins  of,    xvi.  289 
Alyzia,  Acarnania,  coin  of,  xx.  284 
Amadocus    II  (?),    King    of     the 

Odrysae,  coin  of,  xi.  119 
Amastris,    Paphlagonia,   coins   of, 

xv.  275  ;  xviii.  328 
Amathus,  Cyprus,  coins  of,  xvi.  31 
Amaury,  King  of  Cyprus,  coin  of, 

xii.  216 

Amawls  of  Spain,  coin  of,  xii.  162 
Amblada,  Pisidia,  coin  of,  xix.  106 
Ambrosoli,  Solone,  his  Manuale  di 

Numismatica    noticed,    xi.    425 ; 

xv.  162 

Amir-el-Umara,  coin  of,  xii.  170 
Amisus,  Pontus,  coin  of,  xx.  16 
Amorium,  Phrygia,  coin  of,  xiii.  14 
Amphipolis,  Macedonia,    coins  of, 

xii.  25;  xvii.  99 
Amphora     letters     on     coins     of 

Athens,  xix.  288 

Amyntas,  Galatia,  coin  of.  xx.  367 
ANAN  engraver  at  Messana,  xvi. 


Anchiale,  Cilicia,  coins  of,  xiv.  320 
Andragoras,  satrap  of  Parthia, 

coin  of,  xiii.  204 
Andrieu,   B.,  medallist,  xiii.  291 ; 

xiv.  148 
Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,   its   value 

as  a  record,  xx.  66 
Anglo-Saxon   coins,    find  of,    xiv. 

29 ;    unique,    xx.    148 ;    unpub- 
lished varieties  of,  ib.  265 
Anglo-Saxon  "trientes,"  xiii.  259 
Animals  on  Greek  coins,  xx.  373 
Antandrus,  Troas,  coins  of,    xviii. 

109  ;  xix.  1 
Antigonus,  King  of  Asia,  coins  of, 

xviii.  219  ;  xx.  7 
Antimachus,  King  of  Bactria,  title 

of    Theos,   xviii.    332 ;    coin    of, 

xix.  107 

Antioch,    chronological    classifica- 
tion of  coins  of  the  Constantino 

period  of,  xix.  208 
Antiochia  ad  Cragum,  coins  of,  XT, 




Antiochia  ad   Orontem,    coin    of, 

xviii.  33 1 

Antiochia,  Pisidia,  coin  of,  xx.  21 
Antiochia,  Syria,  coins  of,  xx.  369 
Antioehia-Gferasa,  Decapolis,  title 

of,  xx.  369 
Antiochus  I,  King  of  Syria,  coins 

of,    struck    for    Babylon,  xviii. 

222,  2bO,  240,  243 
Antlochus  II,  King  of  Syria,  coins 

of,  struck  for  Babylon,  xviii.  227 
Antiochus    III,    King    of    Syria, 

coins  of,  x\ ii.  21 
Antiochus  V  (Eupator),  King    of 

Syria,  coins  of,  xvii.  213 
Antiochus  VI,  King  of  Syria,  coin 

of,  xx.  294 

Antiochus  VIII  (Grypus)  and  Cleo- 
patra of  Syria,  coin  of,  xx.  25 
Antiochus  Hierax,  King  of  Syria. 

coins  of,  xviii   233,  239 
Antoiiia,  coins  of,  xi.  200  ;  xviii. 


Antonia  family,  coins  of,  xvii.  36 
Antoninus  Pius,  coins  of,  xi.  414  ; 

xiii.   13,    19;  xv.  288;  xvii.  59  ; 

xviii.  106,  112,  136,  169;  xx.  22 
Antoninus     Pius,    medallions    of, 

xi.  154  ;  xvi.  47 
Antoninus  Pius  and  M.  Aurelius, 

coin  of,  xi.  146 

Antony,  Mark,  coin  of,  xix.  263 
Antwerp,  relief  of,  in   1577,   me- 
dallion of,  xvi.  273 
Apamea,  Phrygia,  coins  of,  xviii. 

330 ;  xx.  368 

Aperlae,  dynasts  of,  xv.  17 
Aphrodisias,  Caria,  coins  of,  xviii. 

330  ;    xx.  368 

Apollonia  ad  Rhyndacum,  coin  of, 

xix.  96 
Apollonia  Pontica,  Thrace,  coin  of, 

xx.  280 
Apollonius     Tyaneus,    contorniate 

of,  xv.  302 
Aptera,   Crete,    coins  of,  xi.    128; 

xx.  15 
Aquilia  Severa,  coins  of,  xvi.  196  ; 

xvii.  123 

Arabia,  coins  of,  xix.  259 
Arabic  coins,  xii.  160  ;  xiii.  76 
Aradus,    Phoenicia,    coins   of,    xi. 

133;  xii.   174;    xiii.   20;    xviii. 

331  ;  xx.  370 
Aramaic  coin,  xi.  133 

Arbbim,  dynast  of  Lycia  (?),  coins 
of,  xv.  37 

Arcadia,    coins  of,    xii.    28 ;    xix. 

255  ;  xx.  366 
Arcadians,  obolus  of,  with  OA,  xv. 


Arcadius,  coins  of,  xii.  181 
Archaic  coins  of  Gyrene,  xi.  1 
Archaic  Greek  coins,  xii.  189,  202 
Archelaus,    King  of    Cappadocia, 

coins  of,  xvii.  115 
ABDOKHSHO,  legend  on  coins  of 
the  Kushans,  xii.  77,   112,  127, 
ARDVIKHSKO,  legend  on  coins 

of  the  Kushans,  xii   101 
Arethusa,  head  of,   on   Syracusan 

coins,  xi.  243 
Argos,    Argolis,    coins   of,    xviii. 

293;  xx.  366 

Ariarathes   IX,    King  of   Cappa- 
docia, portrait  of,  xviii.  331 
Arion   on    dolphin    on    Vauxhall 

tickets,  xviii.  70 
Aristaeus   on  coins  of    Rhegium, 

xvii.  180 
Arsaces  I,  King  of  ParthU,  coins 

of,  xx.  190  et  seqq. 
Arsaces  II,   King  of  Parthia,  coin 

of,  xiii.  296 
Arsacid  Kings  of  Parthia,  list  of, 

xx.  183  ;  portraits  of,  \b.  370 
Arsacidae,  coins  of  the,  xiii.  203 
Arsacidae  of  Elymais,  coins  of  the, 

xiii.  217 
Arsinoe  II  of  Egypt,  coins  of,  xx. 


Artabanus   I,    King    of    Parthia, 
coins    of,   xiii.  210  ;    xx.    184  ct 
Artabanus   II,    King  of   Parthia, 

coins  of,  xx.  195  et  seqq. 
Artist,  a  new  Syracusau,  xi.  231 
Artumbara,   dynast  of    Telmissus 

(?),  coin  of,  xv.  32 
Aruvadiyasi,     dynast    of     Lycia, 

coin  of,  xv.  38 
Asia  Minor,  electrum  coins  of,  xvi. 

Aspavarma,  an  Indian  Prince,  coin 

of,  xix.  176 
A  spend  us,    Pamphylia,    coins    of, 

xv.  2S6 
"  As  soone  as  wee  to  Ve  begunne," 

&c.,  medalet  inscribed,  xii.  253 
Assus,  My>-ia,  coin  of,  xii.  203 
Astral  coin  types  and  ' '  nummi  ser- 

rati,"  xix.  322 
Athens,  Attica,  coins  of,  xi.  1^6 



222,    364;     xiii.   5  ;     xv.    172; 

xviii.   289  ;    xix.   93,   253,  288  ; 

xx.  365 

Athens,  coin  cabinet  at,  xiii,  234 
Athens,  gold  coin  of  Mithradates 

of  Fontus,  struck  at,  xvii.  105 
Athens,    initial    coinage   of,    xiii. 

241,  247 
A0AA  on  medallions  of  Syracuse, 

xi.  213,  239 
Athol    coinage    for     the    Isle    of 

Man,  xix.  59 
ATHSHO,   legend   on    coins    of 

the  Kushaus,  xii.   75,  105,   107, 


Atrax,  Thessaly,  coins  of,  xvi.  16 
Attaea,  Mysia,  coin  of,  xx.  288 
Attic  Standard,  Solon's  reform  of 

the,  xvii.  284 
Attuda,  Phrygia,  coins  of,  xii.  17  ; 

xiii.  14 
Augustus,  coins  of,  xi.  199;  xiii. 

17  ;  xvii.  40 ;  xviii.  305  ;  xix.  264 
Augustus,    Cypriote   coin    of,    xi. 


Augustus,  medal  of,  xvii.  314 
Aurangzib,  coins  of,  xvi.  169,  180 
Aurei,    Eoman,   found    in    India, 

xviii.  305 
Aurelianus,    coins    of,    xvi.    241  ; 

xvii.  129;  xvrii.  118  ;  xx.  216 
Aurelius,    Marcus,    coins    of,    xi. 

414;    xvii.  61,   132;  xviii.   140, 

170;  xx.  12,  19,  23,  33 
Aurelius,  Marcus,  medallion  of,  xi. 

Aurelius   and  Antoninus,  coin   of 

Cyprus,  xi.  146 
Aurelius  and  Verus,  coin  of  Sehaste, 

xv.  278 
ATTO  KPATOP02,  title,  its  earliest 

occurrence  on  coins  of  Parthia, 

&c.,  xx.  193 
Autophradates    of     Tarsus,     &c., 

coins  of,  xiv.  326 
Ayyub  Khan  of  Afghanistan,  coins 

of,  xvi.  301 
Ayyubis,    coins   of   the,    xii.   169 ; 

xiii.  76 


Baana  of  Myriandros,  coins  of,  xiv. 


Babar,  coins  of.  xvi.  158 
Babel  on,  E.,  Catalogue  des  Monnaies 

Grecques,   Jtois  de  Syrie,  noticed, 

xi.    113;    Monnaies  det   JRois   de 

Sidon,    &c.,    noticed,    ib.    422  ; 

Melanges  Numismatiques,  noticed, 

xiii.  234  ;    Catalogue  des  Monnaits 

des     Perses     Achemenides,     &c., 

noticed,    ib.   336 ;     Lea    Originex 

de   la    Monnaie,    noticed,    xviii. 

Bactria,  coin  of  Antimachus,  xviii. 

Bactrian  Kings,  portraiture  of,  xx. 

Bahmam   Dynasty,    coins  of   the, 

xviii.  259 
Bahrfeldt,   Major  M.,    his    Miinz- 

kunde    der    romischen    Republik, 

noticed,  xvii.  245 
Bahri  Memluks,  coins  of  the,  xii. 

Baillot,   Louis  Victor,   medal    of, 

xvii.  311 
Balcombe,  Sussex,  find  of  coins  at, 

xviii.  8 
Baldred,  King  of  Kent,   coins  of, 

xiv.  43  ;  expelled  by  Ecgberht, 

xx.  79 
Barakzai   dynasty,    coins   of    the, 

xvi.  277 

Barce,  Cyrenaica,  coins  of,  xiv.  17 
Bardney,  the  mint  of,   disproved, 

xvii.  302 

Bargasa,  Caria,  coins  of,  xx.  368 
Bari,  coins  of  Henry  I  found  at, 

xii.  83 
Baris,   Pisidia,  coins  of,    xiv.   15 ; 

xviii.  17 
Barnt-taple,   mint   of,   its  history, 

xvii.,  302  ;  xviii.  274 
Baronial    coin    of    the    reign    of 

Stephen,  xvi.  275 
Barre,  D.  A.,  medallist,  xiv.  149 
Barre,   J.  J.,   medallist,  xiii.  291  ; 

xiv.  149 

Barsurie,  Spain,  coin  of,  xx.  363 
B  AS  I A  EYONTO2,  title  on  Parthian 

and     Bactrian     coins,    xx.    94, 


Basle,  bracteates  of,  xix.  16 
Batchworth     Bridge  Token,    xiii. 

Batiha,  coin  of  a  chief  of  the,  xii. 


Bauert,  G.  V.,  medallist,  xiii.  292 
Bawendi,   coins   uf   the,    xii.    165, 


Beaumont,  Louis,  Bishop  of  Dur- 
ham, his  coinage,  xv.  291 



Bern    Rasul,   coins  of,    struck    at 

San'a,  &c.,  xiv.  88 
Beni    Zongi,    coins    of    the,    xii. 

Beornwulf,  King  of  Mercia,  coins 

of,  xiv.  38 
Berenice  II  of  Egypt,  coin  of,  xx. 

Beresford,    Rt.    Hon.    John    and 

his    wife,    medallion     of,    xvii. 

Berhtwulf,    King   of    Mercia,  and 

Aethelwulf,    King    of    Wessex, 

unique  coin  of,  xx.  154 
Berlin     Academy,     Die      Antiken 

Mimzen     Nordgriechenlaitds,    no- 
ticed, xix.  362 
Berlin,  coins  ot  the  South  African 

Republic  b truck  at,  xx.  257 
Berlin  Museum,  Greek  coins  in  the, 

xiv.  179 

Berne,  bracteates  of,  xix.  19 
Berwick,  coins  struck  at,  xviii.  23, 

Beudus  Vetus,  Phrygia,  coins  of, 

xvi.  25 

Bezant  of  James  I,  xvi.  254 
Bharana  or  Jarana,   coins  of,   xiv. 

Bibliographical     notes    on     Greek 

Numismatics,    xviii.    326 ;    xix. 

251  ;  xx.  363 
Bierens,    Cornelia,    medal   of,   xv. 

Birmingham,       Transvaal      coins 

struck  at,  xx.  253 
Bisaltae,  Macedonia,  coin  of,  xvii. 

Bishop's     Wood,      Ross-on-Wye, 

Roman  coins  found  at,  xvi.  209 
Bithynia,  uncertain  coin  of,  xviii. 

329  ;  coins  of,  xix.  256 
Bithynian   coin   of   Nicomedes   II 

(r%  xi.  130 

Bithynium,  coin  of,  xviii.  105 
Blachere,  — ,  medallist,  xiii.  292 
Blanchet,  A.,  his  Monnaies  Grecques, 

noticed,  xiv.  184 
Boars  head  mint-mark  on  coins  of 

Edward  V,  xv.  117 
Bodleian    Collection,   Gupta  coins 

in,   xi.  60  ;  unpublished  or  rare 

coins  of  Smyrna  in,  xx.  203 
Bodostor  of   Sidon,  coins  of,   xiv. 

Boehm,  Sir  J.  E.,-    medallist,   xiii. 

293 ;  xiv.  150 

Boeotia,  coins  of,  xvi.    17;    xviii. 

327  ;  xix,  253 
Bokhara,     coin    of    Nadir     Shah 

struck  at,  xii.  88 
Bonnardel,    P.   A.    H.,   medallist, 

xiv.  150 

Borrel,  V.  M.,  medallist,  xiii.  293 
Bovy,   J.   F.   A.,   medallist,    xiii. 

294  ;  xiv.  151 
Box,    bronze,    Roman,    found    at 

Honley,  xvii.  293 
Boyard,  — ,  medallist,  xiii.  296 
Bracteates,  Swiss,  xix.  12 
Breed  veld,  Pietertje,  medal  of,  xv. 


Brenet,  L.,  medallist,  xiii.  296 
Brenet,   N.  G.  A.,  medallist,  xiii. 


Bretigny,  the  treaty  of,  xviii.  66 
Bretwalda,  title  of,  xx.  78 
Brichaut,  A.,  medallist,  xiv.  151 
Brickendonbury,      Roman       coins 

found  at,  xvi.  191 
Bridport,    Alexander    Hood,     1st 

Viscount,  medal  of,  xii.  300 
Brigantes,  coins  of  the,  xvii.  293 
Bristol,  coins  struck  at,  xviii.  22 ; 

tokens  of,  xix.  350 
British   coins,    discovery  of,    near 

Watford,  xvi.,  183  ;  at  Honley, 

xvii.  293 

British  Museum,  Greek  coins  ac- 
quired by  the,  in  1889,  correc- 
tions, xi.  110  ;  in  1590,  ib.  117  ; 

in  1891,  xii.  1  ;  in  1892,  xiii.  1 ; 

in  1893,  xiv.  1  ;  in  1894,  xv.  89  ; 

in  1895,  xvi.  85  ;  in   1896,  xvii. 

93  ;  in  1897,  xviii.  97  ;  in  1898, 

xix.  85  ;  in  1899,  xx.  1  ;  in  1900, 

ib.  273 
British  Museum,  new  Medal  Room 

built,  xiii.  79 
British  Museum,  Swiss  Bracteates 

in  the,  xix.  12 
Britomartis  on  Cretan  coins,  xiv. 


Briula,  Lydia,  coin  of,  xiii.  13 
Bronze    box,    Roman,    found    at 

Honley,  xvii.  293 
Bronze  rings,  late  Celtic,  found  at 

Honley,  xvii.  296 
Broughton,  John  Cam,  Lord,  medal 

of,  xii.  242 
Brnzus    and    Ococlea,  alliance  of, 

xii.  208 
Buddha  on  coins  of  Kanishka,  xii. 

57,  62,  80,  158 



Burgdorf,  bracteates  of,  xix.  19 
Burgers,  Thomas.  President  of  the 

Transvaal  Republic,  issues  gold 

coins,  xx.  253,  254 
Burgred,    King   of    Mercia,  coins 

of,  xvii.  248  ;  xx.  266 
Bury,  Bishop  de,  of  Durham,  his 

coins,  xi.  164  ;  xv.  290 
Bury  St.  Edmunds,  coins  of,  xvii. 

243 ;  xviii.  24 
Butting  bull,  evolution  of  type  of, 

on  Sicilian,  &c.,  coins,  xvi.  135 
Buweyhls,   coins  of  the,  xii.   162, 



Cadbury    Camp,   Clevedon,    coins 

found  near,  xvi.  238 
Cadyanda,   Syria,  coins   of,    xviii. 

200,  212 
Caesarea,  Cappadocia,  coins  of,  xx. 

Caesarea  -   Germanica,    Bithynia, 

coin  of,  xv.  98 
Caesarea-Panias,  Trachonitis,  coin 

of,  xx.  294 
Caesarea  and  Smyrna,  coin  of,  xvi. 

Caesius,  L.,  monogram  on  denarius 

of,  xv.  162 
Calchedon,  Bithynia,  coins  of,  xii. 

15  ;  xx.  287 

Gales,  Campania,  coin  of,  xvi.  186 
Caligula,  coins  of,  xi.  200  ;   xvii. 

43  ;  xviii.  309,  310  ;   xx.  207 
Caligula  and  Agrippina,  coin  of, 

xviii.  309 
Camarina,  Sicily,  coins  of,  xi.  292, 

365  ;  xvii.  24 
Cambridge,  Saxon  sceattas  found 

near,    xiv.    8 ;    Roman    denarii 

found  near,  xvii.  119,  251 
Came,  Aeolis,  coin  of,  xvi.  94 
Camirus,  Rhodes,  coin  of,  xvi.  25 
Campano-Tarentine  coins,  xvi.  188 
Camperdown,  Viscount,  medals  of, 

xi.  66 
Candy ba,   Lycia,   coins    of,    xviii. 

Canterbury,  short  cross  pennies  of, 

xvii.  ^39  ;  aede  vacante  coins,  xiv. 

47 ;   coins  of,  in   the  Balcombe 

Find,  xviii.  23,  24,  27 
Cappadocia,  coins  of,  xix.  258 
Capsa,  Macedonia,  coin  of,  xx.  275 

Caque,  A.  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  298 ; 

xiv.  152 
Caracalla,  coins  of,  xi.  415,  416  ; 

xiii.  14;  xv.  284,  285  ;  xvi.  194 ; 

xvii.  72, 171  ;  xviii.  105, 112,  157, 

174 ;  xx.  8,  23,  29,  34,  100 
Carausius,  coins  of,  xvi.  244,  346  ; 

xx.  30,  48 
Cardia,  Thraeian  Chersonese,  coins 

of,  xv.  185 
Cardiff,   Roman    coins    and  rings 

found  at  Sully,  near,  xx.  27 
Carhayes,  Cornwall,  Roman  coins 

found  at,  xx.  209 
Caria,  coins  of,  xix.  256 
Cartimandua,  coin  of,  xvii.  293 
Carthage,  coins  of,  xi.  302,   304  ; 

xix.  110;  coin  of,  struck  in  Sicily, 

xx.  275 
Carystus,  Euboea,  coins  of,  xii.  31  ; 

xviii.  288 
Carystus,  Euboea,  coin  struck  by 

Alexander,  son  of  Crateros,  xiv. 

Catana,    Sicily,  coins  of,  xi.   292, 

Catana  and  Leontini,  alliance  coin 

of,  xvi.  128 
Catherine  Cornaro  of  Cyprus,  coin 

of,  xii.  218 

Cato,  M.,  quinarius  of,  xiv.  99 
Caulonia,    Bruttii,    coin   of,    xvii. 


Caunois,  F.  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  300 
Cebren,    Troas,  restoration    of,   as 

Antiochia,  xx.  367 
Celenderis,  Cilicia,  coins  of,  xii.  36 ; 

xvi.  25 

Cennatis,  Cilicia,  coins  of,  xix.  181 
Centenarians,  medals  of,  xv.  301 ; 

xvii.  309 

CeolDoth,    Archbishop   of    Canter- 
bury, coins  of,  xiv.  50 
Ceolwulf  I,  King  of  Mercia,  coins 

of,  xiv.  35 

Cerasus,  Pontus,  coin  of,  xiii.  7 
Ceretapa,  Phrygia,  coin  of,  xvi.  97 
Cesati,  Alessandro,  medallibt,  xvii, 


Ceylon,  coins  and  tokens  of,  xv.  211 
Chach-Nama,  a  history  of  Sindh, 

quoted,  xiv.  248 

Chalcetor,  Caria,  coins  of,  xx.  368 
Chalcidice,    coins    of,    xvii.    100; 

xviii.  99 

Chalcis,  Euboea,  coin  of,  xviii.  289 
Chalmers,  Robert,   his   History  of 



the  Currency  in  the  British  Colonies, 

noticed,  xiii.  228 
Chandra  Gupta  I,  coins  of,  xi.  52 
Chandra  Gupta  II,  coins  of,  xi.  54 
Characene,  coins  of,  xix.  259 
Chares  of    Sigeium,  coins  of,  xiv. 

Charlemagne,    coin    of,  found    in 

England,  xiv.  69 
Charles  I,  coins  of,  legends  on,  xii. 

267,  275  ;  found  at  East  Wor- 
lington  and  Crediton,  xvii.   150, 
165  ;  local  mints  of,  ib.  154,  166  ; 
new  variety  ot  half-groat  of,  xx. 

Charles  II,  coins  of,  legends  on,  xii. 

268,  277 ;  found  at  Crediton.  xvii. 

Charles  IX  of  France,  counter  of, 

xvi.  271 

Chersonnesus,  coin  of,  xii.  198 
Chester    and      Leicester,     Anglo- 
Saxon  mints  of,  xi.  12 
Chevreul,   Michel    E.,   medals   of, 

xv.  313 
Chichester,    short    cross     pennies 

struck  at,  xvii.  242 
Chios,  coins  of,  xix.  276 
Christian  emblems  on  Roman  coins, 

xvi.  223 

Chur,  bracteates  of,  xix.  20 
Cibyra,  Phrygia,  coin  of,  xvi.  98 
Cidramus,  Caria,  coin  of,  xviii.  112 
Cieriuin,  Thessaly,    coins  of,   xix. 

Cilbiani  Superiores,  Lydia,  coin  of, 

xiii.  13 
Cilicia,  coins  of,  xii.  35  ;  xv.  203  ; 

xix.  258 

Cios,  coins  of,  xiv.  311 
Cirta,  Numidia,  coins  of,  xx.  271 
Citium,  Cyprus,  coins  of,  xi.  142 
Claudius  I,  coins  of,  xi.  146,  201 ; 

xvii.  43  ;  xviii.  310 
Claudius    II,    Gothicus,    coins   of, 

xvi.    212,    240 ;   xvii.    132  ;   xx. 

2 10,  344 
Clazomenae,  Ionia,'  coins   of,    xv. 

283  ;  xviii.  329 
Clazomenae,  Ionia,  coins  -wrongly 

attributed  to,  xi.  9 
Cleopatra     and    Antiochus     VIII 

(Grypus)  of  Syria,  coins  of,  xx. 


Clerk,  Major-Gen.  M.  G.,  his  Cata- 
logue of  the  Coins  of  the  Achaean 

League,  noticed,  xvii.  246 

Clodius  Albinus,  see  Albinus,  Clo- 

Cnidus,  Caria,   coins  of,   xi.    131  ; 

xii.  35,  204  ;  xvdi.  330  ;  xx.  368 
Cnossus,  Crete,  coins  of,  xiii.  11  ; 

xvi.  18,  90;  xx.  366 
Cnut,  King  of  England,  coins  of, 

xiii.   36;  xv.  45  ;  xvii.  304  ;  xx. 


Codrula,  Pisidia,  coin  of,  xv.  101 
Coemvuif ,  King  of  Mercia,  coins  of, 

xiv.  31 
Coining,  process  of,  in  house  of  the 

Vettii,  at  Pompeii,  xvi.  53 
Colbassa,  Pisidia,  coins  of,  xx.  22 
Colchester,  find  of  coins  at,  xi.  413 
Colchis  (?),  coin  of,  xiii.  88 
Cologne,   Roman   coins  found   at, 

xii.    179;    coins   struck  at,  xiii. 

Colophon,  Ionia,  coins  of,  xv.  279  ; 

xix.  278  ;  its  magistrate,  xx.  367 
Colybrassus,  Cilicia,  coin  of,  xx.  292 
Combe's  Catalogue  of  the  Hunter 

Collection,  corrections  in,  x"vi.  144 
Commodus,  coins  of,  xi.  415;  xiii. 

21,  23  ;  xvi.  192  ;  xvii.  57  ;  xviii. 

115,170;  xx.  11 
Commodus,  medallions  of,  xi.  157  ; 

xvi.  51 
Cornnenus,  Isaac,  coins  of,  xi.  147  ; 

xii.  209 

Constance,  bracteates  of,  xix.  20 
Constans,  coins  of,  xvi.   228,  236, 

245 ;    xix.    238,    239  ;    xx.     354 

et  seqq. 
Constantino  I,  the  Great,  coins  of, 

xvi.    215,  234;    xvii.    13'2;    xix. 

211  et  seqq. ;  xx.  Ill  et  seqq. ;  301 

et  seqq. 
Constantino    I,    period    of,    coins 

struck  at  Antioch,  xix.  208  ;  at 

London,  xx.   108  ;  at  Siscia,  ib. 

Constantino  II,  coins  of,  xvi.  225, 

236  ;  xvii.  129 ;  xix.  229  et  seqq.  ; 

xx.  135  et  seqq.,  324  et  seqq. 
"  Constantinopolis,"  coins  of,  xvi. 

2 19,  236;  xvii.  133  ;  xix.  238  ;  xx. 

355  et  seqq. 
Constantius   I,  Chli.rus,    coins   of, 

xvi.  244;  xix.  211  et  aeqq.  ;  xx. 

110,  301  et  seqq. 
Constantius  II,  coins  of,  xvi.  229, 

236  ;  xx.  146,  346  et  seqq. 
Constantius  Gallun,  coins  of,  xvii. 




Coorg,  medal  of,  xvii.  249 
Coquardon,  — ,  medallist,  xiii.  300 
Cormth,  coins  of,  xiii.  24 ;  xiv.  4  ; 

xviii.    290  ;    xix.  254,  273  ;  xx. 

286,  365 
Corn,  distribution  of,  at  Tarsus,  &c., 

tesserae  of,  xx.  96,  103,  105 
Cornaro,  Catherine,  of  Cyprus,  coin 

of,  xii.  218 

Corneille,  P.,  medal  of,  xv.  308 
Cornelia  gens,  coin  of,  xvii.  38 
Curoneia,  Boeotia,  coins  of,  xviii. 

Corpus  Numorum,  die  antiken  Mi'm- 

zen    Nordgriechenlands,    noticed, 

xix.  362 
Cos,  coins  of,  xii.  205;  xvi.  25  ;  xix. 

103,  257;  xx.  18,  3b8 
Cos,  nnd  of  coins  at,  xi.  1 
Cossura,  coins  of,  xx.  372 
Cotys  II,  King  of  Bosporus,  coin 

of,  xvii.  112 
Couriguer, — ,  medallist,  xiii.  301  ; 

xiv.  152 
Cranmer,  Archbishop,  penny  struck 

by,  xi.  418 

Crannon,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  xx.  365 
Crediton,   find   of    coins   at,    xvii. 

Crete,  coins  of,  xi.  109,   128  ;  xii. 

201;   xiii.   237;    xiv.  89;   xviii. 

328  ;  xix.  255 

Crete,  province  of,  coins  of,  xx.  366 
Crimisus,    Sicily,     omen     of,   xiv. 

233  ;  altar  of,  xvi.  140 
Crispina,  coins  of,  xviii.  149,  170  ; 

xx.  208 
Crispus,  coin  of,  xvi.  223  ;  xix.  229 

et  seqq.  ;  xx.    135   et  seqq.,    324 

et  seqq, 

Croesus,  coin  of,  xviii.  116 
Cromwell,  Oliver,  coins  of,  xii.  268, 

Croton,  Bruttii,  coins  of,  xii,   23  ; 

xvi.  5,  106 ;  xvii.  12,  271  ;  xviii. 
Croton  and  Messana,  coin  of,  xvii. 


Croton  and  Sybaris,  coin  of,  xvi.  9 
Cufic  coins,  xiii.  30 
Cumae,  Campania,  coins  of,  xvi.  1 
Cunningham,    Sir   Alexander,   his 
Coins  of  Mediaeval  India,  noticed, 
xiv.  343 
Cupids,  three,  on  Vauxhall  tickets, 

xviii.  83 
Cutch,  the  coinage  of,  xv.  59 

Cuthred,  King  of  Kent,  coins  of, 

xiv.  43 

Cyclades,  coins  of  the,  xix.  255 
Cydoma,    Crete,  coins  of,   xiv.  9, 

Cyme,  ^Eolis,  coins  of,  xii.  17  ;  xv. 

Cyprus,  coins  of,  xi.  140  ;  xvi.  29- 

32  ;  xix.  258 
Cyprus,  mediaeval  coins  of,  xi.  147  ; 

xii.  209 
Gyrene,  coins  of,  xi.  1,  266  ;  xii.  19, 

38  ;  xiii.  91 ;  xvii.  220,  279  ;  xviii. 

119 ;  xix.  109,  175,  259,  280-287  ; 

xx.  371 

Cyrrhestica,  coins  of,  xv.  206 
Cythera,  coins  of,  xii.  13 
Cythnos  (?),  coin  of,  xvi.  20 
Cyzicus,  Mysia,  coins  of,  xii.  16, 

32,  96;  xiii.  8,  81  ;  xvi.  20,  91  ; 

xvii.    112,  253-258;    xviii.   108, 

197,  329  ;  xx.  367 
Cyzicus,  Mysia,  decree  of,  xix.  1 


Daege,  E.,  painter  and  medallist, 

xiv.  152 

Daldis,  Lydia,  coin  of,  xiii.  13 
Damareteion,    history   of  the,    xi. 

525  ;  a  new  die  of  the,  xiv.  189  ; 

its  place  in  the  Syracusan  coin- 
age, ib.  195 

Dantzell,  J.,  medallist,  xiii.  301 
Dardanus,  Troas,  coins  of,  xii.  16  ; 

xx.  17 
Darius  III  of  Persia,  coins  of,  xv. 

Datamas  of  Cappadocia,   coins  of, 

xv.  169 
David    II   of    Scotland,   coins   of, 

xviii.  10,  36 
David  d' Angers,    P.  J.,  medallist, 

xiii.  301  ;  xiv.  153 
Ddanavala  of  Lycia,  coins  of,  xv^ 

Dean,    Forest     of,    Roman    coins 

found  in,  xvi.  210 
Decentius,  coins  of,  xvii.  130 
Defaced    Roman   coins  found    in 

India,  xviii.  304 
Deities,   &c.,  on  Greek  coins,  xx. 

Delmatius,  coins  of,  xvi.  224,  235  ; 

xix.  239  ;  xx.  358  et  seqq. 
Delos,  coins  of,  xii.  201  ;  xv.  179 

xx.  16,  287 



Deloye,  Gr.,  medallist  and  sculptor, 

xiv.  153 
Delphi,  Phocis,  coins  of,  xiii.  21 ; 

xviii.  101  ;  xx.  365 
Demeter,    head    of,   xi.   310;    on 

coins,  xii.  H3 
Demetrius,     coin     of,    struck    in 

Aetolia,  xiv.  297 
Demetrius    Poliorcetes,    coins    of, 

xiii.  3  ;  xx.  364 
Demetrius  II,   Nicator,    of   Syria, 

coins  of,  xv.  199  ;  xx.  24 
Demos,  the,  on  coins  of  Rhegium, 

xvii.  173  ;  xviii.  281 
Dendrophoros    on   coins   of   Mag- 
nesia, Ionia,  xv.  284 
D'Eon,  Chevalier,  medal  of,  xi.  78 
Depaulis,    A.    J.,    medallist,    xiii. 

Derby  family,  coinage  of,  for  Isle 

of  Man,  xix.  50 
Desaide-Roquelay,  — ,  publisher  of 

medals,  xiv.  153 

Desboeufs,  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  307 
' '  Descente  en  Angleterre, ' '  medals 

of,  xiii.  326 

Desforges,  — ,  medallist,  xiv.  154 
Deva  Shahi   Khinggila,   coins   of, 

xiv.  278 
Diadumenianus,      coins     of,    xvi. 

195  ;  xvii.  76  ;  xviii.  164,  178 
Dicaea,  Macedonia,  coins  of,  xiii.  1 
Dicaea,  Thrace,  coins  of,  xvi.  12  ; 

xvii.  22,  275  ;  xix.  270 
Dictynna,  Crete,  coin  of,  xx.  366 
Didius  Julianus,  coins  of,  xvii.  68  ; 

xviii.  150,  171 
Diocletian,  coins  of,  xvi.  213,  243  ; 

xvii.  132  ;  xx.  29,  30,  32,  57 
Dionysius  of  Syracuse,  tin  coinage 

of,  xi.  359  ;  monetary  frauds  of, 

xiv.  216 
Disselboom,     the,     on     Transvaal 

coins,  xx.  257 

Dissenhofen,  bracteate  of,  xix.  22 
Domard,    J.    F.,    medallist,    xiii. 

308;  xiv.  154 
Domitian,   coins   of,  xiii.    13,    24; 

xiv.   100  ;     xvii.   53,   55  ;     xviii. 

130  ;  xix.  186 

Donadio,  — ,  medallist,  xiii.  309 
A12PEA  CITOY  TAP2Q,  xx.  96 
Dortmund,  coin  of,  xiii.  279 
Dost  Mohammad  of  Afghanistan, 

coins  of,  xvi.  284,  327,  329,  331 
Double  daric  of  Persian  king,  xi, 


Dove,  the  Holy,  on  Saxon  coins, 

xix.  344 

Droz,  J.  P.,  medallist,  xiii.  310 
Drusus,  Nero,  coins  of,  xviii.  308 
Dubnovellaunus,   new  coin  of,  xi. 


Dubois,  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  311 
Dubois,  E.  J.,  medallist,  xiii.  315  ; 

xiv.  155 
Dubois,  F.,   medallist,    xiii.  315; 

xiv.  154 
DVMNOVE,    legend    on    British 

coins,  xvii.  299 

Duppa,  Richard,  medal  of,  xi.  68 
Dupre,  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  316 
Durand,  A.,  medallist,  xiii.   317 ; 

xiv.  155 
Durham,      Episcopal       coins      of 

Bishops  de  Bury  and  Hatfield, 

xi.  164  ;  xiii.  55  ;  xv.  290 ;  found 

at  Balcombe,  xviii.   23,   25,  28, 

52,  56 
Dutch  coins  current  in  Ceylon,  xv. 


Dyce,  William,  medal  of,  xi.  69 
Dyrrachium,  Illyria,  coins  of,  xx. 



Eadberht  II,  King  of  Kent,  coin 

of,  xiv.  42 
Eadgar,  King  of  Wessex,  coins  of, 

xx.  267 
Eadred,  King  of  Wessex,  coins  of, 

xx.  266 
Eanbald  I  and  II,  Kings  of  North- 

umbria,  coins  of,  xvii.  138 
Eanred,    King    of    Northumbria, 

coins  of,  xx.  265 
Earle-Fox  collection,   Greek  coins 

in  the,  xviii.  286 
Earrings,  their  forms  on  Syracuean 

coins  and  medallions,  xi.  282 
East  Anglia,  find  of  coins  in,  xiv. 

East  Worlington,  find  of  coins  at, 

xvii.  145 
Eastern  Counties,  find  of  coins  in 

the,  xviii.  126 

Eaton,  D.  J.,  medal  of,  xi.  70 
Eberlein,  G-.,  medallist,  xiii.  318 
Ecgberht,    Archbishop    of    York, 

styca  of,  xiii.  267 
Ecgberht  or  Ecgbeorht,   King  of 

Wessex,  coins  of,  xiv.  57  ;  struck 

for  Mercia,  ib.  62  and  xx.   82 



159 ;    xx.   H8 ;    a  new  variety, 
ib.  161 

Ecgberht,  King-  of  Wessex,  of 
Kentish  origin,  xx.  68  ;  strikes 
coins  for  Kent,  71 ;  expelled 
from  England,  72  :  visits  Char- 
lemagne and  appointed  governor 
in  Denmark,  73 ;  marries  St. 
Ida,  74  ;  returns  to  England,  75, 
76 ;  conquers  Kent,  79 ;  his 
first  coinage  as  King  of  Wes- 
sex, 81;  his  other  mints,  81, 
83  ;  conquers  Mercia  and  strikes 
coins  in  London,  82,  159  ;  his 
death,  85  ;  his  titles  on  charters, 

Edmonds,  G.,  medal  of,  xi.  71 

Edward  the  Confessor,  coins  of, 
xvii.  305  ;  xx.  269 

Edward  I,  coins  of,  xviii.  9,  51 

Edward  II,  coins  of,  xviii.  9,  51 

Edward  III,  coins  of,  xii.  256, 
269  ;  xiii.  46  ;  xvi.  78,  80  ;  xviii. 
9,  12,  45,  52 

Edward  III,  earliest  gold  coins  of, 
xx.  229,  231  et  seqq. 

Edward  HI,  find  of  silver  coins  of 
the  time  of,  xvi.  72 

Edward  III,  half-noble  of  third 
coinage  of,  xx.  162 

Edward  III,  wardrobe  counters  of, 
xv.  168;  xx.  242 

Edward  IV,  coins  of,  xi.  180  ;  xii. 
222,  272,  290  ;  xx.  166,  171 

Edward  IV,  gold  coins  of,  imitations 
of,  found  at  Fischenich,  xiii.  30 

Edward  V,  coins  of,  xv.  117  ;  xx. 
166,  174 

Edward  VI,  coins  of,  xi.  202  ;  xvii. 
147,  162 

Edward  VI,  types  and  legends  on 
coins  of,  xii.  265,  273 

Effingham,  Thomas  Howard,  3rd 
Earl  of,  xi.  72 ;  xii.  304 

Egerton,  J.,  medal  of,  xi.  72 

E87pt>  coins  of,  xviii.  332  ;  xix. 
259  ;  xx.  370 

Egypt,  Lower,  archaic  Greek  coins 
found  in,  xix  269 

Einsiedeln,  bracteates  of,  xix.  22 

Ela^rabalus,  coins  of,  xi.  417  ;  xvi. 
195;  xvii.  78,  122,  252;  xviii. 
165,  178  ;  xx.  30,  36 

Elatea,  Phocis,  coin  of,  xviii  .  288 

Eldon,  Earl  of,  medals  of,  xi.  73 

Elea,  Epirus,  coin  of,  xx.  10 

Electnim  coin,  uncertain,  xix.  Ill 

Eleutherna,    Crete,    coin   of,    xvii. 

Elis,  coins  of,  xi.  127  ;  xii.  11,  28, 

192 ;    xiv.   7 ;    xvii.   106 ;    xviii. 

292,  328  ;  xix.  254  ;  xx.  365 
Elizabeth,   coins  of,  xi.  203  ;  xvii. 

147,  162 
Elizabeth,     phoenix     medalet    of, 

xvi.  274 

Elizabeth,  ryals  of,  xii.  266 
Elizabeth,      unpublished      copper 

halfpenny  of,  xiv.  84 
Elizabeth,  unpublished  gold  coins 

of,  xv.  165 

El-Kahir,  gold  coins  of,  xix.  266     • 
Elliott,  G.  A.,  medals  of,  xi.  74 
Elphinstone,    Mountstuart,   medal 

of,  xi.  76 

Elstree  token,  xiii.  285 
Elyros,  Crete,  coins  of,  xiv.  95 
Emporium,  Spain,  coin  of,  xx.  363 
Emptmeyer,  C.,  medallist,  xiii.  318 
Engel  and  Serrure,   Traite  de  Nu- 

mismatique   du    Moyen-Age,    no- 
ticed, xi.  114;  xiv.  294 
Engelberg,  bracfeat^s  of,  xix.  22 
England,    first    gold  coins  of,  xx. 

Englefield,   Sir  H.   C.,  medal  o  , 

xi.  77 
En-Nazir,  Imam  of  San' a,  coin  of, 

xvii.  250 

Eon,  Chevalier  d',  medal  of,  xi.  78 
Ephesus,   Ionia,  coins  of,  xiv.  14  ; 

xvi.    95;  xviii.    110,  230;    xix. 

99  ;  xx.  289,  367 

Ephthalites,  the,  coins  of,  xiv.  243 
Epidaurus,  Argolis,  coins  of,  xii. 

14     . 
ERIOANOYS,   title,   on    coins   of 

Parthia,  xx   194 
Epirus,  coins  of,  xix.  253 
Eretria,    coins   of,    xiii.   157,    158, 

242,  252  ;  xv.  95 
Eriza,  coins  of,  xv.  101 
Erskine  and  Gibbs,  medals  of,  xi. 


Erythrae,  Ionia,  coin  of,  xviii.  112 
Eryx,    Sicily,    coins   of,    xi.    365  j 

xvi.  10,  86 

Etera,  Crete,  coins  of,  xiv.  97 
Ethelred,  see  Aethelred 
Etruria,  silver  system  of,  as  affected 

by  Dionysios,  xiv.  226 
Etruria,  uncertain  coin  of,  xx.  2 
Etruscilla,  coins  of,  xvii.  83 ;  xx. 

30,  44 



Etiboea,  coins  of,   xii.   191  ;  xviii. 

289,  297;  xix.  92 
Euboic    standard,    coins    of    the, 

xvii.  281 

Eudocia,  coin  of,  xii.  182 
Eugenius,  coin  of,  xii.  180 
Eukra tides,  King  of  Bactria,  coin 

of,  xii.  37 
Eumenes,  the  Syracusan  engraver, 

xi.  263 
Eupolemus,  King  of  Paeonia,  coins 

of,  xi.  135 

Eurea,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  xvi.  88 
Euromus,   Caria,  absorbed  in  My- 

lasa,  xx.  368 
Eustace,  coins  of,  xvi.  66  ;  forged 

coins  of,  xix.  207 
EY9,  the  engraver,  xi.  264 
Evaenetos,  the  Syracusan  coin  en- 
graver, xi.  208,  258  ;  his  artistic 

coins,    ib.   289 ;    medallions   by, 

xiv.  218 
Evagoras  I   of    Cyprus,   coins  of, 

xi.  143  ;  xx.  369 
Evagoras   II  of    Cyprus,  coin  of, 

xvi.  30 

Evans,  Rev.  C.,  medal  of,  xi.  82 
Evans,  Sir  John,  K.C.B.,  medal  of, 

xi.  82  ;  medallion  of,  xix.  pi.  xi. 
Ewing,  W.,  medal  of,  xi.  81 
Exeter,   coins  of,   xvii.  152  ;  short 

cross  pennies  of,  ib.  212 
Exmouth, Viscount,  medal  of,  xi.  83 
EXPECTATE  VENI  on  coins  of 

Carausius,  xx.  50 


Faiz  Mahommed  Khan  of  Afghani- 
stan, coins  of,  xvi.  307 
Family   coins,    Roman,    found    in 

India,  xix.  263 

Farrukh  Siyar,  coins  of,  xvi.  171 
Fasti  Arabici,  xii.  160 
Fath  'All  Shah,  coins  of,  xviii.  93 
Fatiims,  coins  of,  xii.  169 
Fausta,  coins    of,    xix.  233  ;    xx. 

147,  347  et  seqq. 
Faustina  I,  coins  of,  xi.  414  ;   xvii. 

24;   xvii.  132;  xviii.  139,  170 
Faustina  I,  medallions  of,  xi.  154  ; 

xvi.  48 
Faustina,  II,  c  »ins  of,  xiii.  17  ;  xv. 

288;  xvii.   64.    132;   xviii.   143, 

170;   xx.  18,  207 
Fellowes,  R.,  medal  of,  xi.  85 
Fereday,  S.,  medals  of,  xi.  85 

Ferguson,  R.,  medal  of,  xi.  86 
Ferguson,  Rt.  Hon.  R.  C.,  medal 

of,  xi.  88 
Ferguson,  Sir  R.  C.,  medals  of,  xi. 


Ferrie,  A.,  medal  of,  xi.  89 
Fibula  on  a  Greek  coin,  xvii.  265 
Fibula  found  at  Honley,  xvii.  296 
"  Fides  Militum,"  on  coin  of  Carau- 
sius, xx.  56 

Fielding,  Sir  J.,  medal  of,  xi.  90 
Finds  of  coins  : — 
Anglo-Saxon,  xiv.  29 
Balcombe,  xviii.  8 
Bari,  xii.  83 

Bishop's  Wood,  xvi.  209 
Brickendonbury,  xvi.  191 
Cadbury  Camp,  xvi.  238 
Cambridge,  xiv.   18  ;   xvii.    119, 


Carhayes,  Cornwall,  xx.  209 
Colchester,  xi.  413 
Cologne,  xii.  179 
Cos,  xi.  1 

Crediton,  xvii.  159 
East  Worlington,  xvii.  145 
Eastern  Counties,  xviii.  126 
Fischenich,  xiii.  26 
France,  xvii.  235 
Greek  coins,  xix.  261  :  xx.  373 
Groats  of   Edward   IV— Henry 
VIII,  xii.  278 ;  of  Henry  VI- 
VII,  xx.  166 
Guisborough,  xvi.  72 
Hitchin,  xvii.  24 S 
Honley,  near  Huddersfield,  xvii. 


India,  xix.  263 
Lipari  Islands,  xvi.  185 
Lower  Egypt,  xix.  269 
Mende,  Macedonia,  xviii.  251 
Mesnina,  Sicily,  xvi.  101 
Naxos,  Sicily,  xi.  374 
Nesboe,  Norway,  xiii.  36 
Pudukota,     India,    xviii.     304  ; 

xix.  81,  82 
Santa   Maria  di  Licodia,  Sicily, 

xi.  217 

Skye,  xiii,  220 
Sully,  near  Cardiff,  xx.  27 
Theodule  Pass,  xvii.  127 
Tripoli,  xix.  175 
Vellalore,  India,  xi.  199 
Villabate,  Palermo,  xiv.  201 
Wallingford,  xii.  220 
Western  Sicily,  xi.  3(54 
Whaplode,  xi.  202 



Firiiz    Shah    Bahmam,    coins    of, 

xviii.  266 
Fisch,  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  319  ;  xiv. 

Fischenich,  find  of  coins  of  Edward 

IV,  &c.,  at,  xiii.  26 
Fischer,  F.  A.,  medallist,  xiv.  155 
Fitz  Otho  family,  pedigree  of,  xiii. 


Fitzwilliam,  Earl,  medal  of,  xi.  91 
Flaccilla,  coins  of,  xii.  180 
Flaxman,  J.,  medal  of,  xi.  92 
Flemish  imitations  of  English  No- 
bles, xiii.  26 
Florianus,  coins  of,  xvi.  242  ;  xx. 

Florin,  gold,  of  Edward  III,  xx. 

232  et  seqq. 
Fonteia  gens,  monogram  on  coins 

of  the,  xv.  162 
Fontenelle,  B.  le  B.  de,  medals  of, 

xv.  307  ;  xvii.  309 
Fordyoe,  G.,  medal  of,  xv.  166 
Fordyce  and  Hunter,  medal  of,  xi. 

Foreign  artists,  English  medals  by, 

xiii.  286;  xiv.  101 
Forest  of  Dean,  Roman  coins  found 

in  the,  xvi.  210 
Forgeries  of  coins  of  William  I  and 

II,   xvii.   226 ;  of  Henry  I,  &c., 

xix.  241 
Forgeries  of  Roman  Large  Brass 

coins,  xii.  255 

Fothergill,  J.,  medal  of,  xi.  93 
Fothergill  medal,  the,  xvi.  348 
Fox,  Charles  James,  medals  of,  xi. 

France,  condition  of,  in  1709,  medal 

of,  xvi.  275 
France,  find  of  short-cross  pennies 

in,  xviii.  235 
Franklin,  Benjamin,  medals  of,  xi. 


Franks,  A.  W.,  jeton  of,  xi.  103 
Frederick  the  Great,  successes  of, 

medal,  xx.  180 
Freiburg  in  Breisgau,    bracteates 

of,  xix.  22 

Fuller,  J.,  medals  of,  xi.  103 
Fiirst,  M.,  medallist,  xiv.  155 


Gabrici,  E.,  his  Numiswiatica  deW 
Imera,  noticed,  xiv.  339 

Gadara,    Decapolis,    title   of,    xx. 


Galatia,  coins  of,  xix.  258 
Galba,  coins   of,   xvii.    44  ;    xviii. 

129,  168 
Galeria  Valeria,  coins  of,  xix.  215 

et  seqq.  ;   xx.  308 
Galle,  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  319 
Gallienus,  coins  of,  xvi.  240  ;  xvii. 

86,  132;  xx.  23,  30,  46,  212 
Gallus,  medallion  of,  xvi.  52 
Garbett,  Samuel,  medal  of,  xi.  377 
Gardner,  Lord,  medal  of,  xi.  377 
Garrick,  David,  medals  of.  xi.  379 
Gascoyne,  Gen.  Isaac,  medal  of,  xi. 

Gaskell,  Benjamin,  medal  of,   xi. 

Gatteaux,    J.    E.,   medallist,   xiv. 

Gatteaux,  N.  M.,  medallist,  xiii. 

Gauloises,  Monnaies,    de    la   Biblio- 

theque  Nationale,  Paris,   noticed, 

xii.  324 

Gayrard,  R.,  medallist,  xiii.  320 
Gaza,  Judaea,  coin  of,  xx.  370 
Geefs,  A.,  medallist,  xiii.  320;  xiv. 

Geerts,  E.  L.,  medallist,  xiii.  321  ; 

xiv.  158 
Gela,  Sicily,  coins  of,  xi.  303,  365  ; 

xiv.   206 ;    xvii.   98,   272 ;  xviii. 

98 ;  xx.  364 
George  III,   Manx  coins  of,  xix. 


George  III,  medal  of,  xiii.  292 
George  IV,   medals   of,   xiii.   307, 


Gerard,  — ,  medallist,  xiii.  322 
Gerasa,  Decapolis,  coin  of,  xx.  295 
Germanicus,  coins  of,  xviii.  309 
Geta,  coins  of,  xi.  416  ;  xvi.  195  ; 

xvii.    76,    122;    xviii.   157,   162, 

177  ;  xix.  205  ;  xx.  30,  35 
Ghias  -  ad  -  Dm  -  Bin    Mohammad 

Shah,  coins  of,  xviii.  266 
Ghurshlstan.  mint  of,  xiv.  88 
Gibbs  and  Erskine,  medals  of,  xi. 

Giesecke,  Charles  Von,   medal  of, 

xi.  382 

Gilbart,  J   W..  medal  of,  xi.  384 
Gladstone,  Rt.  Hon.  W.  E  ,  medals 

of,  xi.  38 ; T> 
Globular  marks   on    Greek   coins, 

xvii.  1,  11,  16 



Gnecchi,    F.,   his   Monete  Romane, 

noticed,  xv.  320 
Gold  and  silver,  assay  of,  among 

the  Greeks,  xv.  104 
Gold  coins  of  England,   the  firut, 

xx.  218 
Golgoi,    Cyprus,     coins   of,    xvii. 

Gongylos,  dynast  of  Myrina,  coins 

of,'xiv.  317 
Gordian  III,   coins  of,    xvi.  200  ; 

xvii.  82,   125,   252 ;  xx.   21,  24, 

30,  40 
Gordium,  Bithynia,  coin  of,   xviii. 

Gordon,   Lord  George,  medals  of, 

xi.  387 
Gordon,  Sir  W.  Duff,  medal  of,  xi. 

Gorgion,    dynast    of    Gambreion, 

coins  of,  xiv.  315 
Gorgoneion,  the,  xiii.  156,  164,242, 

Gorgos  of    Salamis,  coin  of,    xvi. 

Gortyna,  Crete,  coins  of,  xi.  417  ; 

xii.  29,  30,  198;  xix.  93 
Goterzes,  King  of  Parthia,  legend 

on  his  coins,  xx.  93  ;  his  title,  ib. 


Gothabyrig,  mint  of,  xv.  45 
Gould,  John,  medal  of,  xi.  388 
Graham,    Gen.,     Lord    Lyndoch, 

medal  of,  xi.  394 
Granby,  Marquis  of,  medals  of,  xi. 


Grande,  B,.,  medallist,  xiv.  158 
Grant  Duff,   Lady,   medal  of,  xi. 

Grapes,    bunch   of,    on    coins    of 

Cyrene,  xi.  1 ;  symbol  of  Tenos, 

xv.  273 

Gratianus,  coins  of,  xii.  179 
Grattan,    Henry,    medals    of,   xi. 

Gray,   Dr.    J.   E.,    and   his   wife, 

medal  of,  xi.  395 
Grechetto,   the    engraver,    medals 

by,  xvii.  316 
Greek  and  Roman   Coins,  Handbook 

of,  by  G.  F.  Hill,  noticed,  xix. 

Greek  coins,  by  F.  Imhoof-Blumer, 

xv.  269 
Greek  coins  acquired  by  the  British 

Museum,  in  1889,  corrections,  xi. 

110;  in  1890,  ib.  117  ;  in   1891, 

xii.  1  ;  in  1892,  xiii.  1 ;  in  1893, 
xiv.  1 ;  in  1894,  xv.  89  ;  in  1895, 
xvi.  85 ;  in  1896,  xvii.  93 ;  in 
1897,  xviii.  97  ;  in  1898,  xix. 
85 ;  in  1899,  xx.  1  ;  in  1900,  ib. 

Greek  coins,  archaic,  xix.  269 

Greek  coins,  finds  of,  xix.  261  ;  xx. 

Greek  coins  inedited  and  uncertain, 
xiv.  297  ;  xv.  169 

Greek  coins,  rare,  in  the  Green- 
well  collection,  xiii.  81 

Greek  coins,  unpublished,  xiii.  21  ; 
xvii.  93,  190,  253 ;  xviii.  193 

Green,  Charles,  medal  of,  xi.  396 

Greene,  Richard,  medal  of,  xi. 

Grenville,  William  Wyndham, 
Lord,  medal  of,  xi.  397 

Gresley,  Sir  Koger,  medal  of,  xi. 

Gretton,  Sarah,  medal  of,  xi.  399 

Grey,  Charles,  2nd  Earl,  medals 
of,  xi.  399 

Grimshaw,  Nicholas,  medal  of,  xi. 

Groats,  finds  of,  Edward  IV— 
Henrv  VIII,  xii.  278;  Henry 
VI-Henry  VII,  xx.  166 

Grueber,  H.,  medallist,  xiv.  159 

Guisborough,  coins  found  at,  xv. 

Guise,  Sir  Berkeley  William,  Bart., 

medal  of,  xi.  412 
Gupta  coins,  notes  on,  xi.  48 
Guntafson,  G.,   on  coins  found  at 

Nesboe,  xiii.  36 

Guy  de  Lusignan,  coin  of,  xi.  150 
Gythium,    Laconia,    coin    of,    xx. 



Hadrian,   coins  of,    xi.   414 ;    xii. 

93  ;    xv.  204  ;    xvii.  58 ;    xviii. 

133,  169,  290;  xix.  265 
Hadrian,  medallion  of,  xi.  153 
Hadriani,  Mysia,  coin  of,  xviii.  329 
Hadrianothera,  Mysia,  coin  of,  xv. 

Hainault,  John,  Count  of,  coins  of, 

xviii.  10,  37,  72 
Half-florin   or    Leopard,   gold,   of 

Edward  III,  xx.  233  et  seqq. 
Half-noble    of     third     coinage    of 

Edward  III,  xx.  102 



Half -shekel  year  2,  xvii.  116 
Haliartus,  Boeotia,  coin  of,   xviii. 


Hallam,  Henry,  medal  of,  xii.  227 
Halus,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  xix.  91 
Hamelman,  Jan   Christian,  medal 

of,'xv.  310 
Handel,    statue   of,    at  Vauxhall, 

xviii.  79 

Hanniballianus,  coin  of,  xx.  359 
Hanson,  Joseph,  medal  of,  xii.  228 
Hardinge,     Henry,    1st  Viscount, 

medal  of,  xii.  228 
Hardy,    Thomas,    medals    of,   xii. 

Harold  I,  coins  of,  xv.  45  ;  xvii. 

Harold  II,  coins  of,  xvii.  226  ;  xx. 

Harpies,     representation     of,     on 

kylix,  xi.  6 

Harrison,  John,  medal  of,  xii.  231 
Hart,  L.  J.,  medallist,  xiii.  322; 

xiv.  159 

Harthacnut,  coin  of,  xx.  268 
Hastings,    Francis    Rawdon,     1st 

Marquis  of,  medal  of,  xii.  231 
Hastings,  Sir  Charles  Abney,  Bart., 

medal  of,  xii.  231 

Hatfield,  Bishop  of  Durham,  pen- 
nies of,  xi.  164  ;  xviii.  71 
Heahberht,  King  of  Kent,  coin  of, 

xx.  149 
Heardulf,   King  of   Northumbria, 

coins  of,  xvii.  140 
Hebrytelmis,  King  of  the  Odrysae, 

coin  of,  xiv.  3 
Helena,  coins    of,  xvi.    213,    233; 

xix.   230  et  seqq.  ;  xx.  147,  346 

Helfricht,    F.    F.,  medallist,   xiii. 


Helios  on  coins,  xii.  129 
Helm  or  Helmet  (quarter-florin), 

gold  coin   of    Edward  III,  xx. 

233  et  xeqq. 
Hema  (or  Wema)  Kadphises,  coins 

of,  xii.  67 
Henniker,  John,  1st  Baron,  medals 

of,  xii.  233,  234 
Henniker,  John,  2nd  Baron,  medal 

of,  xii.  234 
Henrietta       Maria,      unpublished 

medal  of,  xiv.  188 
Henry  I,  coins  of,  found  at  Bari, 

xii.   83  ;  short-cross  pennies  of, 

xvii.  235  ;  coins  struck  at  Barn- 

staple,  xvii.  305  ;    forged  coins 

of,  xix.  241 

Henry  II,  coinage  of,  xv.  51 
Henry  II  of  Cyprus,  coins  of,  xii. 

Henry   III,    gold    penny   of,    xii. 

259  ;    xx.    218   et  seqq.  ;    short- 
cross     pennies     of,    xvii.    235  ; 

Shrewsbury  mint  under,  xix.  112 
Henry  V,  coins  of,  xvi.  78,  80 
Henry  VI,   coins  of,  xi.  180  ;  xii. 

221  ;  xvi.  78,  81  ;  xx.  166,   171, 


Henry  VI,  nobles  of,  xiii.  27 
Henry  VI,   quarter-noble   errone- 
ously attributed  to,  xi.  189 
Henry  VII,  coins  of,  xii.  225,  264, 

292;  xiii.  34;  xx.  166,  175 
Henry  VII,  ryal  of,  xiii.  240 
Henry  VIII,  coins  of,  xii.  265,  272, 

Henry  VIII,  penny  of,  struck  by 

Archbishop  Cranmer,  xi.  418 
Henry  VJII,  ryal  of,  xiii.  34 
Henry   of   Northumberland,  coins 

of,  xv.  110 
Heraclea,  Bithynia,  coins  of,   xv. 

98  ;  xviii.  105 

Heraclea,  Ionia,  coins  of,  xx.  367 
Heraclea,  Lucania,    coins  of,   xvi. 

4  ;  xvii.  97  ;  xx.  363 
Heraclea  ad  Latmum,  coins  of,  xix. 


Heraea,  Arcadia,  coins  of,  xx.  366 
Heraea,  Arcadia,  hemiobols  of,  xv. 

HERAKILO    on    coins    of    the 

Kushans,  xii.  122,  153 
Herakles,    head    of,    on     coin    of 

Gyrene,  xi.  8 
Herbessus,   Sicily,   coins    of,    xiv. 

Herennia  Etruscilla,  coin  of,  xvi. 

Herennius  Etruscus,  coins  of,  xvi. 

201  ;  xviii.  17  ;  xx.  30,  44 
Hermaeus,  a  Graeco-Indian  Prince, 

coins  of,  xii.  63 
Herod  Philip  II  of  Judaea,  coin 

of,  xx.  25 
Herries,    Col.    Charles,  medal   of, 

xii.  235 

Hertfordshire  tokens,  xiii.  282 
Herzen,  Alexander,  medal  of,  xii. 

Heywood,  Sir  Benjamin,  medal  of, 

xii.  237 



Hierapolis,  Phrygia,  coins  of,  xvi. 

98;  xviii.  116,  330 
Hierapytna,  Crete,  coins  of,  xvii. 

31 ;  xx.  366 
Hieropolia-Bambyce,    Cyrrhestica, 

coins  of,  xx.  369 
Higgins,  F.  C.,  his  Copper  Coins  of 

Modern  Europe,  noticed,  xiii.  239 
Hill,  G-.  F.,  his  Handbook  of  Greek 

and  Roman  Coins,   noticed,  xix. 

Hill,  Rev.  Rowland,  medals  of,  xii. 

Hill,   Rowland,  Viscount,   medals 

of,  xii.  237 
Himera,  Sicily,   coins  of,  xi.  274, 

366;    xii.   186;    xiv.  208,    339; 

(with   signs    of   value)  xvii.    1  ; 

xviii.  185 
Himerus,   King  of   Parthia,   coins 

of,  xx.  193  et  seqq, 
Hippias  of  Athens,  his  changes  in 

the  Athenian  coinage,  xiii.  156, 

244,  247  ;  coins  of,  xv.  172 
Hiranya-Kula,  Indo-Scy thic  King, 

coins  of,  xiv.  ^82 
Hirschel,   Solomon,   medal  of,  xii. 

Hitchin,  find    of    Saxon  coins  at, 

xvii.  248 
Hoadley,     Benjamin,    Bishop     of 

Winchester,  medal  of,  xii.  241 
Hobhouse,  John  Cam,  see  Brough- 

ton,  Lord 
Hodgson,  Frederick,  medal  of,  xii. 


Hodgson,  John,  medals  of,  xii.  244 
Hogarth,   William,    medal  of,  xii  . 

245  ;  his  Vauxhall  ticket,  xviii. 

Holloway,  Thomas,  medals  of,  xii. 

Holm,  A.,  his  Geschichte  des  sicil- 

ischen  Munzwesens,  noticed,  xviii. 

Holy  Lamb,  the,  on  a  Saxon  penny, 

xiii.  37 
Hombruma  of  Patara  (?),  coin  of, 

xv.  33 
Homolium,  Thessaly,  coin  of,  xix. 

Honley,  find  of  British  coins  and 

ornaments  at,  xvii.  293 
Honorius,  coins  of,  xii.  181  ;  xvi. 

Hood,  Alexander,  see  Bridport,  1st 


Hook,     Rev.    W.    F.,     Dean    of 

Chichester.  medal  of,  xii.  301 
Horner,    Francis,    medal    of,    xii. 


Howard,  John,  medal  of,  xii.  302 
Howard,  John  Egar,  medal  of,  xii. 

Howard,   Thomas,  see  Effingham, 

Earl  of 
Howe,    Richard,    Earl,    Admiral, 

medals  of,  xii.  304 
Howe,  Richard,  1st  Earl,  medal  of, 

xii.  310 
Hugh  II  of  Cyprus,  coins  of,  xii. 

Hugh  III  of  Cyprus,  coins  of,  xii. 

Hugh  IV  of  Cyprus,  coins  of,  xii. 


Huguenot  medal  (?),  xvi.  271 
Hull,  I^aac,  medal  of,  xii.  311 
Humayun,  coins  of,  xvi.  159 
Hume,  David,  medal  of,  xii.  312 
Hume,  Joseph,  medal  of,  xii.  312 
Hunt,  Henry,  medal  of,  xii.  313 
Hunter,  John,  medals  of,  xii.  314  ; 

xv.  166 
Hunter,   William,  medals   of,   xii. 

Hunter   and   Fordyce,  medals   of, 

xi.  92  ;  xv.  166 

Hunter  Collection,  Combe's  Cata- 
logue, corrected,  xvi.  144  ;  Cata- 
logue of  Greek  Coins  in  the, 

noticed,  xix.  177 
Huntingdon,  Countess  of,  medals, 

xii.  317 
Huntington,  Rev.  W.,  medal    of, 

xii.  318 

Huskisfcon,  W.,  medal  of,  xii.  319 
Hutcheson,  F.,  medal  of,  xii.  320 
Hutchinson,  Ma  j.- Gen.  Lord, 

medal  of,  xii.  321 
Huth,   Charles  Frederick,  and  his 

wife,  medal  of,  xii.  3zl 
Huth,   J.    Frederick   A.,    and   his 

wife,  medal  of,  xii.  322 
Hutton,    Charles,    medal    of,    xii. 

Huvishka,  coins  of,  xii.  49,  82,  98, 

Hwen   Theang,    Chinese    Pilgrim, 

xiv.  247,  250 
Hyblaean    Megara,    litra   of,    xvi. 

Hydisus,  Caria,   coins  of,   xvi.  95  ; 

xviii.  114 



Hyrtacina,  Crete,  coins  of,  xi.  129; 

xiv.  96 
Hyrtaeus  and  Lissus,  Crete,  coins 

of,  xii.  199 


IATON"  on  coins  of  Himera,  xviii. 


Idbury,  mint  at,  xv.  48 
Illyria,  coins  of,  xix.  253 
Irabros,  Thrace,  coins  of,  xx.  364 
India,  Roman  gold  coins  found  at 

Pudukota,    xviii.    304;    Roman 

silver  coins  found  in,  xix.  263 
Indo- Parthian     Kings,    coins    of, 

xiii.  217 
Indo -Scythians,  coins  of,  xiii.  93, 

Indo -Scythians,  the  later,  coins  of 

the  Ephthalites  or  White  Huns, 

xiv.  243 
locastos  on  coins  of  Rhegium,  xviii. 


Ionia,  coins  of,  xviii.  329 ;  xix.  256 
Irwin,  I).  Hastings,  his  War  Medals, 

$c.,  1588-1898,  noticed,  xix.  83 
Isaac  Comnenus,  coins  of,  xi.  147  ; 

xii.  209 

Isaura,  Cilicia,  coins  of,  xvi.  28 
Isle  of  Man,  coinage  of,  xix.  35 
Istrus,  Moesia  Inferior,  coin  of, 

xvi.  86 

Ita,  Lycia,  coin  of,  xv.  18 
Italian  Numismatic  Society,  foun- 
dation of,  xii.  88 
Italy,  ancient  coins  of,  xix.  251 
Italy,  English  coins  found  at  Bari, 

xii.  83 
Itanus,    Crete,  coins  of,   xi.   128  ; 

xvir.  112  ;  xx.  366 
lulis,  Ceos,  coins  of,  xi.  129  ;   xiii. 



Jaley,  L.,  medallist,  xiii.  324 
James  I,  bezant  of,  xvi.  254 
James    I,  coins  of,  xii.  267,  274  ; 

xvii.  149,  164 
James  I,  unpublished  gold  coins  of, 

xiv.  344 
James  II   of  Cyprus,  coin  of,  xi. 

James    V  of   Scotland   and   John, 

Duke  of  Albany,  gold  crown  of, 

xi.  203 

Jarana  or  Bharana,    Indo-Scythic 

King,  coins  of,  xiv.  284 
Jehanglr,  coins  of,  xvi.  164,  179 
Jehotte,  C.,  medallist,  xiii.  325 
Jenner  medal,  the,  xvi.  348 
Jeuffroy,  R.  V.,  medallist,  xiii.  325 
John,  coins  of,  xvii.  235,  249 
John  I  Eof  Cyprus,  coin  of,  xi.  150 
John,  Count  of  Hainault,  coins  of, 

xviii.  10,  37,  72 
John   the   Blind   of   Luxembourg, 

coins  of,  xviii.  10,  37,  72 
Johnson,  Bartholomew,  medal   of, 

xvii.  311 

Jouffray,  R.  C.,  medallist,  xiii.  325 
Jouvenel,  A.  C.,  medallist,  xiv.  160 
Judaea,  coin  of  Herod  Philip  II,  xx. 

Judaea,    half-shekel,   year   2,   of, 

xvii.  116 

Julia,  Phrygia,  coin  of,  xix.  104 
Julia  and  Titus,  coin  of,  xvii.  52 
Julia  Domna,  coins  of,  xi.  415  ;  xiii. 
19  ;  xvi.  194  ;  xvii.  72,  121 ;  xviii. 
102,  156.  173  ;  xx.  29,  34 
Julia  family,  coin  of,  xvii.  39 
Julia   Maesa,    coins   of,   xvi.  197  ; 

xvii.  123 ;  xx.  30,  37 
Julia  Mamaea,  coins  of,  xvi.  199  ;